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1.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 90, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139401

ABSTRACT

Foamy macrophages containing prominent cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) are found in a variety of infectious diseases. However, their role in Streptococcus uberis-induced mastitis is unknown. Herein, we report that S. uberis infection enhances the fatty acid synthesis pathway in macrophages, resulting in a sharp increase in LD levels, accompanied by a significantly enhanced inflammatory response. This process is mediated by the involvement of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), a subtype of the fatty acid-binding protein family that plays critical roles in metabolism and inflammation. In addition, FABP4 siRNA inhibitor cell models showed that the deposition of LDs decreased, and the mRNA expression of Tnf, Il1b and Il6 was significantly downregulated after gene silencing. As a result, the bacterial load in macrophages increased. Taken together, these data demonstrate that macrophage LD formation is a host-driven component of the immune response to S. uberis. FABP4 contributes to promoting inflammation via LDs, which should be considered a new target for drug development to treat infections.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Mastitis, Bovine , Streptococcal Infections , Female , Animals , Cattle , Lipid Droplets/metabolism , Macrophages/microbiology , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/genetics , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/veterinary , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/metabolism
2.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113164

ABSTRACT

Spatial expansions of vampire bat-transmitted rabies (VBR) are increasing the risk of lethal infections in livestock and humans in Latin America. Identifying the drivers of these expansions could improve current approaches to surveillance and prevention. We aimed to identify if VBR spatial expansions are occurring in Colombia and test factors associated with these expansions. We analyzed 2336 VBR outbreaks in livestock reported to the National Animal Health Agency (Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-ICA) affecting 297 municipalities from 2000-2019. The area affected by VBR changed through time and was correlated to the reported number of outbreaks each year. Consistent with spatial expansions, some municipalities reported VBR outbreaks for the first time each year and nearly half of the estimated infected area in 2010-2019 did not report outbreaks in the previous decade. However, the number of newly infected municipalities decreased between 2000-2019, suggesting decelerating spatial expansions. Municipalities infected later had lower cattle populations and were located further from the local reporting offices of the ICA. Reducing the VBR burden in Colombia requires improving vaccination coverage in both endemic and newly infected areas while improving surveillance capacity in increasingly remote areas with lower cattle populations where rabies is emerging.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Rabies virus , Rabies , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Colombia/epidemiology , Livestock
3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(32): e2203898, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118630

ABSTRACT

Mucus is a self-healing gel that lubricates the moist epithelium and provides protection against viruses by binding to viruses smaller than the gel's mesh size and removing them from the mucosal surface by active mucus turnover. As the primary nonaqueous components of mucus (≈0.2%-5%, wt/v), mucins are critical to this function because the dense arrangement of mucin glycans allows multivalence of binding. Following nature's example, bovine submaxillary mucins (BSMs) are assembled into "mucus-like" gels (5%, wt/v) by dynamic covalent crosslinking reactions. The gels exhibit transient liquefaction under high shear strain and immediate self-healing behavior. This study shows that these material properties are essential to provide lubricity. The gels efficiently reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and genital herpes virus type 2 (HSV-2) infectivity for various types of cells. In contrast, simple mucin solutions, which lack the structural makeup, inhibit HIV-1 significantly less and do not inhibit HSV-2. Mechanistically, the prophylaxis of HIV-1 infection by BSM gels is found to be that the gels trap HIV-1 by binding to the envelope glycoprotein gp120 and suppress cytokine production during viral exposure. Therefore, the authors believe the gels are promising for further development as personal lubricants that can limit viral transmission.


