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1.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 237: 110254, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239778

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to elucidate whether the route of booster vaccination affects the immune response against respiratory vaccine viruses in pre-weaning beef calves that receive primary intranasal (IN) vaccination during the first month of life. The objective was to compare the serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) titers to BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V, cytokine mRNA expression and mucosal BHV1- and BRSV-specific IgA in nasal secretions following administration of IN or subcutaneous (SC) modified-live virus (MLV) booster vaccines 60 days after primary IN vaccination in young beef calves. Twenty-one beef calves were administered 2 mL of an IN MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V (Inforce3®) between one and five weeks of age. Sixty days after primary vaccination, calves were randomly assigned to one of two groups: IN-MLV (n = 11): Calves received 2 mL of the same IN MLV vaccine used for primary vaccination and 2 mL of a SC MLV vaccine containing BVDV1 & 2 (Bovi- Shield GOLD® BVD). SC-MLV (n = 10): Calves were administered 2 mL of a MLV vaccine containing, BHV1, BRSV, BPI3V, and BVDV1 & 2 (Bovi-Shield GOLD® 5). Blood and nasal secretion samples were collected on days -61 (primary vaccination), -28, -14, 0 (booster vaccination), 14, 21, 28, 42 and 60 for determination of SNA titers, cytokine gene expression analysis and nasal virus-specific IgA concentrations. Statistical analysis was performed using a repeated measures analysis through PROC GLIMMIX of SAS®. Booster vaccination by neither IN nor SC routes induced a significant increase in SNA titers against BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V. Subcutaneous booster vaccination induced significantly greater BRSV-specific SNA titers (on day 42) and IgA concentration in nasal secretions (on days 21 and 42) compared to calves receiving IN booster vaccination. Both IN and SC booster vaccination were able to stimulate the production of BHV1-specific IgA in nasal secretions. In summary, booster vaccination of young beef calves using either SC or IN route two months after IN MLV primary vaccination resulted in comparable SNA titers, cytokine gene expression profile and virus-specific IgA concentration in nasal secretions. Only a few differences in the systemic and mucosal immune response against BHV1 and BRSV were observed. Subcutaneous booster vaccination induced significantly greater BRSV-specific SNA and secretory IgA titers compared to IN booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/immunology , Administration, Intranasal/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Immunization, Secondary/veterinary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage
2.
J Dairy Res ; 87(S1): 1-8, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065741

ABSTRACT

'Keep calm and carry on' was a wartime message to the British public that has achieved renewed fame in the last few years. The strategy was simple: in times of extreme difficulty a cool head combined with stoicism is an appropriate response to ensure a successful outcome. The latest major challenge to society (COVID-19) met with a very different response, and only history will reveal whether 'Stay home and worry' will be equally effective. In devising blueprints or strategies it is extremely important to have a clear idea of what you are trying to achieve, whether it be maintaining world freedom or stopping a pandemic. In the case of livestock agriculture, it is helping to feed a rapidly growing global population in harmony with the needs of current and future generations. I hope that I have stated this clearly, and calmly. If so, I ask you to picture a scene. We are on a Calm Farm. Dairy animals go about their daily lives contented, unhurried and focused on the simple feeding and socialising activities that are so important to them. Unstressed, their productive capacities and abilities to avoid and, when necessary, cope with physiological and pathological challenges are maximised. They are not alone: the exact same characteristics also apply to the farmer and husbandry staff that we meet. How is this calm farming approach relevant to the aspirations we had when we established the EU COST Action DairyCare? Our objective was to harness the power of computing technologies to assist our management of dairy livestock. A simple rearrangement leads us to Computing Assisted Livestock Management, CALM. In this short Research Reflection I shall assess how far we have come towards the achievement of sensible goals related to technological assessment of dairy animal wellbeing, and speculate on what more things both can and need to be done to finish the job. It is a personal account. DairyCare was a major collaboration involving several hundred active researchers. To involve them all would be impossible, and I do not pretend to speak for them all. As will become evident, the wide skills base that was assembled was so successful in its primary objectives that different skills, chiefly in economics, are now needed to exploit all of the technological advance that has been achieved. DairyCare succeeded in a second direction. Whilst the focus was technology development, by assembling a large cohort of biologists with animal welfare interests, it soon became apparent that technology should run alongside and help to enable improved management practices. This Special Issue is, therefore, in two sections. The first is dedicated to technology development and the second to a novel management practice that has the potential to significantly improve the wellbeing of cows and calves: cow-calf contact rearing. That section is introduced by my DairyCare colleague, Sigrid Agenäs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dairying/standards , Animal Welfare/standards , Animals , Biomarkers , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Humans
3.
Prev Vet Med ; 181: 104494, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761798

