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1.
Revista Uruguaya de Psicoanálisis ; n. 81: p. 31-64, 1995.
Article in Spanish | Bivipsil | ID: psa-17315

ABSTRACT

A partir del célebre "Un recuerdo encubridor" de Freud, intentamos realizar un análisis peirceano del mismo, para abordar luego, una discusión sobre los conceptos de determinación, sobredeterminación, determinismo, y determinabilidad. Semiótica y psicoanálisis se acercan así en un esfuerzo de traducción mutua. Recuerdo, sueño, sublimación adquieren un nuevo significado, más complejo, y otro tanto ocurre con nociones claves de la teoría semiótica, como el objeto y el interpretante. Con esto ambas disciplinas abordan uno de los problemas cruciales del pensamiento contemporáneo como es el de la incertidumbre.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalytic Theory , AREAS TEMATICAS AFINES , Causality , Signs in Homeopathy , Philosophy
2.
3.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med ; 12(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580080

ABSTRACT

The set of methods discussed in this collection has emerged from the convergence of two scientific fields-genetics and causal inference. In this introduction, we discuss relevant aspects of each field and show how their convergence arises from the natural experiments that genetics offer. We present introductory concepts useful to readers unfamiliar with genetically informed methods for causal inference. We conclude that existing applications and foreseeable developments should ensure that we rapidly reap the rewards of this relatively new field, not only in terms of our understanding of human disease and development, but also in terms of tangible translational applications.


Subject(s)
Causality , Humans
4.
Epidemiology ; 34(2): 186-191, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722800

ABSTRACT

In a seminal paper, Hernán et al. 2004 provided a systematic classification of selection biases, for scenarios where the selection is a collider between the exposure and the outcome. Hernán 2017 discussed another scenario, where the selection is statistically independent of the exposure, but associated with the outcome through common causes. In this note, we extend the discussion to scenarios where the selection is directly influenced by the outcome, but not by the exposure. We discuss whether these types of outcome-dependent selections preserve the sharp causal null hypothesis, and whether or not they allow for estimation of causal effects in the selected sample and/or in the source population.


Subject(s)
Selection Bias , Humans , Epidemiology , Causality
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14595, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718446

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Epidemiological studies report associations between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and periodontitis; however, causality has not been proven. The aim of this study is to assess the associations between COVID-19 susceptibility and periodontitis with two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. Methods: A two-sample summary MR analysis was performed using data for outcome and exposure from the OpenGWAS database on people of European descent. Periodontal complex traits (PCTs) were chosen as a proxy for the periodontitis phenotype. The causal association between PCT3 (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans), PCT5 (Porphyromonas gingivalis), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and COVID-19 were considered. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data with the two largest sample sizes were selected as COVID-19 outcomes (datasets ebi-a-GCST010776 and ebi-a-GCST010777). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCT3, PCT5, and GCF IL-1ß at statistical significance at genome-wide level (P < 5 × 10-8) were identified as genetic instruments. We used two-sample summary MR methods and tested the existence of a pleiotropic effect with MR-Egger. Results: Inverse-variance weighted (IVW) estimates showed that there was a positive association between COVID-19 risk and periodontitis (ebi-a-GCST010776: odds ratio [OR] = 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.05), P = 0.0171; ebi-a-GCST010777: OR = 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05), P = 0.0397). The weighted median also showed directionally similar estimates. Exploration of the causal associations between other PCTs and COVID-19 identified a slight effect of local inflammatory response (GCF IL-1ß) on COVID-19 risk across the two datasets (ebi-a-GCST010776: IVW OR = 1.02 (95% CI, [1.01-1.03]), P < 0.001; ebi-a-GCST010777: IVW OR = 1.03 (95% CI, [1.02-1.04]), P < 0.001). The intercepts of MR-Egger yielded no proof for significant directional pleiotropy for either dataset (ebi-a-GCST010776: P = 0.7660; ebi-a-GCST010777: P = 0.6017). Conclusions: The findings suggests that periodontitis and the higher GCF IL-1ß levels is causally related to increase susceptibility of COVID-19. However, given the limitations of our study, the well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm its findings, which may represent a new non-pharmaceutical intervention for preventing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Periodontitis , Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Causality
6.
PeerJ ; 11: e14781, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710862

