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Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 121, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053970


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 seems to change antibiotic resistance pattern. Certain conditions in the Covid-19 era may be contributing to the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Due to the limited information on the impact of Covid-19 on antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the purpose of this research was to investigate the trend in antimicrobial resistance changes of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in Hasheminezhad hospital. This hospital was a Corona center in Mashhad at the onset of this epidemic. METHODS: 1672 clinical samples were collected between January 21, 2020 and January 30, 2022from patients hospitalized at Hasheminezhad Hospital in Mashhad, Conventional microbiological procedures for identifying gram-negative bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing were used, according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) 2021. The two years of the pandemic, from the initial stage of the outbreak until the 6th peak, (January 2020 to and January 2022) were divided into 9 periods according to the seasons. RESULTS: Highest resistance rates were seen in E. coli (615 samples), K. pneumoniae (351 samples), P. aeruginosa (362 samples) and A. baumannii (344 samples) to Ampicillin (89.6%), Ampicillin (98%), Imipenem (91.8%), and Ceftazidime (94.6%), respectively. The largest change in antibiotic resistance was seen between Summer 2020 and Summer 2021 for K. pneumoniae with about a 30% rise in antibiotic resistance to Ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: All 4 species evaluated in this study, have shown rising AMR rates during the first year of the pandemic in the northeast of Iran. This study revealed that E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii strains in Northern Iran have a higher level of antibiotic resistance than what was measured in similar studies conducted before the pandemic. This will further restrict treatment choices and jeopardize global public health.

Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ceftazidime/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli , Humans , Imipenem/pharmacology , Iran/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(8): e24566, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999872


BACKGROUND: Given the significant role of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in inducing severe infectious diseases, identifying serotypes and genotypes that can mediate antimicrobial resistance has become a pillar of treatment strategies. This study aims to determine the correlation between the minimum inhibitory concentration of antimicrobial agents and amino acid mutations in penicillin-binding proteins. Moreover, molecular serotyping and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing were first-ever performed to characterize the invasive penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates in Iran. METHODS: Of 149 isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed against penicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime by the MIC Test Strip, and sequence analysis of the pbp genes was performed through PCR-sequencing method. All penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates were serotyped and genotyped by sequential multiplex PCR and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Among pneumococcal isolates, 53 isolates were classified as penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae, of which 38 (71.7%) and 15 (28.3%) were resistant and intermediate to penicillin, respectively. Furthermore, ceftriaxone- and cefotaxime-nonsusceptible pneumococci constituted 33 (62.2%) and 29 cases (54.7%), respectively. Of note, there were 8 and 41 different serotypes and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis types, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents, the most efficient approach to preventing pneumococcal infection mortality as vaccine-preventable diseases is focusing on wide-spectrum vaccination. Based on our findings, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could considerably reduce the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases due to the high rate of serotype coverage.

Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cefotaxime/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 215-224, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274336


BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.

Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Doripenem/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ertapenem/therapeutic use , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology