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1.
Lancet ; 398(10311): 1593-1618, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Documentation of patterns and long-term trends in mortality in young people, which reflect huge changes in demographic and social determinants of adolescent health, enables identification of global investment priorities for this age group. We aimed to analyse data on the number of deaths, years of life lost, and mortality rates by sex and age group in people aged 10-24 years in 204 countries and territories from 1950 to 2019 by use of estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. METHODS: We report trends in estimated total numbers of deaths and mortality rate per 100 000 population in young people aged 10-24 years by age group (10-14 years, 15-19 years, and 20-24 years) and sex in 204 countries and territories between 1950 and 2019 for all causes, and between 1980 and 2019 by cause of death. We analyse variation in outcomes by region, age group, and sex, and compare annual rate of change in mortality in young people aged 10-24 years with that in children aged 0-9 years from 1990 to 2019. We then analyse the association between mortality in people aged 10-24 years and socioeconomic development using the GBD Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite measure based on average national educational attainment in people older than 15 years, total fertility rate in people younger than 25 years, and income per capita. We assess the association between SDI and all-cause mortality in 2019, and analyse the ratio of observed to expected mortality by SDI using the most recent available data release (2017). FINDINGS: In 2019 there were 1·49 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 1·39-1·59) worldwide in people aged 10-24 years, of which 61% occurred in males. 32·7% of all adolescent deaths were due to transport injuries, unintentional injuries, or interpersonal violence and conflict; 32·1% were due to communicable, nutritional, or maternal causes; 27·0% were due to non-communicable diseases; and 8·2% were due to self-harm. Since 1950, deaths in this age group decreased by 30·0% in females and 15·3% in males, and sex-based differences in mortality rate have widened in most regions of the world. Geographical variation has also increased, particularly in people aged 10-14 years. Since 1980, communicable and maternal causes of death have decreased sharply as a proportion of total deaths in most GBD super-regions, but remain some of the most common causes in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, where more than half of all adolescent deaths occur. Annual percentage decrease in all-cause mortality rate since 1990 in adolescents aged 15-19 years was 1·3% in males and 1·6% in females, almost half that of males aged 1-4 years (2·4%), and around a third less than in females aged 1-4 years (2·5%). The proportion of global deaths in people aged 0-24 years that occurred in people aged 10-24 years more than doubled between 1950 and 2019, from 9·5% to 21·6%. INTERPRETATION: Variation in adolescent mortality between countries and by sex is widening, driven by poor progress in reducing deaths in males and older adolescents. Improving global adolescent mortality will require action to address the specific vulnerabilities of this age group, which are being overlooked. Furthermore, indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to jeopardise efforts to improve health outcomes including mortality in young people aged 10-24 years. There is an urgent need to respond to the changing global burden of adolescent mortality, address inequities where they occur, and improve the availability and quality of primary mortality data in this age group. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death/trends , Global Burden of Disease , Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1901772, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440845