Subject(s)
HIV-1 , Animals , Cattle , Humans , HIV-1/metabolism , Herpesvirus 2, Human/metabolism , Mucins/metabolism , Gels , Mucus/metabolism
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099525

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, triggering one of the most challenging pandemics in the human population. In light of the reporting of this virus in domestic and wild animals from several parts of the world, a systematic surveillance study was conceptualized to detect SARS-CoV-2 among species of veterinary importance. Nasal and/or rectal samples of 413 animals (dogs n= 195, cattle n = 64, horses n = 42, goats n = 41, buffaloes n = 39, sheep n = 19, cats n = 6, camels n = 6, and a monkey n = 1) were collected from different places in the Gujarat state of India. RNA was extracted from the samples and subjected to RT-qPCR-based quantification of the target sequences in viral nucleoprotein (N), spike (S), and ORF1ab genes. A total of 95 (23.79%) animals were found positive, comprised of n = 67 (34.35%) dogs, n= 15 (23.43%) cattle, and n = 13 (33.33%) buffaloes. Whole SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing was done from one sample (ID-A4N, from a dog), where 32 mutations, including 29 single-nucleotide variations (SNV) and 2 deletions, were detected. Among them, nine mutations were located in the receptor binding domain of the spike (S) protein. The consequent changes in the amino acid sequence revealed T19R, G142D, E156-, F157-, A222V, L452R, T478K, D614G, and P681R mutations in the S protein and D63G, R203M, and D377Y in the N protein. The lineage assigned to this SARS-CoV-2 sequence is B.1.617.2. Thus, the present study highlights the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from human to animals and suggests being watchful for zoonosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle , Animals , Humans , Dogs , Horses , Sheep , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Buffaloes , Pandemics , Mutation
5.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090362

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) causes severe diarrhea in neonatal calves, winter dysentery in adult cattle, and respiratory disease in feedlot cattle, resulting in economic losses. A total of 16/140 calf diarrheic feces samples collected in South Korea between 2017 and 2018 were positive for BCoV. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete spike and hemagglutinin/esterase genes revealed that the 16 Korean BCoV strains belonged to group GIIa along with Korean strains isolated after 2000, whereas Korean BCoV strains isolated before 2000 belonged to group GI. Mice and goats inoculated with an inactivated KBR-1 strain (isolated from this study) generated higher antibody titers (96 ± 13.49 and 73 ± 13.49, respectively) when mixed with the Montanide01 adjuvant than when mixed with the Carbopol or IMS1313 adjuvants. Viral antigens were detected in the large intestine, jejunum, and ileum of calves inoculated with inactivated KBR-1 vaccine (104.0 TCID50/mL) at 14 days of post-challenge (DPC). However, no viral antigens were detected in calves vaccinated with a higher dose of inactivated KBR-1 strain (106.0 TCID50/mL) at 14 DPC, and they had high antibody titers and stable diarrhea scores. Currently, the group GIIa is prevalent in cows in South Korea, and although further research is needed in the future, the recently isolated KBR-1 strain has potential value as a new vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Bovine , Female , Cattle , Animals , Mice , Phylogeny , Feces , Diarrhea/veterinary , Antigens, Viral , Republic of Korea
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(11): 1543-1550, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065087

ABSTRACT

In this study, the viral genome extraction performance of automatic nucleic acid extractors and manual nucleic acid extraction kits was compared. We showed that compared with manual kits, the automatic extractors showed superior genome extraction performance using bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genome-positive cattle sera and bovine coronavirus/infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-spiked cattle nasal swabs. In addition, the subgenotyping of BVDV strains detected in Tokachi Province in Japan during 2016-2017 was performed. Results showed that most of these BVDV strains belonged to subgenotype 1b, while few strains belonged to subgenotypes 1a and 2a. This study showed the high applicability of automatic nucleic acid extractors in extracting multiple viral genomes and the dominant subgenotype of BVDV in Tokachi.


