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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 1630918, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714452

ABSTRACT

Background: The impairment of microcirculation is associated with the unfavorable outcome for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients. Studies revealed that pulsatile modification improves hemodynamics and attenuates inflammation during ECMO support. However, whether flow pattern impacts microcirculation and endothelial integrity is rarely documented. The objective of this work was to explore how pulsatility affects microcirculation during ECMO. Methods: Canine animal models with cardiac arrest were supported by ECMO, with the i-Cor system used to generate nonpulsatile or pulsatile flow. The sublingual microcirculation parameters were examined using the CytoCam microscope system. The expression of hsa_circ_0007367, a circular RNA, was measured during ECMO support. In vitro validation was performed in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) exposed to pulsatile or nonpulsatile flow, and the expressions of hsa_circ_0007367, endothelial tight junction markers, endothelial adhesive molecules, endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), and NF-κB signaling activity were analyzed. Results: The pulsatile modification of ECMO enhanced microcirculatory perfusion, attenuated pulmonary inflammation, and stabilized endothelial integrity in animal models; meanwhile, the expression of hsa_circ_0007367 was significantly upregulated both in animals and PMVECs exposed to pulsatile flow. In particular, upregulation of hsa_circ_0007367 stabilized the expressions of endothelial tight junction markers zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1 and occludin, followed by modulating the endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) activity and inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusion: The modification of pulsatility contributes to microcirculatory perfusion and endothelial integrity during ECMO. The expression of hsa_circ_0007367 plays a pivotal role in this protective mechanism.


Subject(s)
Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart Arrest/therapy , Animals , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Dogs , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Heart Arrest/genetics , Heart Arrest/pathology , Heart Arrest/physiopathology , Inflammation , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Microcirculation , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Occludin/genetics , Occludin/metabolism , Pulsatile Flow , Rats , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/genetics , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism
2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(4): 1597-1610, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 survivors report residual lung abnormalities after discharge from the hospital. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers in serum and induced sputum samples from patients after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: Patients admitted to hospitals in Spain with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited for this study. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were divided into groups with mild/moderate and severe disease according to the severity of their symptoms during hospitalization. Levels of 92 biomarkers were measured in serum and induced sputum samples. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients (46.2% severe cases) were included in this study. The median number of days after the onset of symptoms was 104. A significant difference was observed in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), an indicator of lung function, whereby DLCO <80% was significantly lower in severe cases (p <0.001). Differences in inflammatory biomarkers were observed between patients with mild/moderate and severe disease. For some biomarkers, correlations in serum and induced sputum levels were detected. Independent predictors of severe disease were DLCO <80% and the serum CDCP1 value. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of CDCP1 remain after hospital discharge and are associated with the severity of COVID-19. The possible prognostic implications warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cell Adhesion Molecules/blood , Antigens, Neoplasm/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Cell Adhesion Molecules/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Sputum/chemistry
3.
Elife ; 112022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662829

ABSTRACT

The human proteome is replete with short linear motifs (SLiMs) of four to six residues that are critical for protein-protein interactions, yet the importance of the sequence surrounding such motifs is underexplored. We devised a proteomic screen to examine the influence of SLiM sequence context on protein-protein interactions. Focusing on the EVH1 domain of human ENAH, an actin regulator that is highly expressed in invasive cancers, we screened 36-residue proteome-derived peptides and discovered new interaction partners of ENAH and diverse mechanisms by which context influences binding. A pocket on the ENAH EVH1 domain that has diverged from other Ena/VASP paralogs recognizes extended SLiMs and favors motif-flanking proline residues. Many high-affinity ENAH binders that contain two proline-rich SLiMs use a noncanonical site on the EVH1 domain for binding and display a thermodynamic signature consistent with the two-motif chain engaging a single domain. We also found that photoreceptor cilium actin regulator (PCARE) uses an extended 23-residue region to obtain a higher affinity than any known ENAH EVH1-binding motif. Our screen provides a way to uncover the effects of proteomic context on motif-mediated binding, revealing diverse mechanisms of control over EVH1 interactions and establishing that SLiMs can't be fully understood outside of their native context.