ABSTRACT

Background: Although vaccine rollout for COVID-19 has been effective in some countries, there is still an urgent need to reduce disease transmission and severity. We recently carried out a meta-analysis and found that pre- and in-hospital use of statins may improve COVID-19 mortality outcomes. Here, we provide an updated meta-analysis in an attempt to validate these results and increase the statistical power of these potentially important findings. Methods: The meta-analysis investigated the effect of observational and randomized clinical studies on intensive care unit (ICU) admission, tracheal intubation, and death outcomes in COVID-19 cases involving statin treatment, by searching the scientific literature up to April 23, 2021. Statistical analysis and random effect modeling were performed to assess the combined effects of the updated and previous findings on the outcome measures. Findings. The updated literature search led to the identification of 23 additional studies on statin use in COVID-19 patients. Analysis of the combined studies (n = 47; 3,238,508 subjects) showed no significant effect of statin treatment on ICU admission and all-cause mortality but a significant reduction in tracheal intubation (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99, p = 0.04, n = 10 studies). The further analysis showed that death outcomes were significantly reduced in the patients who received statins during hospitalization (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.50-0.58, p < 0.001, n = 7 studies), with no such effect of statin therapy before hospital admission (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37, p = 0.670, n = 29 studies). Conclusion: Taken together, this updated meta-analysis extends and confirms the findings of our previous study, suggesting that in-hospital statin use leads to significant reduction of all-cause mortality in COVID-19 cases. Considering these results, statin therapy during hospitalization, while indicated, should be recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
3.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 870-905, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival. METHODS: We completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index. FINDINGS: Global U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3-74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2-41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8-29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3-19·8) in 2019. In 2019, 136 (67%) of 204 countries had a U5MR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold and 133 (65%) had an NMR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold, and the reference scenario suggests that by 2030, 154 (75%) of all countries could meet the U5MR targets, and 139 (68%) could meet the NMR targets. Deaths of children younger than 5 years totalled 9·65 million (95% UI 9·05-10·30) in 2000 and 5·05 million (4·27-6·02) in 2019, with the neonatal fraction of these deaths increasing from 39% (3·76 million [95% UI 3·53-4·02]) in 2000 to 48% (2·42 million; 2·06-2·86) in 2019. NMR and U5MR were generally higher in males than in females, although there was no statistically significant difference at the global level. Neonatal disorders remained the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in 2019, followed by lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, congenital birth defects, and malaria. The global optimum analysis suggests NMR could be reduced to as low as 0·80 (95% UI 0·71-0·86) deaths per 1000 livebirths and U5MR to 1·44 (95% UI 1·27-1·58) deaths per 1000 livebirths, and in 2019, there were as many as 1·87 million (95% UI 1·35-2·58; 37% [95% UI 32-43]) of 5·05 million more deaths of children younger than 5 years than the survival potential frontier. INTERPRETATION: Global child mortality declined by almost half between 2000 and 2019, but progress remains slower in neonates and 65 (32%) of 204 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are not on track to meet either SDG 3.2 target by 2030. Focused improvements in perinatal and newborn care, continued and expanded delivery of essential interventions such as vaccination and infection prevention, an enhanced focus on equity, continued focus on poverty reduction and education, and investment in strengthening health systems across the development spectrum have the potential to substantially improve U5MR. Given the widespread effects of COVID-19, considerable effort will be required to maintain and accelerate progress. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality/trends , Global Health/trends , Infant Mortality/trends , Sustainable Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Life Tables , Male , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S2): S141-S148, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of population-level US mortality data in the US Census Bureau Numerical Identification file (Numident) and describe the details of the mortality information as well as the novel person-level linkages available when using the Census Numident. METHODS: We compared all-cause mortality in the Census Numident to published vital statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We provide detailed information on the linkage of the Census Numident to other Census Bureau survey, administrative, and economic data. RESULTS: Death counts in the Census Numident are similar to those from published mortality vital statistics. Yearly comparisons show that the Census Numident captures more deaths since 1997, and coverage is slightly lower going back in time. Weekly estimates show similar trends from both data sets. CONCLUSIONS: The Census Numident is a high-quality and timely source of data to study all-cause mortality. The Census Bureau makes available a vast and rich set of restricted-use, individual-level data linked to the Census Numident for researchers to use. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: The Census Numident linked to data available from the Census Bureau provides infrastructure for doing evidence-based public health policy research on mortality.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death/trends , Censuses , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./statistics & numerical data , Data Collection/methods , Data Collection/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Vital Statistics , Forecasting , Humans , United States
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105985, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294009

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic has forced important changes in health care worldwide. Stroke care networks have been affected, especially during peak periods. We assessed the impact of the pandemic and lockdowns in stroke admissions and care in Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multinational study (7 countries, 18 centers) of patients admitted during the pandemic outbreak (March-June 2020). Comparisons were made with the same period in 2019. Numbers of cases, stroke etiology and severity, acute care and hospitalization outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Most countries reported mild decreases in stroke admissions compared to the same period of 2019 (1187 vs. 1166, p = 0.03). Among stroke subtypes, there was a reduction in ischemic strokes (IS) admissions (78.3% vs. 73.9%, p = 0.01) compared with 2019, especially in IS with NIHSS 0-5 (50.1% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.03). A substantial increase in the proportion of stroke admissions beyond 48 h from symptoms onset was observed (13.8% vs. 20.5%, p < 0.001). Nevertheless, no differences in total reperfusion treatment rates were observed, with similar door-to-needle, door-to-CT, and door-to-groin times in both periods. Other stroke outcomes, as all-type mortality during hospitalization (4.9% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.001), length of stay (IQR 1-5 days vs. 0-9 days, p < 0.001), and likelihood to be discharged home (91.6% vs. 83.0%, p < 0.001), were compromised during COVID-19 lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: In this Latin America survey, there was a mild decrease in admissions of IS during the COVID-19 lockdown period, with a significant delay in time to consultations and worse hospitalization outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , COVID-19/transmission , Cause of Death/trends , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Female , Health Care Surveys , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Latin America , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Patient Admission/trends , Patient Discharge/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1518-1522, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286893