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aim to test whether body mass index (BMI) is causally associated with the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Methods: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with four BMI-related traits were screened via a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 681,275, 336,107, 454,884, and 461,460 European-descent individuals, respectively. Summary-level data for BCC (17,416 cases and 375,455 controls) were extracted from UK Biobank. An inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was employed as the primary MR analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted via MR-Egger regression, heterogeneity test, pleiotropy test, and leave-one-out sensitivity test. The assumption that exposure causes outcome was verified using the MR Steiger test. Meta-analysis was also used to estimate the average genetically predicted effect of BMI on BCC. Results: Two-sample MR analysis showed inverse associations between genetically predicted BMI and BCC risk. Moreover, when exposure and outcome were switched to see if reverse causation was possible, there was no evidence of a cause-and-effect relationship from BCC to BMI. Finally, the meta-analysis also showed a strong negative causal relationship between BMI and BCC. Conclusion: Genetical predicted higher BMI were associated with lower BCC risk. Further research is required to comprehend the mechanisms underlying this putative causative association.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Body Mass Index , Causality , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/epidemiology
7.
Avian Dis ; 66(4): 410-417, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715472

ABSTRACT

The ban of effective feed additives and therapeutics in the European Union and in other parts of the world led to a dramatic increase of histomonosis in turkeys. Despite the impact of the disease on the health and welfare of poultry, many questions remain open regarding the epidemiology of the pathogen. In this study, we retrospectively monitored a farm with recurring cases of histomonosis to identify possible routes of pathogen introduction and predisposing factors that may influence the disease development. We included 32 consecutive turkey flocks, which were fattened between 2007 and 2021 on the same farm under the same management and housing conditions. During this period, Histomonas meleagridis was detected in eight flocks of toms and four flocks of hens with a high variability in disease development. Outbreaks in toms led to significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher mortality rates (5.3%-98.3%) than in hens (2.6%-6.1%). Most of the outbreaks (9/12) were diagnosed between June and September with a peak in August, suggesting a possible impact of higher temperatures either on the host or on the pathogen and pathogen-transmitting vectors. Further investigation is necessary to determine why hens might cope better with histomonosis than toms. Continuous flock and hygiene management is important to prevent an introduction of the causative pathogen and to control potential vectors.


Investigaciones retrospectivas de histomoniasis recurrente en una granja de pavos. La prohibición de aditivos alimentarios y productos terapéuticos efectivos en la Unión Europea y en otras partes del mundo condujo a un aumento dramático de histomoniasis en pavos. A pesar del impacto de la enfermedad en la salud y el bienestar de las aves, quedan muchas interrogantes abiertas con respecto a la epidemiología del patógeno. En este estudio, se monitoreó retrospectivamente una granja con casos recurrentes de histomoniasis para identificar posibles rutas de introducción de patógenos y factores predisponentes que puedan influir en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Se incluyeron 32 lotes de pavos consecutivos, que fueron engordados entre 2007 y 2021 en la misma granja bajo las mismas condiciones de manejo y alojamiento. Durante este período, se detectó Histomonas meleagridis en ocho parvadas de machos y cuatro parvadas de gallinas con una alta variabilidad en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Los brotes en machos llevaron a tasas de mortalidad significativamente más altas (P ≤ 0.05) (5.3 %­ - 98.3 %) que en gallinas (2.6 %­ - 6.1 %). La mayoría de los brotes (9/12) se diagnosticaron entre junio y septiembre con un pico en agosto, lo que sugiere un posible impacto de las temperaturas más altas sobre el huésped o en el patógeno y los vectores transmisores del patógeno. Se necesita más investigación para determinar por qué las gallinas pueden sobrellevar mejor la histomoniasis que los machos. El manejo continuo de la parvada y la higiene es importante para prevenir la introducción del patógeno causante y controlar a los vectores potenciales.


Subject(s)
Poultry Diseases , Protozoan Infections, Animal , Protozoan Infections , Animals , Female , Turkeys , Retrospective Studies , Chickens , Farms , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Causality
8.
Acta Biotheor ; 71(1): 6, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715846