Subject(s)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease , Cattle Diseases , Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral , Nucleic Acids , Cattle , Animals , RNA, Viral/genetics , Japan , Genotype , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Magnetic Phenomena , Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral/genetics , Phylogeny
7.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 70, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064844

ABSTRACT

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most important diseases impacting the global cattle industry, resulting in significant economic loss. Commonly referred to as shipping fever, BRD is especially concerning for young calves during transport when they are most susceptible to developing disease. Despite years of extensive study, managing BRD remains challenging as its aetiology involves complex interactions between pathogens, environmental and host factors. While at the beginning of the twentieth century, scientists believed that BRD was only caused by bacterial infections ("bovine pasteurellosis"), we now know that viruses play a key role in BRD induction. Mixtures of pathogenic bacteria and viruses are frequently isolated from respiratory secretions of animals with respiratory illness. The increased diagnostic screening data has changed our understanding of pathogens contributing to BRD development. In this review, we aim to comprehensively examine experimental evidence from all existing studies performed to understand coinfections between respiratory pathogens in cattle. Despite the fact that pneumonia has not always been successfully reproduced by in vivo calf modelling, several studies attempted to investigate the clinical significance of interactions between different pathogens. The most studied model of pneumonia induction has been reproduced by a primary viral infection followed by a secondary bacterial superinfection, with strong evidence suggesting this could potentially be one of the most common scenarios during BRD onset. Different in vitro studies indicated that viral priming may increase bacterial adherence and colonization of the respiratory tract, suggesting a possible mechanism underpinning bronchopneumonia onset in cattle. In addition, a few in vivo studies on viral coinfections and bacterial coinfections demonstrated that a primary viral infection could also increase the pathogenicity of a secondary viral infection and, similarly, dual infections with two bacterial pathogens could increase the severity of BRD lesions. Therefore, different scenarios of pathogen dynamics could be hypothesized for BRD onset which are not limited to a primary viral infection followed by a secondary bacterial superinfection.


Subject(s)
Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex , Cattle Diseases , Coinfection , Pasteurella Infections , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Superinfection , Virus Diseases , Animals , Bacteria , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Superinfection/veterinary , Virus Diseases/veterinary
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 133(4): 2516-2527, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063767

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Diarrhoea is a common health problem in calves and a main reason for use of antimicrobials. It is associated with several bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens, most of which are commonly present in healthy animals. Methods, which quantify the causative agents, may therefore improve confidence in associating a pathogen to the disease. This study evaluated a novel commercially available, multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay (Enterit4Calves) for detection and quantification of pathogens associated with calf-diarrhoea. METHODS AND RESULTS: Performance of the method was first evaluated under laboratory conditions. Then it was compared with current routine methods for detection of pathogens in faecal samples from 65 calves with diarrhoea and in 30 spiked faecal samples. The qPCR efficiencies were between 84%-103% and detection limits of 100-1000 copies of nucleic acids per sample were observed. Correct identification was obtained on 42 strains of cultured target bacteria, with only one false positive reaction from 135 nontarget bacteria. Kappa values for agreement between the novel assay and current routine methods varied between 0.38 and 0.83. CONCLUSION: The novel qPCR method showed good performance under laboratory conditions and a fair to good agreement with current routine methods when used for testing of field samples. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: In addition to having fair to good detection abilities, the novel qPCR method allowed quantification of pathogens. In the future, use of quantification may improve diagnosis and hence treatment of calf diarrhoea.


Subject(s)
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nucleic Acids , Animals , Bacteria/genetics , Cattle , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Feces/microbiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 25(3): 437-446, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056865

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea continues to be the major problem of calves in the neonatal period. The effect of zeolites has been increasingly studied in ruminant health in recent years. In the present study, the efficacy of cristobalite, a zeolite, in neonatal calf diarrhea was studied first time. For this purpose, twenty-five neonatal calves with diarrheas were divided into two groups, and Group 1 (n=12) received conventional treatment and Group 2 (n=13) received cristobalite (Zoosorb 10 mg/kg) orally 3 times a day in addition to conventional treatment. Escherichia coli k99 and CS31a, bovine rotavirus and bovine coronavirus were isolated from fecal samples at the beginning of the treatment, on the third day and before discharge. It was determined that the recovery period in Group 2 was 0.95 (20.6%) days shorter than in Group 1 (p⟨0.05) while no viral agents were found on the fifth day in Group 2, viral shedding continued in 4 of 5 calves in Group 1. In conclusion, the study revealed that cristobalite speeds the recovery time and possibly decreases viral shedding in neonatal calf diarrhea, demonstrating a remarkable efficiency in the treatment.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Zeolites , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli , Feces , Silicon Dioxide
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2551-e2562, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053022

