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1.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(6): 465-474, 2023 02 07.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bovine coronaviruses (BCoVs) are causative agents of diarrhea, respiratory diseases in calves and winter cow dysentery. The study of genetic diversity of these viruses is topical issue. The purpose of the research is studying the genetic diversity of BCoV isolates circulating among dairy cattle in Siberia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens used in this study were collected from animals that died or was forcedly slaughtered before the start of the study. The target for amplification were nucleotide sequences of S and N gene regions. RESULTS: Based on the results of RT-PCR testing, virus genome was present in 16.3% of samples from calves with diarrheal syndrome and in 9.9% with respiratory syndrome. The nucleotide sequences of S gene region were determined for 18 isolates, and N gene sequences - for 12 isolates. Based on S gene, isolates were divided into two clades each containing two subclades. First subclade of first clade (European line) included 11 isolates. Second one included classic strains Quebec and Mebus, strains from Europe, USA and Korea, but none of sequences from this study belonged to this subclade. 6 isolates belonged to first subclade of second clade (American-Asian line). Second subclade (mixed line) included one isolate. N gene sequences formed two clades, one of them included two subclades. First subclade included 3 isolates (American-Asian line), and second subclade (mixed) included one isolate. Second clade (mixed) included 8 sequences. No differences in phylogenetic grouping between intestinal and respiratory isolates, as well as according to their geographic origin were identified. CONCLUSION: The studied population of BCoV isolates is heterogeneous. Nucleotide sequence analysis is a useful tool for studying molecular epidemiology of BCoV. It can be beneficial for choice of vaccines to be used in a particular geographic region.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Bovine , Coronavirus , Female , Cattle , Animals , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2220577, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235192

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated the ability to infect a wide range of animal species. Here, we investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection in livestock species in Oman and provided serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cattle, sheep, goats, and dromedary camel using the surrogate virus neutralization and plaque reduction neutralization tests. To better understand the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and associated risks, "One Health" epidemiological investigations targeting animals exposed to COVID-19 human cases should be implemented with integrated data analysis of the epidemiologically linked human and animal cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle , Humans , Animals , Sheep , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Oman/epidemiology , Camelus , SARS-CoV-2 , Data Analysis , Goats
3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e404, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242364

ABSTRACT

The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne virus that can spread from infected people and other animals, including cattle and ticks of the Hyalomma genus. People who are infected describe symptoms that range from flu-like manifestations to severe multi-organ failure. With a death rate between 10% and 30%, the virus is undoubtedly a disease of high concern. With 10,000-15,000 cases/y, it is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, and South-Eastern Europe. There has been a recent CCHF outbreak in Iraq, with 212 cases documented, 80% of which were reported between April and May and led to 27 fatalities.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean , Humans , Animals , Cattle , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/diagnosis , Pakistan/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Africa
4.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 44: 100382, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328092
5.
Nutrients ; 15(9)2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325825

ABSTRACT

During the last decade, feeding patterns, more specifically those of children, have worsened-affecting dietary habits and Mediterranean diet adherence. Here, we examine the post-pandemic feeding habits of Spanish toddlers. A total of 2465 parents of children aged between 12 and 36 months completed an online 25-item multiple-choice survey asking about dietary habits and Mediterranean diet adherence. Only 34 children (1.38%) had an adequate intake of all of the food groups included in the questionnaire. Adherence worsened as toddlers grew (p < 0.0001). Further, lower compliance was found in children with a higher intake of fast food (p < 0.001), those with siblings (p = 0.0045), and children who were the second or third child (p = 0.0005). The food group with the most commonly reported adequate intake was fish (88% of children), followed by pulses (80%), water (79%), and meat (78%). Cow's milk was the most commonly consumed dairy product among all age groups analyzed. Half of the children exhibited a low consumption of milk and dairy products. These results showed that a lack of adherence to a balanced diet is common among Spanish toddlers in the post-pandemic period and that greater parent education could improve the nutrition of toddlers.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Animals , Cattle , Female , Pandemics , Nutritional Status , Milk , Feeding Behavior
6.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321574