ABSTRACT

A national control program against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) was launched in Norway in 2016. A key strategy in the program is to test for presence of antibodies and protect test-negative herds from infection. Because these viruses are endemic, the rate of re-introduction can be high, and a disease-free status will become more uncertain as time from testing elapses. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of freedom (PostPFree) from BRSV and BCV antibodies over time by use of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibody-testing, geographic information and animal movement data, and to validate the herd-level estimates against subsequent BTM testing. BTM samples were collected from 1148 study herds in West Norway in 2013 and 2016, and these were analyzed for BRSV and BCV antibodies. PostPFree was calculated for herds that were negative in 2013/2014, and updated periodically with new probabilities every three months. Input variables were test sensitivity, the probability of introduction through animal purchase and local transmission. Probability of introduction through animal purchase was calculated by using real animal movement data and herd prevalence in the region of the source herd. The PostPFree from the final three months in 2015 was compared to BTM test results from March 2016 using a Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test. The probability of freedom was generally high for test-negative herds immediately after testing, reflecting the high sensitivity of the tests. It did however, decrease with time since testing, and was greatly affected by purchase of livestock. When comparing the median PostPFree for the final three months to the test results in 2016, it was significantly lower (p < 0.01) for test positive herds. Furthermore, there was a large difference in the proportion of test positive herds between the first and fourth quartile of PostPFree. The results show that PostPFree provides a better estimate of herd-level BTM status for both BRSV and BCV than what can be achieved by relying solely on the previous test-result.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/veterinary , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cattle/virology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Infection Control/methods , Milk/immunology , Norway/epidemiology , Probability , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 450-455, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909188

ABSTRACT

BRD is associated with infectious agents, but management and transport-stress are trigger factors. Metaphylactic administration of antimicrobial reduces colonization of respiratory tract by pathogens, but the development of antibiotic-resistance raises public health concerns leading to propose new control strategies. The study analyzed nasopharyngeal swabs of 231 imported cattle, 10% of 49 trucks, transported from France to southern Italy and, through Real-time PCR identified the prevalence of the involved pathogens speculating on strategies to reduce the impact of BRD. The samples were tested by Real-time PCR, for the detection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus (BPiV), bovine adenovirus (BAdV), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Yates-corrected chi squared, or Fisher's exact test were used to compare both animal-health status and positivity/negativity to pathogens, and the relationship between presence/absence of clinical signs and Real-time PCR-positivity. H. somni and BCoV were the most frequently identified pathogens. In BRD-diagnosed cattle, BAdV was detected in 13.8% (19/138), BRSV in 14.5% (20/138) and BPiV in 4.3% (6/138). Healthy cattle were mostly positive for H. somni (89.2%, 83/93). A statistically significant association was observed between clinical signs and positivity to M. haemolytica (p value = 0.016). Although mass-medication and vaccination are used for BRD control, it still remains a primary health problem. Our results highlight that the nasopharyngeal microbiota could be affected by transport and that strategies to enhance calf immunity for reducing BRD-risk development would be more effective if applied at farm of origin prior to loading.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Microbiota , Pasteurellaceae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Epidemiologic Studies , France/epidemiology , Immunity , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mastadenovirus/genetics , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pasteurellaceae/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , Transportation
5.
Benef Microbes ; 11(5): 477-488, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740509

ABSTRACT

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is one of the challenges faced by intensive farming, and probiotics are considered a promising approach to improve calves' health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of potential probiotic lactobacilli on new-born dairy calves' growth, diarrhoea incidence, faecal score, cytokine expression in blood cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in plasma and faeces, and pathogen abundance in faeces. Two in vivo assays were conducted at the same farm in two annual calving seasons. Treated calves received one daily dose of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus reuteri TP1.3B or Lactobacillus johnsonii TP1.6) for 10 consecutive days. A faecal score was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was calculated, and blood and faeces samples were collected. Pathogen abundance was analysed by absolute qPCR in faeces using primers directed at Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and three Escherichia coli virulence genes (eae, clpG and Stx1). The faecal score was positively affected by the administration of both lactobacilli strains, and diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in treated calves. No differences were found regarding ADG, cytokine expression, IgA levels and pathogen abundance. Our findings showed that oral administration of these strains could improve gastrointestinal health, but results could vary depending on the calving season, which may be related to pathogen seasonality and other environmental effects.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/therapy , Diarrhea , Lactobacillus johnsonii/metabolism , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolism , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Dairying , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/therapy , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control
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