Subject(s)
Actins/metabolism , Binding Sites , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Microfilament Proteins/metabolism , Proline/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Proteomics
4.
J Med Chem ; 64(19): 14332-14343, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621195

ABSTRACT

In addition to a variety of viral-glycoprotein receptors (e.g., heparan sulfate, Niemann-Pick C1, etc.), dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), from the C-type lectin receptor family, plays one of the most important pathogenic functions for a wide range of viruses (e.g., Ebola, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, etc.) that invade host cells before replication; thus, its inhibition represents a relevant extracellular antiviral therapy. We report two novel p-tBu-calixarene glycoclusters 1 and 2, bearing tetrahydroxamic acid groups, which exhibit micromolar inhibition of soluble DC-SIGN binding and provide nanomolar IC50 inhibition of both DC-SIGN-dependent Jurkat cis-cell infection by viral particle pseudotyped with Ebola virus glycoprotein and the HCMV-gB-recombinant glycoprotein interaction with monocyte-derived dendritic cells expressing DC-SIGN. A unique cooperative involvement of sugar, linker, and calixarene core is likely behind the strong avidity of DC-SIGN for these low-valent systems. We claim herein new promising candidates for the rational development of a large spectrum of antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Calixarenes/chemistry , Cell Adhesion Molecules/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycoconjugates/metabolism , Glycoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydroxamic Acids/chemistry , Lectins, C-Type/antagonists & inhibitors , Phenols/chemistry , Receptors, Cell Surface/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Line , Cytomegalovirus/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Ebolavirus/physiology , Glycoconjugates/chemistry , Glycoconjugates/pharmacology , Glycoproteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Models, Biological , Protein Binding , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538383

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells, and their function is essential to configure adaptative immunity and avoid excessive inflammation. DCs are predicted to play a crucial role in the clinical evolution of the infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV)-2. DCs interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, which mediates cell receptor binding and subsequent fusion of the viral particle with host cell, is a key step to induce effective immunity against this virus and in the S protein-based vaccination protocols. Here we evaluated human DCs in response to SARS-CoV-2 S protein, or to a fragment encompassing the receptor binding domain (RBD) challenge. Both proteins increased the expression of maturation markers, including MHC molecules and costimulatory receptors. DCs interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 S protein promotes activation of key signaling molecules involved in inflammation, including MAPK, AKT, STAT1, and NFκB, which correlates with the expression and secretion of distinctive proinflammatory cytokines. Differences in the expression of ACE2 along the differentiation of human monocytes to mature DCs and inter-donor were found. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 S protein promotes inflammatory response and provides molecular links between individual variations and the degree of response against this virus.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells/pathology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Protein Domains , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tissue Donors
6.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502528

ABSTRACT

Men are disproportionately affected by the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and face higher odds of severe illness and death compared to women. The vascular effects of androgen signaling and inflammatory cytokines in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated endothelial injury are not defined. We determined the effects of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated endothelial injury under conditions of exposure to androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and tested potentially therapeutic effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism by spironolactone. Circulating endothelial injury markers VCAM-1 and E-selectin were measured in men and women diagnosed with COVID-19. Exposure of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro to DHT exacerbated spike protein S1-mediated endothelial injury transcripts for the cell adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and anti-fibrinolytic PAI-1 (p < 0.05), and increased THP-1 monocyte adhesion to ECs (p = 0.032). Spironolactone dramatically reduced DHT+S1-induced endothelial activation. TNF-α exacerbated S1-induced EC activation, which was abrogated by pretreatment with spironolactone. Analysis from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 showed concordant higher circulating VCAM-1 and E-Selectin levels in men, compared to women. A beneficial effect of the FDA-approved drug spironolactone was observed on endothelial cells in vitro, supporting a rationale for further evaluation of mineralocorticoid antagonism as an adjunct treatment in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/blood , Cells, Cultured , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology , Valsartan/pharmacology
7.
J Clin Invest ; 131(21)2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495789