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To examine the disease-specific excess deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Methods. We used weekly death data from the National Center for Health Statistics to analyze the trajectories of excess deaths from specific diseases in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic, at the national level and in 4 states, from the first to 52nd week of 2020. We used the average weekly number of deaths in the previous 6 years (2014-2019) as baseline. Results. Compared with the same week at baseline, the trajectory of number of excess deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) was highly parallel to the trajectory of the number of excess deaths related to COVID-19. The number of excess deaths from diabetes mellitus, influenza and respiratory diseases, and malignant neoplasms remained relatively stable over time. Conclusions. The parallel trajectory of excess mortality from CVD and COVID-19 over time reflects the fact that essential health services for noncommunicable diseases were reduced or disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the severer the pandemic, the heavier the impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death/trends , Mortality/trends , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253505, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278201

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify excess all-cause mortality in Switzerland in 2020, a key indicator for assessing direct and indirect consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using official data on deaths in Switzerland, all-cause mortality in 2020 was compared with that of previous years using directly standardized mortality rates, age- and sex-specific mortality rates, and life expectancy. RESULTS: The standardized mortality rate was 8.8% higher in 2020 than in 2019, returning to the level observed 5-6 years before, around the year 2015. This increase was greater for men (10.6%) than for women (7.2%) and was statistically significant only for men over 70 years of age, and for women over 75 years of age. The decrease in life expectancy in 2020 compared to 2019 was 0.7%, with a loss of 9.7 months for men and 5.3 months for women. CONCLUSIONS: There was an excess mortality in Switzerland in 2020, linked to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, as this excess only concerned the elderly, the resulting loss of life expectancy was restricted to a few months, bringing the mortality level back to 2015.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death/trends , Life Expectancy/trends , Mortality/trends , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Switzerland/epidemiology , Time Factors
10.
Am J Public Health ; 111(7): 1352-1357, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266600

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To estimate excess all-cause mortality in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, during the COVID-19 pandemic and understand the distribution of excess mortality in the population. Methods. With a Poisson model trained on recent historical data from the Pennsylvania vital registration system, we estimated expected weekly mortality in 2020. We compared these estimates with observed mortality to estimate excess mortality. We further examined the distribution of excess mortality by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Results. There were an estimated 3550 excess deaths between March 22, 2020, and January 2, 2021, a 32% increase above expectations. Only 77% of excess deaths (n = 2725) were attributed to COVID-19 on the death certificate. Excess mortality was disproportionately high among older adults and people of color. Sex differences varied by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Excess deaths during the pandemic were not fully explained by COVID-19 mortality; official counts significantly undercount the true death toll. Far from being a great equalizer, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated preexisting disparities in mortality by race/ethnicity. Public Health Implications. Mortality data must be disaggregated by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to accurately understand disparities among groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Cause of Death/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Philadelphia , Young Adult
12.
JAMA ; 325(19): 1939-1940, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251863
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(6): 1075-1080, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249276

ABSTRACT

Increasing hospitalizations for COVID-19 in the United States and elsewhere have ignited debate over whether to reinstate shelter-in-place policies adopted early in the pandemic to slow the spread of infection. The debate includes claims that sheltering in place influences deaths unrelated to infection or other natural causes. Testing this claim should improve the benefit/cost accounting that informs choice on reimposing sheltering in place. We used time-series methods to compare weekly nonnatural deaths in California with those in Florida. California was the first state to begin, and among the last to end, sheltering in place, while sheltering began later and ended earlier in Florida. During weeks when California had shelter-in-place orders in effect, but Florida did not, the odds that a nonnatural death occurred in California rather than Florida were 14.4% below expected levels. Sheltering-in-place policies likely reduce mortality from mechanisms unrelated to infection or other natural causes of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cause of Death/trends , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , California/epidemiology , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Likelihood Functions , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
14.
JAMA ; 325(18): 1829-1830, 2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239964
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(9): 3610-3613, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232733

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on causes of mortality through multiple methodological approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The causes of mortality in the Veneto region (Italy) during the first epidemic wave, March-April 2020, were compared with the corresponding months of the previous two years. Both the underlying cause of death (UCOD), and all diseases reported in the death certificate (multiple causes of death) were investigated; a further analysis was carried out through a simulation where the UCOD was selected after substituting ICD-10 codes for COVID with unspecified pneumonia. RESULTS: Overall 10,222 deaths were registered in March-April 2020, corresponding to a 24% increase compared to the previous two years. COVID-19 was mentioned in 1,444 certificates, and selected as the UCOD in 1,207 deaths. Based on the UCOD, the increases in mortality were observed for COVID and related respiratory conditions, diabetes mellitus, hypertensive heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and ill-defined causes. Multiple causes of death and the simulation analysis demonstrated further increases in mortality related to dementia/Alzheimer and chronic lower respiratory diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This first report demonstrates an increase of several causes of death during the pandemic, underlying the need of a continuous surveillance of mortality records through different analytic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Death Certificates , COVID-19/complications , Cause of Death/trends , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Epidemics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/mortality
16.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(1): 69-78, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207568