ABSTRACT

In this article we analyse the issue of what accounts for developmental potential, i.e., the possible phenotypes a developing organism can manifest during ontogeny. We shall argue in favour of two theses. First, although the developing organism is the unit of development, the complete causal basis for its potential to develop does neither lie entirely in itself as a whole nor in any specific part of itself (such as its genome). Thus, the extra-organismal environment must be counted as one of the three necessary, partial and complementary causal bases for development potential. Secondly, we shall defend a constructivist view of the developmental process. If the genome, the developing organism and the extra-organismal environment are to be counted as proper elements of the causal basis for an organism's developmental potential, the latter is not a given. Rather, it is the result of an interaction-based construction, a process sometimes generating genuine developmental novelty. We will thus argue for an interactionist multi-causal basis view of developmental potential construction. We contend that our view provides a biologically tenable and metaphysically coherent account of developmental dynamics.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Animals , Phenotype , Causality
9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279198, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We believe that there is a causal relationship between waist circumference and knee osteoarthritis. To confirm the hypothesis, we have conducted this study. METHODS: Genetic variants associated with the five anthropometric variables were obtained from previous large-scale genomewide association studies. Summary-level data on osteoarthritis were obtained from the UK Biobank. The univariable and multivariable MR framework were used to evaluate the associations. The two-sided p value was considered to be statistically significant at 0.01 (where p = 0.05/5) after Bonferroni correction for the five exposure variables. RESULTS: In the univariable MR, there was evidence of a detrimental effect of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference on osteoarthritis risk in the main IVW analyses (height: OR 1.115, 95% CI 1.054-1.180; weight: OR 1.765, 95% CI 1.650-1.889; BMI: OR 1.952, 95%CI 1.841-2.068; waist circumference: OR 2.140, 95% CI 1.994-2.296; hip circumference: OR 1.719, 95% CI 1.600-1.846). And the analyses on knee osteoarthritis and hip osteoarthritis yielded similar results. However, the multivariable MR showed that only waist circumference was causally associated with osteoarthritis, after adjusting for the confounding exposure effects (waist circumference: OR 1.877, 95% CI 1.286-2.739). Such association was also repeated in the analyses on knee osteoarthritis but not hip osteoarthritis. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted the causal associations between waist circumference and knee osteoarthritis risk.


Subject(s)
Osteoarthritis, Hip , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Humans , Osteoarthritis, Knee/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Body Mass Index , Waist Circumference , Causality , Osteoarthritis, Hip/genetics , Osteoarthritis, Hip/complications , Genome-Wide Association Study , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
11.
Elife ; 122023 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705323

ABSTRACT

Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the industrialised world and is projected to affect >280 million people worldwide by 2040. Aiming to identify causal factors and potential therapeutic targets for this common condition, we designed and undertook a phenome-wide Mendelian randomisation (MR) study. Methods: We evaluated the effect of 4591 exposure traits on early AMD using univariable MR. Statistically significant results were explored further using: validation in an advanced AMD cohort; MR Bayesian model averaging (MR-BMA); and multivariable MR. Results: Overall, 44 traits were found to be putatively causal for early AMD in univariable analysis. Serum proteins that were found to have significant relationships with AMD included S100-A5 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.07, p-value = 6.80E-06), cathepsin F (OR = 1.10, p-value = 7.16E-05), and serine palmitoyltransferase 2 (OR = 0.86, p-value = 1.00E-03). Univariable MR analysis also supported roles for complement and immune cell traits. Although numerous lipid traits were found to be significantly related to AMD, MR-BMA suggested a driving causal role for serum sphingomyelin (marginal inclusion probability [MIP] = 0.76; model-averaged causal estimate [MACE] = 0.29). Conclusions: The results of this MR study support several putative causal factors for AMD and highlight avenues for future translational research. Funding: This project was funded by the Wellcome Trust (224643/Z/21/Z; 200990/Z/16/Z); the University of Manchester's Wellcome Institutional Strategic Support Fund (Wellcome ISSF) grant (204796/Z/16/Z); the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Academic Clinical Fellow and Clinical Lecturer Programmes; Retina UK and Fight for Sight (GR586); the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (1150144).


Subject(s)
Macular Degeneration , Humans , Risk Factors , Bayes Theorem , Australia , Macular Degeneration/genetics , Causality , Genome-Wide Association Study , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
12.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(6): 751-764, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700670

ABSTRACT

Periprocedural cerebral microembolization is the most important complication of carotid artery stenting. Among several variables that play a role to reduce this risk, brain protection (proximal vs. distal) plays a pivot role. Data are accumulating in favor of a better performance of proximal vs. distal especially in symptomatic patients and high-risk carotid plaques. A prerequisite for the technique to be safe and effective is the presence of a valid intracranial collateral circulation to compensate for the target vessel hemisphere avoiding patient intolerance. This complication may occur either soon after the common carotid balloon occlusion or slowly developing during the procedure peaking at the stent post-dilation step. While Willis' circle anatomic variants are the most frequent cause of acute intolerance, a mix of anatomic, hemodynamic and patient cerebral condition play a role for the late developing form. Prevention is the best treatment of intolerance through a pre- and procedural imaging with different techniques (CT angiography, NMR angiography, transcranial Doppler assessment, digital subtraction angiography and back pressure monitoring).