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically important transboundary disease affecting cattle, causing large economic losses such as decreased production and trade restrictions. LSD has been a historically neglected disease since it previously caused disease limited to the African continent. Currently, the epidemiology of LSD virus is based on how the disease is transmitted in tropical and sub-tropical climates. The understanding of its epidemiology in hemiboreal climates is not well understood and needs urgent attention to expand the current knowledge. In this study, the epidemiological findings on LSD in Russia over a 6-year period are summarized and discussed. A total of 471 outbreaks were identified spanning over a 9000 km range. The outbreaks of LSD occur primarily in small holder farms (backyard) compared to commercial farms between mid-May through mid-November including weather conditions with snow and freezing temperatures that preclude vector activity. Mortality and morbidity varied across the 6 years ranging from 1.19% to 61.8% and 0% to 50%, respectively, with a tendency to decline from 2015 to 2020. The geographic pattern of spread was assessed by means of directionality, indicating a northward movement from 2015 to 2016, with a consequent East turn in 2017 through Siberia to the Far East by 2020. All cases occurred along the border with Kazakhstan. Mathematical modelling showed that the disease tended to form statistically verified annual spatiotemporal clusters in 2016-2018, whereas in 2019 and 2020 such segregation was not evident. The trend of spread was mainly either from south to north or from south to a north-east direction.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Russia/epidemiology
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2312-e2317, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053014

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease virus causes a debilitating pox disease of domesticated cattle and water buffalos. In the last decade, LSDV has spread from Africa into the Middle East, Europe and most recently Asia. As of 2017, atypical outbreaks caused by novel LSDV strains were reported in Russia, followed by China and Vietnam between 2018 and 2020. In this work, we describe another unique recombinant LSDV strain recovered from Tyumen, Russia in 2019. Typing of the virus using currently available qPCR protocols produced inconclusive results and subsequently the complete genome of the isolate was determined. The consensus genome contained statistically significant signals of possible recombination events between parental strains KSGPO-240/Kenya/1958 and the live attenuated vaccine LW/1958. The novel strain carries 25 unique breakpoints different from the known recombinant strains. Additionally, the findings reiterate the importance of complete genome sequencing when analysing outbreak samples caused in particular by mosaic LSDV, in contrast to only performing specified qPCRs.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Kenya , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lumpy Skin Disease/prevention & control , Russia/epidemiology , Vaccines, Attenuated
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2230-e2239, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053012

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affects the livestock industry and socioeconomic sustainability of many African countries. The success of FMD control programs in Africa depends largely on understanding the dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV) spread. In light of the recent outbreaks of FMD that affected the North-Western African countries in 2018 and 2019, we investigated the evolutionary phylodynamics of the causative serotype O viral strains all belonging to the East-Africa 3 topotype (O/EA-3). We analyzed a total of 489 sequences encoding the FMDV VP1 genome region generated from samples collected from 25 African and Western Asian countries between 1974 and 2019. Using Bayesian evolutionary models on genomic and epidemiological data, we inferred the routes of introduction and migration of the FMDV O/EA-3 topotype at the inter-regional scale. We inferred a mean substitution rate of 6.64 × 10-3  nt/site/year and we predicted that the most recent common ancestor for our panel of samples circulated between February 1967 and November 1973 in Yemen, likely reflecting the epidemiological situation in under sampled cattle-exporting East African countries. Our study also reinforces the role previously described of Sudan and South Sudan as a frequent source of FMDVs spread. In particular, we identified two transboundary routes of O/EA-3 diffusion: the first from Sudan to North-East Africa, and from the latter into Israel and Palestine AT; a second from Sudan to Nigeria, Cameroon, and from there to further into West and North-West Africa. This study highlights the necessity to reinforce surveillance at an inter-regional scale in Africa and Western Asia, in particular along the identified migration routes for the implementation of efficient control measures in the fight against FMD.