ABSTRACT

To explore how the immune system controls clearance of SARS-CoV-2, we used a single-cell, mass cytometry-based proteomics platform to profile the immune systems of 21 patients who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection without need for admission to an intensive care unit or for mechanical ventilation. We focused on receptors involved in interactions between immune cells and virus-infected cells. We found that the diversity of receptor repertoires on natural killer (NK) cells was negatively correlated with the viral clearance rate. In addition, NK subsets expressing the receptor DNAM1 were increased in patients who more rapidly recovered from infection. Ex vivo functional studies revealed that NK subpopulations with high DNAM1 expression had cytolytic activities in response to target cell stimulation. We also found that SARS-CoV-2 infection induced the expression of CD155 and nectin-4, ligands of DNAM1 and its paired coinhibitory receptor TIGIT, which counterbalanced the cytolytic activities of NK cells. Collectively, our results link the cytolytic immune responses of NK cells to the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and show that the DNAM1 pathway modulates host-pathogen interactions during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Receptors, Natural Killer Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/immunology , Cohort Studies , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Female , Heterografts , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunophenotyping , In Vitro Techniques , Ligands , Male , Mice , Mice, SCID , Middle Aged , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D/immunology , Pandemics , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Viral Load , Young Adult
8.
Biomolecules ; 11(11)2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488476

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification that affects a wide variety of physiological functions. DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin) is a protein expressed in antigen-presenting cells that recognizes a variety of glycan epitopes. Until now, the binding of DC-SIGN to SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein has been reported in various articles and is regarded to be a factor in systemic infection and cytokine storm. The mechanism of DC-SIGN recognition offers an alternative method for discovering new medication for COVID-19 treatment. Here, we discovered three potential pockets that hold different glycan epitopes by performing molecular dynamics simulations of previously reported oligosaccharides. The "EPN" motif, "NDD" motif, and Glu354 form the most critical pocket, which is known as the Core site. We proposed that the type of glycan epitopes, rather than the precise amino acid sequence, determines the recognition. Furthermore, we deduced that oligosaccharides could occupy an additional site, which adds to their higher affinity than monosaccharides. Based on our findings and previously described glycoforms on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike, we predicted the potential glycan epitopes for DC-SIGN. It suggested that glycan epitopes could be recognized at multiple sites, not just Asn234, Asn149 and Asn343. Subsequently, we found that Saikosaponin A and Liquiritin, two plant glycosides, were promising DC-SIGN antagonists in silico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/antagonists & inhibitors , Epitopes/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Lectins, C-Type/antagonists & inhibitors , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Receptors, Cell Surface/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Motifs , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Cytokines/metabolism , Flavanones/chemistry , Glucosides/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Monosaccharides/chemistry , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Oleanolic Acid/chemistry , Saponins/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
9.
Biol Direct ; 16(1): 18, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477451

ABSTRACT

Skeletal muscle has an extraordinary regenerative capacity reflecting the rapid activation and effective differentiation of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In the course of muscle regeneration, MuSCs are reprogrammed by immune cells. In turn, MuSCs confer immune cells anti-inflammatory properties to resolve inflammation and facilitate tissue repair. Indeed, MuSCs can exert therapeutic effects on various degenerative and inflammatory disorders based on their immunoregulatory ability, including effects primed by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). At the molecular level, the tryptophan metabolites, kynurenine or kynurenic acid, produced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), augment the expression of TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG6) through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In addition, insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) produced by MuSCs can endow maturing macrophages oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent anti-inflammatory functions. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of the immunomodulatory characteristics of MuSCs and the issues related to their potential applications in pathological conditions, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immune System/physiology , Muscles/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , Stem Cells/cytology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Inflammation , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Kynurenic Acid/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Muscles/metabolism , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Tryptophan/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(42): 17465-17478, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469951

