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Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184510


Coronaviruses (CoV) are widely distributed pathogens of human and animals and can cause mild or severe respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. Antigenic and genetic similarity of some CoVs within the Betacoronavirus genus is evident. Therefore, for the first time in Slovenia, we investigated the genetic diversity of partial 390-nucleotides of RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase gene (RdRp) for 66 human (HCoV) and 24 bovine CoV (BCoV) positive samples, collected between 2010 and 2016 from human patients and cattle with respiratory disease. The characterized CoV strains belong to four different clusters, in three separate human clusters HCoV-HKU1 (n = 34), HCoV-OC43 (n = 31) and HCoV 229E (n = 1) and bovine grouping only as BCoVs (n = 24). BCoVs from cattle and HCoV-OC43 were genetically the most closely related and share 96.4-97.1% nucleotide and 96.9-98.5% amino acid identity.

Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Male , Slovenia
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918257


Bovine coronavirus (BoCV) is an important pathogen of cattle, causing severe enteric disease and playing a role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Similar to other coronaviruses, a remarkable variability characterizes both its genome and biology. Despite their potential relevance, different aspects of the evolution of BoCV remain elusive. The present study reconstructs the history and evolution of BoCV using a phylodynamic approach based on complete genome and spike protein sequences. The results demonstrate high mutation and recombination rates affecting different parts of the viral genome. In the spike gene, this variability undergoes significant selective pressures-particularly episodic pressure-located mainly on the protein surface, suggesting an immune-induced selective pressure. The occurrence of compensatory mutations was also identified. On the contrary, no strong evidence in favor of host and/or tissue tropism affecting viral evolution has been proven. The well-known plasticity is thus ascribable to the innate broad viral tropism rather than mid- or long-term adaptation. The evaluation of the geographic spreading pattern clearly evidenced two clusters: a European cluster and an American-Asian cluster. While a relatively dense and quick migration network was identified in the former, the latter was dominated by the primary role of the United States (US) as a viral exportation source. Since the viral spreading pattern strongly mirrored the cattle trade, the need for more intense monitoring and preventive measures cannot be underestimated as well as the need to enforce the vaccination of young animals before international trade, to reduce not only the clinical impact but also the transferal and mixing of BoCV strains.

Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/pathogenicity , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Livestock , Mutation , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Recombination, Genetic , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transportation , United States/epidemiology
Vet Microbiol ; 241: 108544, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823170


Cattle, goats and sheep are dominant livestock species in sub-Saharan Africa, with sometimes limited information on the prevalence of major infectious diseases. Restrictions due to notifiable epizootics complicate the exchange of samples in surveillance studies and suggest that laboratory capacities should be established domestically. Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) causes mainly enteric disease in cattle. Spillover to small ruminants is possible. Here we established BCoV serology based on a recombinant immunofluorescence assay for cattle, goats and sheep, and studied the seroprevalence of BCoV in these species in four different locations in the Greater Accra, Volta, Upper East, and Northern provinces of Ghana. The whole sampling and testing was organized and conducted by a veterinary school in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana. Among sampled sheep (n = 102), goats (n = 66), and cattle (n = 1495), the seroprevalence rates were 25.8 %, 43.1 % and 55.8 %. For cattle, seroprevalence was significantly higher on larger farms (82.2 % vs 17.8 %, comparing farms with >50 or <50 animals; p = 0.027). Highest prevalence was seen in the Northern province with dry climate, but no significant trend following the north-south gradient of sampling sites was detected. Our study identifies a considerable seroprevalence for BCoV in Ghana and provides further support for the spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.

Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/immunology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/immunology , Goat Diseases/transmission , Goat Diseases/virology , Goats , Lactation , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Distribution , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Sheep Diseases/transmission , Sheep Diseases/virology