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Cattle , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Nigeria/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Serogroup
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e1338-e1349, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052987

ABSTRACT

Equine Piroplasmosis (EP) is a tick-borne disease caused by three apicomplexan protozoan parasites, Theileria equi (T. equi), Babesia caballi (B. caballi) and T. haneyi, which can cause similar clinical symptoms. There are five known 18S rRNA genotypes of T. equi group (including T. haneyi) and three of B. caballi. Real-time PCR methods for detecting EP based on 18S rRNA analysis have been developed, but these methods cannot detect all genotypes of EP in China, especially genotype A of T. equi. In this study, a duplex real-time PCR detection method was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of T. equi and B. caballi. The primers and probes for this duplex real-time PCR assay were designed based on the conserved 18S rRNA gene sequences of all genotypes of T. equi and B. caballi including Chinese strain. Double-quenched probes were used in this method, which provide less background and more signal to decrease the number of false positives relative to single-quenched probes. The newly developed real-time PCR assays exhibited good specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. The real-time PCR assays were further validated by comparison with a nested PCR assay and a previous developed real-time PCR for EP and sequencing results in the analysis of 506 clinical samples collected from 2019 to 2020 in eleven provinces and regions of China. Based on clinical performance, the agreements between the duplex real-time PCR assay and the nPCR assay or the previous developed real-time PCR assay were 92.5% (T. equi) and 99.4% (B. caballi) or 87.4% (T. equi) and 97.2% (B. caballi). The detection results showed that the positivity rate of T. equi was 43.87% (222/506) (10 genotype A, 1 genotype B, 4 genotype C, 207 genotype E), while that of B. caballi was 5.10% (26/506) (26 genotype A), and the rate of T. equi and B. caballi co-infection was 2.40% (12/506). The established method could contribute to the accurate diagnosis, pathogenic surveillance and epidemiological investigation of T. equi and B. caballi infections in horses.


Subject(s)
Babesia , Babesiosis , Cattle Diseases , Horse Diseases , Theileria , Theileriasis , Animals , Babesia/genetics , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Babesiosis/parasitology , Cattle , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horses , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Reproducibility of Results , Theileria/genetics , Theileriasis/diagnosis , Theileriasis/epidemiology , Theileriasis/parasitology
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): 2788-2799, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052983

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is of high economic importance and has spread rapidly to many European and Asian countries in recent years. LSDV was introduced to China in 2019 and have caused severe outbreaks in several provinces. Here, we detected an LSDV strain (GD01/2020) from a cattle farm with typical LSD symptoms in Guangdong, southern China using a novel quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting the viral GPCR gene. We obtained the whole genomic sequence of GD01/2020 through metagenomic analysis. The GD01/2020 was highly homologous to the LSDVs isolated in Xinjiang, China in 2019, and distinct from all the LSDVs identified in other countries, in their sequences of GPCR and RPO30 genes. The GD01/2020 was a vaccine-recombinant strain, but distinct from two recombinant LSDVs identified in Russia. At least 25 putative recombination events between a vaccine strain and a field strain were identified in the genome of GD01/2020, which could affect the virulence and transmissibility of the virus. These results suggested that a virulent vaccine-recombinant LSDV from an unknown origin was introduced into Xinjiang, China in 2019 and spread to Guangdong, China in 2020.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Genomics , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny
15.
Vet Res Commun ; 46(4): 1011-1022, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048466