ABSTRACT

The C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN is a pattern recognition receptor expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. It has been identified as a promiscuous entry receptor for many pathogens, including epidemic and pandemic viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, Ebola virus, and HIV-1. In the context of the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, DC-SIGN-mediated virus dissemination and stimulation of innate immune responses has been implicated as a potential factor in the development of severe COVID-19. Inhibition of virus binding to DC-SIGN, thus, represents an attractive host-directed strategy to attenuate overshooting innate immune responses and prevent the progression of the disease. In this study, we report on the discovery of a new class of potent glycomimetic DC-SIGN antagonists from a focused library of triazole-based mannose analogues. Structure-based optimization of an initial screening hit yielded a glycomimetic ligand with a more than 100-fold improved binding affinity compared to methyl α-d-mannopyranoside. Analysis of binding thermodynamics revealed an enthalpy-driven improvement of binding affinity that was enabled by hydrophobic interactions with a loop region adjacent to the binding site and displacement of a conserved water molecule. The identified ligand was employed for the synthesis of multivalent glycopolymers that were able to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein binding to DC-SIGN-expressing cells, as well as DC-SIGN-mediated trans-infection of ACE2+ cells by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-expressing viruses, in nanomolar concentrations. The identified glycomimetic ligands reported here open promising perspectives for the development of highly potent and fully selective DC-SIGN-targeted therapeutics for a broad spectrum of viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
13.
Innate Immun ; 27(6): 423-436, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409426

ABSTRACT

Both innate immunity and acquired immunity are involved in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The induction of Abs that neutralize the virus has been described, and certain Abs against endemic coronaviruses may cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. Detailed mechanisms to protect against the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 remain unresolved. We previously reported that IgG Fc-binding protein (Fcγbp), a unique, large molecular weight, and mucin-like secretory Fc receptor protein, secreted from goblet cells of human small and large intestine, mediates the transportation of serum IgG onto the mucosal surface. In this review, we show that mucous bronchial gland cells and some goblet cells are immunoreactive for Fcγbp. Fcγbp traps the cross-reactive (both neutralizing and non-neutralizing) IgG bound to the virus and can consequently eliminate the virus from the mucosal surface to decrease viral loads. Fcγbp can also suppress immune overreaction by interfering with Fc-binding by macrophages and competing with complement fixation. Fcγbp secreted from mucin-producing cells of the airway functions as an important anti-infection mucosal defense. The Fcγbp-mediated mechanism can be a key factor in explaining why SARS-CoV-2 is less infective/lethal in children, and may also be involved in the unique Ab response, recurrent infection, and effects of serum therapy and vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin G , Mucins , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Nature ; 598(7880): 342-347, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379317

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection-which involves both cell attachment and membrane fusion-relies on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is paradoxically found at low levels in the respiratory tract1-3, suggesting that there may be additional mechanisms facilitating infection. Here we show that C-type lectin receptors, DC-SIGN, L-SIGN and the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 1 (SIGLEC1) function as attachment receptors by enhancing ACE2-mediated infection and modulating the neutralizing activity of different classes of spike-specific antibodies. Antibodies to the amino-terminal domain or to the conserved site at the base of the receptor-binding domain, while poorly neutralizing infection of ACE2-overexpressing cells, effectively block lectin-facilitated infection. Conversely, antibodies to the receptor binding motif, while potently neutralizing infection of ACE2-overexpressing cells, poorly neutralize infection of cells expressing DC-SIGN or L-SIGN and trigger fusogenic rearrangement of the spike, promoting cell-to-cell fusion. Collectively, these findings identify a lectin-dependent pathway that enhances ACE2-dependent infection by SARS-CoV-2 and reveal distinct mechanisms of neutralization by different classes of spike-specific antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Lectins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Lectins/immunology , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Membrane Fusion , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374426

ABSTRACT

The current spreading coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and pathogenic. In this study, we screened the gene expression of three host receptors (ACE2, DC-SIGN and L-SIGN) of SARS coronaviruses and dendritic cells (DCs) status in bulk and single cell transcriptomic datasets of upper airway, lung or blood of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. In COVID-19 patients, DC-SIGN gene expression was interestingly decreased in lung DCs but increased in blood DCs. Within DCs, conventional DCs (cDCs) were depleted while plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) were augmented in the lungs of mild COVID-19. In severe cases, we identified augmented types of immature DCs (CD22+ or ANXA1+ DCs) with MHCII downregulation. In this study, our observation indicates that DCs in severe cases stimulate innate immune responses but fail to specifically present SARS-CoV-2. It provides insights into the profound modulation of DC function in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Datasets as Topic , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Genome-Wide Association Study , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis
16.
Elife ; 102021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360882