Subject(s)
Carotid Stenosis , Humans , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Stents/adverse effects , Carotid Artery, Internal , Causality , Angiography, Digital Subtraction
13.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278716, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701291

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to explore the causal relationship between the economy and the elderly population globally as well as continent-wise. This research was designed as a continent-wide study to investigate the differences between several regions simultaneously. The economy was measured by the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita growth rate while the population aged above 65 as a percentage of the total was considered the elderly population. A panel dataset published by the World Bank for a period of six decades from 1961 to 2020 covering 84 countries was used as data for the analysis. Wavelet coherence was the methodology used for the study since it was considered suitable to present causality as well as the causal direction between the two variables for different sections during the six decades. Thereafter, Granger causality was applied for a cross-country analysis to gain further insights on the causality of individual countries over the years. Findings of the study reveal that the causality and its direction have been changing over time for most continents. Negative correlations with the leading variable interchanging with time are evident for the majority of the regions. Nevertheless, results indicate that in a global perspective, elderly population predominantly leads the economic growth with a positive correlation. Research approach allows ascertaining the short-term and medium-term changes that occurred concerning the direction of the relationship throughout the stipulated period of the study, which could not be drawn by any previous study. Even though region-wise literature is available on this topic, global studies for decades have not been conducted yet.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Economic Development , Humans , Aged , Gross Domestic Product , Causality
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1061766, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36686483

ABSTRACT

Implantation is the first step in human reproduction. Successful implantation depends on the crosstalk between embryo and endometrium. Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is a clinical phenomenon characterized by a lack of implantation after the transfer of several embryos and disturbs approximately 10% couples undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Despite increasing literature on RIF, there is still no widely accepted definition or standard protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of RIF. Progress in predicting and preventing RIF has been hampered by a lack of widely accepted definitions. Most couples with RIF can become pregnant after clinical intervention. The prognosis for couples with RIF is related to maternal age. RIF can be caused by immunology, thrombophilias, endometrial receptivity, microbiome, anatomical abnormalities, male factors, and embryo aneuploidy. It is important to determine the most possible etiologies, and individualized treatment aimed at the primary cause seems to be an effective method for increasing the implantation rate. Couples with RIF require psychological support and appropriate clinical intervention. Further studies are required to evaluate diagnostic method and he effectiveness of each therapy, and guide clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Embryo Implantation , Embryo Transfer , Pregnancy , Female , Male , Humans , Embryo Transfer/methods , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Endometrium , Causality
15.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 154, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690962

ABSTRACT

This study examines the effects of long-run civil wars on healthcare, which is an important component of human capital development and their causality nexus in Afghanistan using the MVAR (modified vector autoregressive) approach and the Granger non-causality model covering data period 2002Q3-2020Q4. The primary results support a significant long-run relationship between variables, while the results of the MVAR model indicate the per capita cost of war, per capita GDP, and age dependency ratio have significantly positive impacts on per capita health expenditures, whereas child mortality rate and crude death rate have negative impacts. The results of the Granger non-causality approach demonstrate that there is a statistically significant bidirectional causality nexus between per capita health expenditure, per capita cost of war, per capita GDP, child mortality rate, crude death rate, and age dependency ratio, while it also supports the existence of strong and significant interconnectivity and multidimensionality between per capita cost of war and per capita health expenditure, with a significantly strong feedback response from the control variables. Important policy implications sourced from the key findings are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality , Health Expenditures , Child , Humans , Afghanistan , Causality , Armed Conflicts
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(2)2023 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673796