ABSTRACT

Influenza D virus (IDV) has been detected in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) outbreaks, and experimental studies demonstrated this virus's capacity to cause lesions in the respiratory tract. In addition, IDV-specific antibodies were detected in human sera, which indicated that this virus plays a potential zoonotic role. The present study aimed to extend our knowledge about the epidemiologic situation of IDV in Swedish dairy farms, using bulk tank milk (BTM) samples for the detection of IDV antibodies. A total of 461 and 338 BTM samples collected during 2019 and 2020, respectively, were analyzed with an in-house indirect ELISA. In total, 147 (32%) and 135 (40%) samples were IDV-antibody-positive in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Overall, 2/125 (2%), 11/157 (7%) and 269/517 (52%) of the samples were IDV-antibody-positive in the northern, middle and southern regions of Sweden. The highest proportion of positive samples was repeatedly detected in the south, in the county of Halland, which is one of the counties with the highest cattle density in the country. In order to understand the epidemiology of IDV, further research in different cattle populations and in humans is required.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Influenza, Human , Thogotovirus , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Milk , Sweden/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Farms , Antibodies , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary
7.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285481, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319221

ABSTRACT

The "Russian Influenza"-coronavirus theory (RICT) proposes that the pandemic of 1889-1892, conventionally regarded as an influenza pandemic, was caused by the emergence of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) as a zoonosis of bovine coronavirus (BCoV). RICT is based on a Bayesian phylogenetic calculation of the date of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of HCoV-OC43 and BCoV. The theory also draws on comparison of both symptoms and some epidemiological parameters of the best studied coronavirus pandemic, i.e. COVID-19, with those reported in 1889-1892. The case is completed with circumstantial evidence involving a panzoonotic among cattle in the decade prior to the "Russian Influenza", with characteristics suggesting it may have been caused by BCoV. In this paper, we review the Bayesian phylogenetic evidence for RICT, replicating previous studies and adding our own, in each case critically reviewing the suitability of the datasets used and the parameters applied. We conclude that the most probable date for the MRCA of HCoV-OC43 and BCoV is 1898-1902. This is a decade too late for compatibility with RICT but happens to coincide with another serious outbreak of respiratory illness, reported in both the USA and the UK, in the winter of 1899-1900.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Influenza, Human , Humans , Animals , Cattle , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Phylogeny , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology
8.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 34(6): 1086-1095, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313383

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is an important protein post-translational modification that plays a pivotal role in the bioactivity of therapeutic proteins and in the infectivity of viral proteins. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry readily identifies protein glycans with site specificity. However, the overnight incubation used in conventional in-solution proteolysis leads to high turnaround times for glycosylation analysis, particularly when sequential in-solution digestions are needed for site-specific glycan identification. Using bovine fetuin as a model glycoprotein, this work first shows that in-membrane digestion in ∼3 min yields similar glycan identification and quantitation when compared to overnight in-solution digestion. Protease-containing membranes in a spin column enable digestion of therapeutic proteins (trastuzumab and erythropoietin) and a viral protein (SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain) in ∼30 s. Glycan identification is similar after in-solution and in-membrane digestion, and limited in-membrane digestion enhances the identification of high-mannose glycans in trastuzumab. Finally, stacked membranes containing trypsin and chymotrypsin allow fast sequential proteolytic digestion to site-specifically identify the glycans of SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain. One can easily assemble the protease-containing membranes in commercial spin columns, and spinning multiple columns simultaneously will facilitate parallel analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptide Hydrolases , Animals , Cattle , Glycosylation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Trastuzumab/metabolism , Digestion
9.
J Basic Microbiol ; 63(5): 519-529, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312806

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a member of pathogenic Betacoronaviruses that has been circulating for several decades in multiple host species. Given the similarity between BCoV and human coronaviruses, the current study aimed to review the complete genomes of 107 BCoV strains available on the GenBank database, collected between 1983 and 2017 from different countries. The maximum-likelihood based phylogenetic analysis revealed three main BCoV genogroups: GI, GII, and GIII. GI is further divided into nine subgenogroups: GI-a to GI-i. The GI-a to GI-d are restricted to Japan, and GI-e to GI-i to the USA. The evolutionary relationships were also inferred using phylogenetic network analysis, revealing two major distinct networks dominated by viruses identified in the USA and Japan, respectively. The USA strains-dominated Network Cluster includes two sub-branches: France/Germany and Japan/China in addition to the United States, while Japan strains-dominated Network Cluster is limited to Japan. Twelve recombination events were determined, including 11 intragenogroup (GI) and one intergenogroup (GII vs. GI-g). The breakpoints of the recombination events were mainly located in ORF1ab and the spike glycoprotein ORF. Interestingly, 10 of 12 recombination events occurred between Japan strains, one between the USA strains, and one from intercontinental recombination (Japan vs. USA). These findings suggest that geographical characteristics, and population density with closer contact, might significantly impact the BCoV infection and co-infection and boost the emergence of more complex virus lineages.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Phylogeny , Likelihood Functions , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Recombination, Genetic , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1233: 340492, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311851