ABSTRACT

Background: The virus SARS-CoV-2 can exploit biological vulnerabilities (e.g. host proteins) in susceptible hosts that predispose to the development of severe COVID-19. Methods: To identify host proteins that may contribute to the risk of severe COVID-19, we undertook proteome-wide genetic colocalisation tests, and polygenic (pan) and cis-Mendelian randomisation analyses leveraging publicly available protein and COVID-19 datasets. Results: Our analytic approach identified several known targets (e.g. ABO, OAS1), but also nominated new proteins such as soluble Fas (colocalisation probability >0.9, p=1 × 10-4), implicating Fas-mediated apoptosis as a potential target for COVID-19 risk. The polygenic (pan) and cis-Mendelian randomisation analyses showed consistent associations of genetically predicted ABO protein with several COVID-19 phenotypes. The ABO signal is highly pleiotropic, and a look-up of proteins associated with the ABO signal revealed that the strongest association was with soluble CD209. We demonstrated experimentally that CD209 directly interacts with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting a mechanism that could explain the ABO association with COVID-19. Conclusions: Our work provides a prioritised list of host targets potentially exploited by SARS-CoV-2 and is a precursor for further research on CD209 and FAS as therapeutically tractable targets for COVID-19. Funding: MAK, JSc, JH, AB, DO, MC, EMM, MG, ID were funded by Open Targets. J.Z. and T.R.G were funded by the UK Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit (MC_UU_00011/4). JSh and GJW were funded by the Wellcome Trust Grant 206194. This research was funded in part by the Wellcome Trust [Grant 206194]. For the purpose of open access, the author has applied a CC BY public copyright licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising from this submission.


Individuals who become infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 can experience a wide variety of symptoms. These can range from no symptoms or minor symptoms to severe illness and death. Key demographic factors, such as age, gender and race, are known to affect how susceptible an individual is to infection. However, molecular factors, such as unique gene mutations and gene expression levels can also have a major impact on patient responses by affecting the levels of proteins in the body. Proteins that are too abundant or too scarce may mean the difference between dying from or surviving COVID-19. Identifying the molecular factors in a host that affect how viruses can infect individuals, evade immune defences or trigger severe illness, could provide new ways to treat patients with COVID-19. Such factors are likely to remain constant, even when the virus mutates into new strains. Hence, insights would likely apply across all virus strains, including current strains, such as alpha and delta, and any new strains that may emerge in the future. Using such a 'natural experiment' approach, Karim et al. compared the genetic profiles of over 30,000 COVID-19 patients and a million healthy individuals. Nine proteins were found to have an impact on COVID-19 infection and disease severity. Four proteins were ranked as top priorities for potential treatment targets. One protein, called CD209 (also known as DC-SIGN), is involved in how the virus enters the host cells, and had one of the strongest associations with COVID-19. Two proteins, called IL-6R and FAS, were involved in the immune response and could be responsible for the immune over-activation often seen in severe COVID-19. Finally, one protein, called OAS1, formed part of the body's innate antiviral defence system and appeared to reduce susceptibility to COVID-19. Knowing more about the proteins that influence the severity of COVID-19 opens up new ways to predict, protect and treat patients who may have severe or fatal reactions to infection. Indeed, one of the identified proteins (IL-6R) had already been targeted in recent clinical trials with some encouraging results. Considering CD209 as a potential receptor for the virus could provide another avenue for therapeutics, similar to previously successful approaches to block the virus' known interaction with a receptor protein. Ultimately, this research could supply an entirely new set of treatment options to help combat the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome-Wide Association Study , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Humans , Lectins, C-Type , Proteome , Receptors, Cell Surface , Scavenger Receptors, Class A/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , fas Receptor/genetics
17.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 575-585, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358459

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an overactive inflammatory response mediated by macrophages. Here, we analyzed the phenotype and function of neutrophils in patients with COVID-19. We found that neutrophils from patients with severe COVID-19 express high levels of CD11b and CD66b, spontaneously produce CXCL8 and CCL2, and show a strong association with platelets. Production of CXCL8 correlated with plasma concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and D-dimer. Whole blood assays revealed that neutrophils from patients with severe COVID-19 show a clear association with immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes. Moreover, we found that sera from patients with severe disease contain high levels of immune complexes and activate neutrophils through a mechanism partially dependent on FcγRII (CD32). Interestingly, when integrated in immune complexes, anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgG antibodies from patients with severe COVID-19 displayed a higher proinflammatory profile compared with antibodies from patients with mild disease. Our study suggests that IgG immune complexes might promote the acquisition of an inflammatory signature by neutrophils, worsening the course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Complex/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutrophil Activation/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigen-Antibody Complex/blood , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD11b Antigen/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/immunology , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interleukin-8/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
18.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 5566826, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341351