ABSTRACT

Cancer is one of the longest-known human diseases, yet only in recent times have we begun to perceive that the percentage of neoplasms caused by environmental factors, lifestyle and chemicals, is likely underestimated. The first medical reports associating cancer with pollutants like tars appeared by the early 20th century, but despite initial evidence relating oncogenesis and chromosomal alterations, only after the structure of DNA had been elucidated in the 1950s have genetic disorders been fully perceived as cause. This led to a growing interest in genotoxic and mutagenic pollutants. Even though we are now familiar with a range of environmental carcinogens spanning between aromatic hydrocarbons and asbestos to radionuclides and forms of carbon nanomaterials, establishing causal networks between pollutants and cancer remains cumbersome. In most part, this is due to the complexity of toxicant matrices, unknown modes-of-action of chemicals or their mixtures, the widening array of novel pollutants plus difficulties in subtracting background effects from true aetiology of disease. Recent advances in analytical chemistry, high-throughput toxicology, next-generation sequencing, computational biology and databases that allocate whole normal and cancer genomes, all indicate that we are on the verge of a new age of research into mechanistic 'oncotoxicology', but how can it impact risk assessment and prevention?


Subject(s)
Carcinogens, Environmental , Environmental Pollutants , Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinogens/toxicity , Mutagens/toxicity , Neoplasms/chemically induced , Neoplasms/genetics , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Carcinogens, Environmental/toxicity , Causality
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672952

ABSTRACT

The summary-data-based Mendelian randomization (SMR) method is gaining popularity in estimating the causal effect of an exposure on an outcome. In practice, the instrument SNP is often selected from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) on the exposure but no correction is made for such selection in downstream analysis, leading to a biased estimate of the effect size and invalid inference. We address this issue by using the likelihood derived from the sampling distribution of the estimated SNP effects in the exposure GWAS and the outcome GWAS. This likelihood takes into account how the instrument SNPs are selected. Since the effective sample size is 1, the asymptotic theory does not apply. We use a support for a profile likelihood as an interval estimate of the causal effect. Simulation studies indicate that this support has robust coverage while the confidence interval implied by the SMR method has lower-than-nominal coverage. Furthermore, the variance of the two-stage least squares estimate of the causal effect is shown to be the same as the variance used for SMR for one-sample data when there is no selection.


Subject(s)
Genome-Wide Association Study , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , Causality , Computer Simulation , Sample Size
19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(10): 2119-2120, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661013

ABSTRACT

Syndromic obesity is sometimes encountered in clinical practice, but may often be misdiagnosed. This is more often seen in the south Asian region due to higher rates of consanguinity. This article simplifies the clinical features which should prompt a high index of clinical suspicion, and ensure a detailed assessment for syndromic obesity including a genetic test. This manuscript lists various aspects of history and physical examination in an alliterative manner.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Pediatric Obesity , Humans , Obesity/diagnosis , Genetic Testing , Causality , Consanguinity , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
20.
Lima; Perú. Organismo Andino de Salud. Convenio Hipólito Unanue ORAS-CONHU; 1 ed; Feb. 2022. 122 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1412685

ABSTRACT

En la presente publicación se debe remarcar que la causa principal de la doble carga de malnutrición en los niños en los Países Andinos, es la inadecuada alimentación, baja calidad nutricional en la dieta, lo cual está relacionado con las prácticas como la lactancia materna exclusiva durante los primeros 6 meses, el uso de sucedáneos a la leche materna, alimentación complementaria inadecuada, el predominio de ingesta de alimentos altamente procesados y pobre consumo de alimentos como frutas, verduras, huevos, leche, pescado, carne. Todos estos cambios en la calidad de la alimentación, ha sido fuertemente influenciada y desarrollada en los últimos años, por la globalización, urbanización, desigualdad y cambio climático, que impacta negativamente en el estado nutricional de los niños en todo el mundo y en sus hábitos en actividad física, lo cual incrementa de forma importante los niveles de sedentarismo. Con la finalidad de que los Países Andinos puedan avanzar hacia el logro de las metas de la Agenda 2030, es necesario que aborden la problemática, para la prevención de la obesidad, diseñando e implementando políticas integrales con un enfoque multisectorial desde la atención primaria de la salud, la promoción de la lactancia materna y la alimentación saludable. Además, se requiere mejorar el entorno nutricional y la actividad física en las Instituciones Educativas; es urgente establecer políticas fiscales y reglamentación más estricta de la publicidad de los alimentos; las medidas intersectoriales público/privado, incremento de espacios urbanos para la actividad física y disponibilidad y acceso a alimentos nutritivos, entre otros


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Climate Change , Nutritional Status , Causality , Malnutrition , Overweight , Sedentary Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Sustainable Development , COVID-19 , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Obesity
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