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications. However, the characterizations of glycopeptides, especially the negatively charged sialoglycopeptides that are associated with various diseases, remain challenging, due to the co-existence with high abundant peptides and the low ionization efficiency of sialoglycopeptides resulting from the carboxyl groups. Therefore, it is essential to develop an efficient enrichment method for sialoglycopeptides. Here, we present a novel derivatization-based enrichment method that can (i) identify linkage isomers of sialic acids by generating mass difference, (ii) unify the net charge of peptides into zero, and (iii) introduce positive charges to sialoglycopeptides by conjugating quaternary ammonium with sialic acid. The derivatization, termed derivatization of sialylated glycopeptides plus (DOSG+), enables efficient enrichment through electrostatic interaction using weak cation exchange (WCX) media. DOSG+ -based WCX enrichment was validated and optimized with samples derived from bovine fetuin. Peptides were removed efficiently (recovery rate <1%). The signal intensity of a selected model sialoglycopeptide was increased by ∼30% (suggesting recovery rate >100%). The method was employed on human alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), and recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), demonstrating the application of DOSG+ -based WCX enrichment on complexed N-linked and O-linked sialoglycopeptides. The method is simple, efficient, and targets small-scale sialoglycopeptide enrichment.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Erythropoietin , Cattle , Animals , Humans , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Sialoglycoproteins/chemistry , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Sialic Acids , Peptides , Cations , Fetuins
11.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290490

ABSTRACT

Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae with a negative-sense, single-stranded segmented RNA genome. They infect a wide range of animals, including humans. From 1918 to 2009, there were four influenza pandemics, which caused millions of casualties. Frequent spillover of animal influenza viruses to humans with or without intermediate hosts poses a serious zoonotic and pandemic threat. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic overshadowed the high risk raised by animal influenza viruses, but highlighted the role of wildlife as a reservoir for pandemic viruses. In this review, we summarize the occurrence of animal influenza virus in humans and describe potential mixing vessel or intermediate hosts for zoonotic influenza viruses. While several animal influenza viruses possess a high zoonotic risk (e.g., avian and swine influenza viruses), others are of low to negligible zoonotic potential (e.g., equine, canine, bat and bovine influenza viruses). Transmission can occur directly from animals, particularly poultry and swine, to humans or through reassortant viruses in "mixing vessel" hosts. To date, there are less than 3000 confirmed human infections with avian-origin viruses and less than 7000 subclinical infections documented. Likewise, only a few hundreds of confirmed human cases caused by swine influenza viruses have been reported. Pigs are the historic mixing vessel host for the generation of zoonotic influenza viruses due to the expression of both avian-type and human-type receptors. Nevertheless, there are a number of hosts which carry both types of receptors and can act as a potential mixing vessel host. High vigilance is warranted to prevent the next pandemic caused by animal influenza viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Cattle , Horses , Humans , Swine , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza A virus/genetics , Birds
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 245: 114022, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the Netherlands, during the first phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, the hotspot of COVID-19 overlapped with the country's main livestock area, while in subsequent phases this distinct spatial pattern disappeared. Previous studies show that living near livestock farms influence human respiratory health and immunological responses. This study aimed to explore whether proximity to livestock was associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The study population was the population of the Netherlands excluding the very strongly urbanised areas and border areas, on January 1, 2019 (12, 628, 244 individuals). The cases are the individuals reported with a laboratory-confirmed positive SARS-CoV-2 test with onset before January 1, 2022 (2, 223, 692 individuals). For each individual, we calculated distance to nearest livestock farm (cattle, goat, sheep, pig, poultry, horse, rabbit, mink). The associations between residential (6-digit postal-code) distance to the nearest livestock farm and individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status was studied with multilevel logistic regression models. Models were adjusted for individuals' age categories, the social status of the postal code area, particulate matter (PM10)- and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-concentrations. We analysed data for the entire period and population as well as separately for eight time periods (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep and Oct-Dec in 2020 and 2021), four geographic areas of the Netherlands (north, east, west and south), and for five age categories (0-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64 and > 65 years). RESULTS: Over the period 2020-2021, individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status was associated with living closer to livestock farms. This association increased from an Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.02) for patients living at a distance of 751-1000 m to a farm to an OR of 1.04 (95% CI 1.04-1.04), 1.07 (95% CI 1.06-1.07) and 1.11 (95% CI 1.10-1.12) for patients living in the more proximate 501-750 m, 251-500m and 0-250 m zones around farms, all relative to patients living further than 1000 m around farms. This association was observed in three out of four quarters of the year in both 2020 and 2021, and in all studied geographic areas and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study with individual SARS-CoV-2 notification data and high-resolution spatial data associations were found between living near livestock farms and individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status in the Netherlands. Verification of the results in other countries is warranted, as well as investigations into possible underlying exposures and mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Livestock , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cattle , Farms , Horses , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Swine
14.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280802

