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1.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742339

ABSTRACT

To develop adenoviral cell- or tissue-specific gene delivery, understanding of the infection mechanisms of adenoviruses is crucial. Several adenoviral attachment proteins such as CD46, CAR and sialic acid have been identified and studied. However, most receptor studies were performed on non-human cells. Combining our reporter gene-tagged adenovirus library with an in vitro human gene knockout model, we performed a systematic analysis of receptor usage comparing different adenoviruses side-by-side. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to knockout CD46 and CAR in the human lung epithelial carcinoma cell line A549. Knockout cells were infected with 22 luciferase-expressing adenoviruses derived from adenovirus species B, C, D and E. HAdV-B16, -B21 and -B50 from species B1 as well as HAdV-B34 and -B35 were found to be CD46-dependent. HAdV-C5 and HAdV-E4 from species E were found to be CAR-dependent. Regarding cell entry of HAdV-B3 and -B14 and all species D viruses, both CAR and CD46 play a role, and here, other receptors or attachment structures may also be important since transductions were reduced but not completely inhibited. The established human knockout cell model enables the identification of the most applicable adenovirus types for gene therapy and to further understand adenovirus infection biology.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Adenoviruses, Human , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , Cell Communication , Cell Line , Gene Library , Humans
2.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(12): 1240-1254, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699219

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles and exomere nanoparticles are under intense investigation as sources of clinically relevant cargo. Here we report the discovery of a distinct extracellular nanoparticle, termed supermere. Supermeres are morphologically distinct from exomeres and display a markedly greater uptake in vivo compared with small extracellular vesicles and exomeres. The protein and RNA composition of supermeres differs from small extracellular vesicles and exomeres. Supermeres are highly enriched with cargo involved in multiple cancers (glycolytic enzymes, TGFBI, miR-1246, MET, GPC1 and AGO2), Alzheimer's disease (APP) and cardiovascular disease (ACE2, ACE and PCSK9). The majority of extracellular RNA is associated with supermeres rather than small extracellular vesicles and exomeres. Cancer-derived supermeres increase lactate secretion, transfer cetuximab resistance and decrease hepatic lipids and glycogen in vivo. This study identifies a distinct functional nanoparticle replete with potential circulating biomarkers and therapeutic targets for a host of human diseases.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nanoparticles/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biological Transport/physiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cell Communication/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , HeLa Cells , Humans , Lactic Acid/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Nanoparticles/classification , Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685790

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, causes mild to moderate disease in most patients but carries a risk of morbidity and mortality. Seriously affected individuals manifest disorders of hemostasis and a cytokine storm, but it is not understood how these manifestations of severe COVID-19 are linked. Here, we showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein engaged the CD42b receptor to activate platelets via 2 distinct signaling pathways and promoted platelet-monocyte communication through the engagement of P selectin/PGSL-1 and CD40L/CD40, which led to proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. These results explain why hypercoagulation, monocyte activation, and a cytokine storm are correlated in patients severely affected by COVID-19 and suggest a potential target for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , CD40 Antigens/blood , CD40 Ligand/blood , Cell Communication , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , HEK293 Cells , Humans , P-Selectin/blood
4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 440: 115913, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671180

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raises significance for a potential influenza therapeutic compound, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), which has been extensively used in personal care products as a positively-charged quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent. CPC is currently in clinical trials to assess its effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) morbidity. Two published studies have provided mouse and human data indicating that CPC may alleviate influenza infection, and here we show that CPC (0.1 µM, 1 h) reduces zebrafish mortality and viral load following influenza infection. However, CPC mechanisms of action upon viral-host cell interaction are currently unknown. We have utilized super-resolution fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy to probe the mode of CPC action. Reduction in density of influenza viral protein hemagglutinin (HA) clusters is known to reduce influenza infectivity: here, we show that CPC (at non-cytotoxic doses, 5-10 µM) reduces HA density and number of HA molecules per cluster within the plasma membrane of NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts. HA is known to colocalize with the negatively-charged mammalian lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2); here, we show that nanoscale co-localization of HA with the PIP2-binding Pleckstrin homology (PH) reporter in the plasma membrane is diminished by CPC. CPC also dramatically displaces the PIP2-binding protein myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) from the plasma membrane of rat RBL-2H3 mast cells; this disruption of PIP2 is correlated with inhibition of mast cell degranulation. Together, these findings offer a PIP2-focused mechanism underlying CPC disruption of influenza and suggest potential pharmacological use of this drug as an influenza therapeutic to reduce global deaths from viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Animals , Cell Communication , Cetylpyridinium/chemistry , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Dinucleoside Phosphates , Humans , Immunity , Mammals , Mice , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Pandemics , Phosphatidylinositols , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 729990, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662578