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major disease of livestock in India and causes huge economic losses. The formal FMD control program started in 2003-04 in selected districts and was gradually expanded. The present study provides a descriptive review of the FMD outbreaks, prevalent serotypes, and genetic and antigenic features of the FMD virus (FMDV) that circulated in the country between 2011 and 2020. FMD outbreaks were regularly reported in cloven-hoofed domestic livestock and wildlife, with three serotypes including O, A, and Asia1. During the study period, a total of 2226 FMD outbreaks were documented and serotypes confirmed. FMDV serotype O dominated the outbreak scenario, accounting for about 92% of all outbreaks, followed by Asia1 (5% of all outbreaks) and A (3% of all outbreaks). Two major epidemics of FMD on an unprecedented scale during the years 2013 and 2018 by serotype O were recorded. The spatial distribution of FMD was characterized by a larger number of outbreaks in the southern region of the country. In an annual-scale analysis, 2020 was the year with the lowest outbreaks, and 2013 was the year with the highest. The month-scale analysis showed that outbreaks were reported throughout the year, with the highest numbers between October and March. The emergence of three major lineages (O/ME-SA/Ind2001d, O/ME-SA/Ind2001e, and O/ME-SA/Ind2018) of serotype O was observed during the period. In the cases of serotype A and Asia1, the appearance of at least one novel lineage/genetic group, including A/G-18/non-deletion/2019 and Asia1/Group-IX, was documented. While serotype A showed the advent of antigenic variants, serotypes O and Asia1 did not show any antigenic diversity. It was noticed during the course of an outbreak that animal movement contributes significantly to disease transmission. Except for 2018, when numerous FMD outbreaks were recorded, the number of annual outbreaks reported after 2016 has been lower than in the first half of the decade, probably due to mass vaccination and COVID-19 pandemic-linked movement restrictions. Even during outbreaks, disease symptoms in ruminant populations, including cattle, were found to be less severe. Regular six-monthly immunization certainly has a positive impact on the reduction of disease burden and should be followed without fail and delay, along with intensive disease surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Cattle , Animals , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/veterinary , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Serogroup , Ruminants , Phylogeny
16.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(9): 557-558, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: War is as old as history. Some may say it is older. The first Biblical war, dated 1880-1875 BCE, is depicted in the book of Genesis between nine kings in the vicinity of the Jordan river near Jericho. By the end of the war, Abraham (Abram) gets involved in saving his nephew Lot. In addition to war, military medicine also has its roots in historical times. Hippocrates (460-377 BCE), the father of medicine, derived his medical knowledge from the battlefield, and Sushruta [1], the father of plastic surgery, mentioned the physician's preventive role in noting environmental hazards: "A common practice of the enemy is to poison the wells on the roadside, the articles of food, the shades of trees, and the fuel and forage for cattle; hence, it is incumbent on a physician marching with the troops to inspect, examine, and purify these before using any of them, in case they are poisoned." The Greeks stated new ideas of military health, pointing to fitness promotion, gymnastics, and healthy diets to prevent illness. Over the centuries, from Alexander the Great to Napoleon's army and wars in the 20th century, military conflicts have led to the death of hundreds of millions of people from trauma and war-related disease. Amazingly analyses of the 18th and 19th centuries have shown that 80% of the soldiers died from disease, and historians and military personnel agree that during armed conflicts in known history, only a minority of soldiers perished by the sword. In Israel, the Israel Defense Forces-Medical Corps (IDF-MC) holds a unique position embedded in military and civilian national medicine. All medical personnel (e.g., physicians, nurses, technicians, veterinarians) who work in the IDF-MC receive their diplomas from civilian universities, train in civilian hospitals, and continue to practice in the national health system. The majority of these professionals continue to work in different civilian medical platforms in Israel after finishing their mandatory service. The IDF-MC's primary mission is to provide optimal medical care to IDF soldiers at all times (including wartime), to prevent disease and promote health, advance military medicine, and aid the civilian sector as ordered by the Government of Israel. In this special issue of Israel Medical Association Journal (IMAJ) is to expose readers to the continuous efforts of the IDF-MC to fulfill its mission by promoting research in multiple medical fields, including trauma, ambulatory care, health administration. In addition, in this issue of IMAJ, authors discuss the unique collaboration with the civilian system during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Trauma and trauma-related injuries are the main focus of military medical research. Ben-Avi and colleagues [2] described outcomes of emergent exploratory thoracotomies on military casualties and addresses parameters that may impact the survival of these casualties. Minervini [3] further discussed the issue. Bez et al. [4] researched the impact of isolated versus non-isolated traumatic brain injuries on injury identification and decision-making by care providers in austere scenarios. Tsur and co-authors [5] described the characteristics of a unique type of terror attack: vehicle ramming. Additional examples of treatments provided in the military prehospital arena were analyzed by Nakar and colleagues [6] who discussed how to assess pain medications administered to trauma casualties in the past two decades by IDF-MC care providers. Rittblat et al. [7] further described the use of freeze-dried plasma, a blood component used in the prehospital arena and administered via intraosseous vascular access. The IDF-MC is a continuously changing organization emphasizing the adoption of advanced technologies and devices. Chen et al. [8] presented a blinded study on the use of point-of-care ultrasound and remote telementored ultrasound by inexperienced operators, and Sorkin et al. [9] described the BladeShield 101: a novel device for the battlefield designed to continuously measure vital signs and medical treatment provided and to transfer data through roles of care. In this special issue of IMAJ, authors also discusse gender-related aspects at the core of medical treatment. Segal et al. [10] examined whether missed injuries were related to the medical provider's gender, while Gelikas et al. [11] assessed whether treatment with analgesia was associated with casualty gender in the military prehospital trauma setting Over the past two and a half years, the COVID-19 pandemic has been a significant part of our lives. During these years, medical systems and teams throughout Israel and around the world struggled to adapt to this new disease and save lives fighting the pandemic. Geva et al. [12] and Shental et al. [13] discussed the impact of COVID-19 on the IDF medical system, lessons learned during the outbreak, and effects of different diseases during these times on medical treatment provided by the IDF to soldiers.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Military Medicine , Military Personnel , Poisons , Animals , Cattle , Health Promotion , Humans , Pandemics
17.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043991