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is one of the major viral pathogens of cattle, responsible for economic losses and causing a substantial impact on animal welfare. Several in vitro 2D models have been used to investigate BCoV infection and its pathogenesis. However, 3D enteroids are likely to be a better model with which to investigate host-pathogen interactions. This study established bovine enteroids as an in vitro replication system for BCoV, and we compared the expression of selected genes during the BCoV infection of the enteroids with the expression previously described in HCT-8 cells. The enteroids were successfully established from bovine ileum and permissive to BCoV, as shown by a seven-fold increase in viral RNA after 72 h. Immunostaining of differentiation markers showed a mixed population of differentiated cells. Gene expression ratios at 72 h showed that pro-inflammatory responses such as IL-8 and IL-1A remained unchanged in response to BCoV infection. Expression of other immune genes, including CXCL-3, MMP13, and TNF-α, was significantly downregulated. This study shows that the bovine enteroids had a differentiated cell population and were permissive to BCoV. Further studies are necessary for a comparative analysis to determine whether enteroids are suitable in vitro models to study host responses during BCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , Cattle , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Ileum
15.
C R Biol ; 345(3): 93-107, 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280287

ABSTRACT

Vaccination, the transmission of "vaccine", a benign disease of cows, to immunize human beings against smallpox, was invented by Jenner at the end of the eighteenth century. Pasteur, convinced that the vaccine microbe was an attenuated form of the smallpox microbe, showed that, similarly, attenuated forms of other microbes immunized against animal diseases. When applying this principle to rabies, he realized that, in this case, the vaccine was in fact composed of dead microbes. One of his students immediately exploited this result to devise a vaccine against typhoid. The vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus, in 1921, opened a new route, that of immunization with molecules from the pathogenic microbes. Molecular biology then allowed the production of the immunogenic molecules by microorganisms such as yeast, or immunization by genetically modified viruses or messenger RNA inducing our own cells to produce these molecules.


La vaccination, transmission de la vaccine, maladie bénigne des vaches, pour immuniser les humains contre la variole, a été inventée par Jenner à la fin du XVIII e siècle. Pasteur, convaincu que le microbe de la vaccine est une forme atténuée de celui de la variole, montre que des formes atténuées d'autres microbes immunisent des animaux contre des maladies. Lors de l'application à la rage, il comprend que la préparation vaccinale qu'il utilise dans ce cas est en fait constituée de microbes tués. Conclusion aussitôt exploitée par l'un de ses élèves dans la conception d'un vaccin contre la typhoïde. Les vaccins contre la diphtérie et le tétanos, en 1921, ouvrent une troisième voie, celle de l'immunisation par des molécules provenant des microbes pathogènes. La biologie moléculaire va permettre la production de ces molécules immunogènes par des micro-organismes tels que des levures, ou bien l'immunisation par des virus génétiquement modifiés ou par de l'ARN messager, conduisant nos propres cellules à produire ces molécules.