ABSTRACT

Aims: To compare the early impact of COVID-19 infections and mortality from February to July 2020 across the Nordic nations of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland through available public data sources and conduct a descriptive analysis of the potential factors that drove different epidemiological outcomes, with a focus on Sweden's response. Methods: COVID-19 cases, deaths, tests, case age distribution, and the difference between 2020 all-cause mortality and the average mortality of the previous 5 years were compared across nations. Patterns in cell phone mobility data, testing strategies, and seniors' care home deaths were also compared. Data for each nation were based on publicly available sources as of July 31, 2020. Results: Compared with its Nordic peers, Sweden had a higher incidence rate across all ages, a higher COVID-19-related death rate only partially explained by population demographics, a higher death rate in seniors' care, and higher all-cause mortality. Sweden had approximately half as much mobility change as its Nordic neighbours until April and followed similar rates as its neighbours from April to July. Denmark led its Nordic peers in testing rates, while Sweden had the highest cumulative test-positivity rate continuously from mid-March. Conclusions: COVID-19 pushed Sweden's health system to its capacity, exposed systemic weaknesses in the seniors' care system, and revealed challenges with implementing effective contact tracing and testing strategies while experiencing a high case burden. Looser government restrictions at the beginning of the outbreak are likely to have played a role in the impact of COVID-19 in Sweden. In an effort to improve epidemic control, Sweden has increased testing rates, implemented more restrictive prevention measures, and increased their intensive care unit bed capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Denmark/epidemiology , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Norway/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Health Econ ; 30(7): 1703-1710, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196377

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the relationship between the spatial distribution of excess deaths and the presence of care home facilities during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Using registry-based mortality data for Lombardy, one of the areas most severely hit by the pandemic we show that the presence of a care home in a municipality is associated with significantly higher excess death rates in the population. This effect appears to be driven by excess mortality in the elderly population of 70 years old and older. Our results are robust to controlling for the number of residents in each care home, suggesting that the presence of such facilities may have acted as one of factors contributing to the diffusion of COVID-19 at the local level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coronavirus Infections , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cause of Death/trends , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male
18.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(4): 596-605, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190768

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The study is a prospective clinical observation of patients after orthotopic heart transplantation in a large academic medical center in relation to COVID-19 morbidity. The study population was comprised of 552 patients. All patients were consulted and advised by telephone as regards the prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospital and outpatient follow-ups were limited to the minimum. Preventive modification of immunosuppression was not recommended in relation to the pandemic. Three patients with multiple comorbidities (a woman aged 60, a man aged 59, and another man aged 83; 2.25 years, 5.5 years, and 7.5 years after heart transplantation, respectively) and one patient with concomitant arterial hypertension (a woman aged 48, 5.5 years after heart transplantation) presented with a symptomatic COVID-19 infection. Three of the patients were on tacrolimus immunosuppression, and both female patients were additionally on therapy with mycophenolate mofetil, which was discontinued following the diagnosis of infection. One male patient received combined therapy of cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil. The 60-year-old woman presented with gastrointestinal manifestations of the COVID-19 infection which were of moderate severity. The recovery was achieved. The 59-year-old man presented with myocardial infarction, exacerbated renal insufficiency that required hemodialysis and cardiorespiratory failure complicated by bacterial sepsis. As a result, the patient died. The 83-year-old male patient reporting fever, myalgia, fatigue, cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital and deceased due to septic shock two days after admission. The 48-year old woman who presented with mild symptoms of the upper respiratory tract infection recovered after two weeks. Symptomatic treatment was used in all the patients. Another male patient (aged 45 years, 8 years after orthotopic heart transplant with no significant comorbidities) was an asymptomatic carrier of SARS-CoV-2 and remained under hospital care. Conclusions: Of 552 patients after orthotopic heart transplantation, two SARS-CoV-2-related deaths were reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cause of Death/trends , Comorbidity , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Morbidity/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(16)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180340

ABSTRACT

We use three indexes to identify how age-specific mortality rates in the United States compare to those in a composite of five large European countries since 2000. First, we examine the ratio of age-specific death rates in the United States to those in Europe. These show a sharp deterioration in the US position since 2000. Applying European age-specific death rates in 2017 to the US population, we then show that adverse mortality conditions in the United States resulted in 400,700 excess deaths that year. Finally, we show that these excess deaths entailed a loss of 13.0 My of life. In 2017, excess deaths and years of life lost in the United States represent a larger annual loss of life than that associated with the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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