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) has spilled over to many species, including humans, where the host range variant coronavirus OC43 is endemic. The balance of the opposing activities of the surface spike (S) and hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoproteins controls BCoV avidity, which is critical for interspecies transmission and host adaptation. Here, 78 genomes were sequenced directly from clinical samples collected between 2013 and 2022 from cattle in 12 states, primarily in the Midwestern U.S. Relatively little genetic diversity was observed, with genomes having >98% nucleotide identity. Eleven isolates collected between 2020 and 2022 from four states (Nebraska, Colorado, California, and Wisconsin) contained a 12 nucleotide insertion in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the HE gene similar to one recently reported in China, and a single genome from Nebraska collected in 2020 contained a novel 12 nucleotide deletion in the HE gene RBD. Isogenic HE proteins containing either the insertion or deletion in the HE RBD maintained esterase activity and could bind bovine submaxillary mucin, a substrate enriched in the receptor 9-O-acetylated-sialic acid, despite modeling that predicted structural changes in the HE R3 loop critical for receptor binding. The emergence of BCoV with structural variants in the RBD raises the possibility of further interspecies transmission.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Bovine , Humans , Cattle , Animals , Hemagglutinins/metabolism , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Mutation , Glycoproteins/genetics , Esterases/genetics , Esterases/metabolism , Nucleotides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043975