Subject(s)
Smallpox , Female , Male , Humans , Animals , Cattle , RNA, Messenger
16.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0282095, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cross-border use of health services is an important aspect of life in border regions. Little is known about the cross-border use of health services in neighboring low- and middle-income countries. Understanding use of health services in contexts of high cross-border mobility, such as at the Mexico-Guatemala border, is crucial for national health systems planning. This article aims to describe the characteristics of the cross-border use of health care services by transborder populations at the Mexico-Guatemala border, as well as the sociodemographic and health-related variables associated with use. METHODS: Between September-November 2021, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a probability (time-venue) sampling design at the Mexico-Guatemala border. We conducted a descriptive analysis of cross-border use of health services and assessed the association of use with sociodemographic and mobility characteristics by means of logistic regressions. RESULTS: A total of 6,991 participants were included in this analysis; 82.9% were Guatemalans living in Guatemala, 9.2% were Guatemalans living in Mexico, 7.8% were Mexicans living in Mexico, and 0.16% were Mexicans living in Guatemala. 2.6% of all participants reported having a health problem in the past two weeks, of whom 58.1% received care. Guatemalans living in Guatemala were the only group reporting cross-border use of health services. In multivariate analyses, Guatemalans living in Guatemala working in Mexico (compared to not working in Mexico) (OR 3.45; 95% CI 1.02,11.65), and working in agriculture/cattle, industry, or construction while in Mexico (compared to working in other sectors) (OR 26.67; 95% CI 1.97,360.85), were associated with cross-border use. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-border use of health services in this region is related to transborder work (i.e., circumstantial use of cross-border health services). This points to the importance of considering the health needs of migrant workers in Mexican health policies and developing strategies to facilitate and increase their access to health services.


Subject(s)
Health Services , Transients and Migrants , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Mexico , Guatemala , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility
17.
Braz J Microbiol ; 54(2): 965-973, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278248

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology has been described as a valuable tool for monitoring the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a community. However, there is no consensus on the best concentration method to allow reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 in this matrix, considering different laboratory facilities. This study compares two viral concentration methods, ultracentrifugation (ULT) and skimmed-milk flocculation (SMF), for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater samples. The analytical sensitivity (limits of detection and quantification [LoD/LoQ]) of both methods was evaluated using a bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) as a surrogate. Three different approaches were conducted to establish LoD of each method based on the assays on the standard curve (ALoDsc), on the dilution of internal control (ALoDiC), and the processing steps (PLoD). For PLoD, ULT method had the lowest value (1.86 × 103 genome copy/microliter [GC/µL]) when compared to the SMF method (1.26 × 107 GC/µL). The LoQ determination showed a mean value of 1.55 × 105 GC/µL and 3.56 × 108 GC/µL to ULT and SMF, respectively. The detection of SARSCoV-2 in naturally contaminated wastewater revealed 100% (12/12) and 25% (3/12) of detection using ULT and SMF with quantification ranging from 5.2 to 7.2 log10 genome copy/liter (GC/L) and 5.06 to 5.46 log10 GC/L, respectively. The detection success rate of BRSV used as an internal control process was 100% (12/12) for ULT and 67% (8/12) for SMF, with an efficiency recovery rate ranging from 12 to 38% and 0.1 to 5%, respectively. Our data consolidates the importance of assessing the methods used; however, further analysis should be carried out to improve low-cost concentration methodologies, essential for use in low-income and developing countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Animals , Cattle , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Wastewater , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral
18.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261094

ABSTRACT

Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) are associated with various predisposing factors, such as physical and physiological stress factors, and bacterial and viral pathogens. These stressors and viruses suppress immune defenses, leading to bacterial growth in the upper respiratory tract and invasion of pathogens into the lower respiratory tract. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the causative pathogens would contribute to the early detection of BRD. Nasal swabs and sera from 63 clinically healthy calves were continuously collected from seven farms in Iwate prefecture from 2019 to 2021. We attempted to monitor dynamics of BRD-associated pathogens by multiplex real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) using their nasal swab samples. In addition, we attempted to monitor fluctuation of antibody titers against each BRD-associated pathogen by virus neutralization test (VNT) using their sera. In contrast, nasal swabs from 89 calves infected with BRD were collected from 28 farms in Iwate prefecture from 2019 to 2021. We attempted to analyze their nasal swab samples by multiplex RT-qPCR aim to detect BRD-associated pathogens that are dominant in this region. As a result, our analyses using samples from clinically healthy calves showed that positive results by multiplex RT-qPCR were closely related to a significant increase of antibody titers by VNT in bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine torovirus (BToV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). In addition, our data exhibited that BCoV, BToV, BRSV, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, and Mycoplasma bovis have been more frequently detected in calves infected with BRD compared to those detected in clinically healthy calves. Moreover, the data presented herein revealed co-infections by combination multiple viral pathogens with bacterial pathogens are closely involved in the onset of BRD. Taken together, our study demonstrates multiplex RT-qPCR which can simultaneously analyze multiple pathogens, including viruses and bacteria, and is useful for the early detection of BRD.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus, Bovine , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Nose , Trachea
19.
Can Vet J ; 64(4): 337-343, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258154