ABSTRACT

An excess formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), previously shown to be strongly associated with cytokine storm and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with prevalent endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis, has been postulated to be a central factor influencing the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of severe COVID-19. A growing number of serological and morphological evidence has added to this assumption, also in regard to potential treatment options. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry and histochemistry to trace NETs and their molecular markers in autopsy lung tissue from seven COVID-19 patients. Quantification of key immunomorphological features enabled comparison with non-COVID-19 diffuse alveolar damage. Our results strengthen and extend recent findings, confirming that NETs are abundantly present in seriously damaged COVID-19 lung tissue, especially in association with microthrombi of the alveolar capillaries. In addition, we provide evidence that low-density neutrophils (LDNs), which are especially prone to NETosis, contribute substantially to COVID-19-associated lung damage in general and vascular blockages in particular.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps , Lung Injury/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Autopsy , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/virology , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Injury/virology , Male , Neutrophils/metabolism , Neutrophils/virology , Peroxidase/metabolism
19.
JCI Insight ; 6(14)2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320462

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains a pandemic. Severe disease is associated with dysfunction of multiple organs, but some infected cells do not express ACE2, the canonical entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report that the C-type lectin receptor L-SIGN interacted in a Ca2+-dependent manner with high-mannose-type N-glycans on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We found that L-SIGN was highly expressed on human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and lymph node lymphatic endothelial cells but not on blood endothelial cells. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy imaging, we detected SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins within the LSECs from liver autopsy samples from patients with COVID-19. We found that both pseudo-typed virus enveloped with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus infected L-SIGN-expressing cells relative to control cells. Moreover, blocking L-SIGN function reduced CoV-2-type infection. These results indicate that L-SIGN is a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. LSECs are major sources of the clotting factors vWF and factor VIII (FVIII). LSECs from liver autopsy samples from patients with COVID-19 expressed substantially higher levels of vWF and FVIII than LSECs from uninfected liver samples. Our data demonstrate that L-SIGN is an endothelial cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2 that may contribute to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Capillaries , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Liver/blood supply , Lymphatic Vessels , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Capillaries/metabolism , Capillaries/pathology , Capillaries/virology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Liver/pathology , Lymphatic Vessels/metabolism , Lymphatic Vessels/pathology , Lymphatic Vessels/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 619906, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290728

ABSTRACT

The role of sMAdCAM, an important gut immune migratory marker, remains unexplored in COVID-19 pathogenesis considering recent studies positing the gut as a sanctuary site for SARS-CoV-2 persistence. Thus, assimilating profiles of systemic inflammatory mediators with sMAdCAM levels may provide insights into the progression of COVID-19 disease. Also, the role of these markers in governing virus specific immunity following infection remains largely unexplored. A cohort (n = 84) of SARS-C0V-2 infected individuals included a group of in-patients (n = 60) at various stages of disease progression together with convalescent individuals (n = 24) recruited between April and June 2020 from Mumbai, India. Follow-up of 35 in-patients at day 7 post diagnosis was carried out. Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines along with soluble MAdCAM (sMAdCAM) levels in plasma were measured. Also, anti-viral humoral response as measured by rapid antibody test (IgG, IgM), Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (IgG), and antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 proteins were measured by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) from plasma. IL-6 and sMAdCAM levels among in-patients inversely correlated with one another. When expressed as a novel integrated marker-sMIL index (sMAdCAM/IL-6 ratio)-these levels were incrementally and significantly higher in various disease states with convalescents exhibiting the highest values. Importantly, sMAdCAM levels as well as sMIL index (fold change) correlated with peak association response units of receptor binding domain and fold change in binding to spike respectively as measured by SPR. Our results highlight key systemic and gut homing parameters that need to be monitored and investigated further to optimally guide therapeutic and prophylactic interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Mucoproteins/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Intestines/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Young Adult
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