ABSTRACT

Frequent outbreaks of the highly pathogenic influenza A virus (AIV) infection, together with the lack of broad-spectrum influenza vaccines, call for the development of broad-spectrum prophylactic agents. Previously, 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified bovine ß-lactoglobulin (3HP-ß-LG) was proven to be effective against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and it has also been used in the clinical control of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Here, we show its efficacy in potently inhibiting infection by divergent influenza A and B viruses. Mechanistic studies suggest that 3HP-ß-LG binds, possibly through its negatively charged residues, to the receptor-binding domain in the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) subunit in the HA of the influenza virus, thus inhibiting the attachment of the HA to sialic acid on host cells. The intranasal administration of 3HP-ß-LG led to the protection of mice against challenges by influenza A(H1N1)/PR8, A(H3N2), and A(H7N9) viruses. Furthermore, 3HP-ß-LG is highly stable when stored at 50 °C for 30 days and it shows excellent safety in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our findings suggest that 3HP-ß-LG could be successfully repurposed as an intranasal prophylactic agent to prevent influenza virus infections during influenza outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Fusion Inhibitors , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Cattle , Disease Outbreaks , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Lactoglobulins/pharmacology , Mice , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 52(11): 1291-1301, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The protein and carbohydrate composition of formula fed infants' diets in the United States (US) has not been described. The aims of this study were to characterize these dietary exposures in infant formula purchased in the US and to estimate the proportion of formula purchased which is hypoallergenic or lactose-reduced formula. METHODS: Powdered infant formula purchase data from all major physical stores in the US prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, between 2017 and 2019, were obtained from Information Resources, Inc. Protein and carbohydrate composition and scoop sizes for each formula were obtained from manufacturers. Ready to feed liquid products, products for premature infants and products for over 1 year old were not included. RESULTS: Total volumes of term formula purchased were 216 million kg of formula powder (equivalent to 1.65 billion litres) over 3 years. Intact protein formula was 67.9% of formula purchased, 26.6% was partially hydrolysed and 5.5% was hypoallergenic (5.2% extensively hydrolysed protein; 0.3% amino acid based). Soy protein formula represented 5.1% of formula purchased. Carbohydrate content overall was 52.7% lactose, 42.3% glucose polymers and 5.0% sucrose. 23.7% of formula purchased included sucrose as a carbohydrate. Of all formula purchased, 59.0% was lactose reduced, containing a non-lactose carbohydrate. Of 'standard' formula, defined as intact protein, non-thickened, cow's milk formula, 32.3% was lactose reduced. The proportion of hypoallergenic formula purchased significantly exceeded the prevalence of cow's milk protein allergy and increased over the 3-year study period from 4.9% to 7.6% of all formula sold. CONCLUSIONS: US infants are exposed to unnecessarily high levels of non-lactose carbohydrates and hypoallergenic formula, and this may represent a significant nutritional health risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Milk Hypersensitivity , Cattle , Female , Animals , Humans , Infant Formula , Soybean Proteins , Powders , Pandemics , Amino Acids , Carbohydrates , Sucrose , Polymers , Glucose
20.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033144

ABSTRACT

Mammalian seminal plasma contains a multitude of bioactive components, including lipids, glucose, mineral elements, metabolites, proteins, cytokines, and growth factors, with various functions during insemination and fertilization. The seminal plasma protein PDC-109 is one of the major soluble components of the bovine ejaculate and is crucially important for sperm motility, capacitation, and acrosome reaction. A hitherto underappreciated function of seminal plasma is its anti-microbial and antiviral activity, which may limit the sexual transmission of infectious diseases during intercourse. We have recently discovered that PDC-109 inhibits the membrane fusion activity of influenza virus particles and significantly impairs viral infections at micromolar concentrations. Here we investigated whether the antiviral activity of PDC-109 is restricted to Influenza or if other mammalian viruses are similarly affected. We focused on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), thoroughly assessing PDC-109 inhibition with SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S)-pseudotyped reporter virus particles, but also live-virus infections. Consistent with our previous publications, we found significant virus inhibition, albeit accompanied by substantial cytotoxicity. However, using time-of-addition experiments we discovered a treatment regimen that enables virus suppression without affecting cell viability. We furthermore demonstrated that PDC-109 is also able to impair infections mediated by the VSV glycoprotein (VSVg), thus indicating a broad pan-antiviral activity against multiple virus species and families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Semen , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Cytokines , Glucose , Humans , Lipids , Male , Mammals , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen/metabolism , Seminal Plasma Proteins , Sperm Motility , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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