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine if bovine colostrum and sera have antibodies that react with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Animals: Dairy and beef cattle from North America and Europe, sampled before and after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Procedures: Indirect ELISAs using whole bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and SARS-CoV-2; whole SARS-CoV-2 Spike 1, Spike 2, and nucleocapsid proteins; and SARS-CoV-2-specific nucleocapsid peptide as antigens. Virus neutralization assay for BCoV. Surrogate virus neutralization assay for SARS-CoV-2. Results: Antibodies reactive to BCoV were highly prevalent in samples collected from cattle before and after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Antibodies reactive with SARS-CoV-2 were present in the same samples, and apparently increased in prevalence after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. These antibodies had variable reactivity with the spike and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 but were apparently not specific for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: Bovine coronavirus continues to be endemic in cattle populations, as indicated by the high prevalence of antibodies to the virus in colostrum and serum samples. Also, the prevalent antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in bovine samples, before and after the pandemic, are likely the result of responses to epitopes on the spike and nucleocapsid proteins that are shared between the 2 betacoronaviruses. Cross-reactive antibodies in bovine colostrum could be examined for prophylactic or therapeutic effects on SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans.


Anticorps réactifs au coronavirus du SRAS 2 dans le colostrum bovin. Objectif: Déterminer si le colostrum et des échantillons de sérum bovins contiennent des anticorps qui réagissent avec le coronavirus 2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS-CoV-2). Animaux: Bovins laitiers et bovins de boucherie d'Amérique du Nord et d'Europe, échantillonnés avant et après la pandémie de SARS-CoV-2. Procédures: Épreuves ELISA indirectes utilisant le coronavirus bovin entier (BCoV) et le SARS-CoV-2; ensemble des protéines SARS-CoV-2 Spicule 1, Spicule 2 et nucléocapside; et le peptide de nucléocapside spécifique du SARS-CoV-2 comme antigènes. Test de neutralisation du virus pour le BCoV. Virus de substitution pour le test de neutralisation du SRAS-CoV-2. Résultats: Les anticorps réactifs au BCoV étaient très répandus dans les échantillons prélevés sur les bovins avant et après la pandémie de SRAS-CoV-2. Des anticorps réactifs au SRAS-CoV-2 étaient présents dans les mêmes échantillons et leur prévalence a apparemment augmenté après la pandémie de SRAS-CoV-2. Ces anticorps avaient une réactivité variable avec les protéines de spicule et de nucléocapside du SARS-CoV-2 mais n'étaient apparemment pas spécifiques du SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: Le coronavirus bovin continue d'être endémique dans les populations bovines, comme l'indique la forte prévalence d'anticorps dirigés contre le virus dans les échantillons de colostrum et de sérum. De plus, les anticorps prévalents contre le SRAS-CoV-2 dans les échantillons de bovins, avant et après la pandémie, sont probablement le résultat de réponses à des épitopes sur les protéines de spicule et de nucléocapside qui sont partagées entre les 2 bêtacoronavirus. Les anticorps à réaction croisée dans le colostrum bovin pourraient être examinés pour leurs effets prophylactiques ou thérapeutiques sur les infections par le SRAS-CoV-2 chez l'humain.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Animals , Cattle , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/veterinary , Colostrum , Antibodies, Viral , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254740

ABSTRACT

Classified as a class B infectious disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease is an acute, highly contagious disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Sporadic endemics of BVDV often lead to huge economic losses to the dairy and beef industries. To shed light on the prevention and control of BVDV, we developed two novel subunit vaccines by expressing bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 fusion recombinant proteins (E2Fc and E2Ft) through suspended HEK293 cells. We also evaluated the immune effects of the vaccines. The results showed that both subunit vaccines induced an intense mucosal immune response in calves. Mechanistically, E2Fc bonded to the Fc γ receptor (FcγRI) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and promoted IgA secretion, leading to a stronger T-cell immune response (Th1 type). The neutralizing antibody titer stimulated by the mucosal-immunized E2Fc subunit vaccine reached 1:64, which was higher than that of the E2Ft subunit vaccine and that of the intramuscular inactivated vaccine. The two novel subunit vaccines for mucosal immunity developed in this study, E2Fc and E2Ft, can be further used as new strategies to control BVDV by enhancing cellular and humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral , Immunity, Mucosal , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Diarrhea , HEK293 Cells , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Hemorrhagic Syndrome, Bovine/prevention & control
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