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, represents a global crisis. Most patients developed mild/moderate symptoms, and the status of immune system varied in acute and regulatory stages. The crosstalk between immune cells and the dynamic changes of immune cell contact is rarely described. Here, we analyzed the features of immune response of paired peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from the same patients during acute and regulatory stages. Consistent with previous reports, both myeloid and T cells turned less inflammatory and less activated at recovery phase. Additionally, the communication patterns of myeloid-T cell and T-B cell are obviously changed. The crosstalk analysis reveals that typical inflammatory cytokines and several chemokines are tightly correlated with the recovery of COVID-19. Intriguingly, the signal transduction of metabolic factor insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is altered at recovery phase. Furthermore, we confirmed that the serum levels of IGF1 and several inflammatory cytokines are apparently dampened after the negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thus, these results reveal several potential detection and therapeutic targets that might be used for COVID-19 recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Communication/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 199-209, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to threaten public health globally. Patients with severe COVID-19 disease progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, with respiratory and multiple organ failure. It is believed that dysregulated production of proinflammatory cytokines and endothelial dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of severe diseases. However, the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and the role of endothelial cells are poorly understood. METHODS: Well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells were used to explore cytokine and chemokine production after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We measured the susceptibility to infection, immune response, and expression of adhesion molecules in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) exposed to conditioned medium from infected epithelial cells. The effect of imatinib on HPMVECs exposed to conditioned medium was evaluated. RESULTS: We demonstrated the production of interleukin-6, interferon gamma-induced protein-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from the infected human airway cells after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Although HPMVECs did not support productive replication of SARS-CoV-2, treatment of HPMVECs with conditioned medium collected from infected airway cells induced an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and vascular adhesion molecules. Imatinib inhibited the upregulation of these cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules in HPMVECs treated with conditioned medium. CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated the role of endothelial cells in the development of clinical disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and the importance of endothelial cell-epithelial cell interaction in the pathogenesis of human COVID-19 diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Communication , Endothelial Cells , Epithelial Cells , Humans
7.
Aging Cell ; 21(2): e13544, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621824

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is especially severe in aged patients, defined as 65 years or older, for reasons that are currently unknown. To investigate the underlying basis for this vulnerability, we performed multimodal data analyses on immunity, inflammation, and COVID-19 incidence and severity as a function of age. Our analysis leveraged age-specific COVID-19 mortality and laboratory testing from a large COVID-19 registry, along with epidemiological data of ~3.4 million individuals, large-scale deep immune cell profiling data, and single-cell RNA-sequencing data from aged COVID-19 patients across diverse populations. We found that decreased lymphocyte count and elevated inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio) are significantly associated with age-specific COVID-19 severities. We identified the reduced abundance of naïve CD8 T cells with decreased expression of antiviral defense genes (i.e., IFITM3 and TRIM22) in aged severe COVID-19 patients. Older individuals with severe COVID-19 displayed type I and II interferon deficiencies, which is correlated with SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Elevated expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors and reduced expression of antiviral defense genes (LY6E and IFNAR1) in the secretory cells are associated with critical COVID-19 in aged individuals. Mechanistically, we identified strong TGF-beta-mediated immune-epithelial cell interactions (i.e., secretory-non-resident macrophages) in aged individuals with critical COVID-19. Taken together, our findings point to immuno-inflammatory factors that could be targeted therapeutically to reduce morbidity and mortality in aged COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Inflammation , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Communication , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Female , Humans , Immune System , Interferons/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Odds Ratio , RNA-Seq , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Young Adult
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7083, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555251

ABSTRACT

The availability of viral entry factors is a prerequisite for the cross-species transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Large-scale single-cell screening of animal cells could reveal the expression patterns of viral entry genes in different hosts. However, such exploration for SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Here, we perform single-nucleus RNA sequencing for 11 non-model species, including pets (cat, dog, hamster, and lizard), livestock (goat and rabbit), poultry (duck and pigeon), and wildlife (pangolin, tiger, and deer), and investigated the co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Furthermore, cross-species analysis of the lung cell atlas of the studied mammals, reptiles, and birds reveals core developmental programs, critical connectomes, and conserved regulatory circuits among these evolutionarily distant species. Overall, our work provides a compendium of gene expression profiles for non-model animals, which could be employed to identify potential SARS-CoV-2 target cells and putative zoonotic reservoirs.


Subject(s)
Atlases as Topic , Single-Cell Analysis/veterinary , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Birds , Cell Communication , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Regulatory Networks , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Mammals , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Reptiles , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transcriptome , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010118, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551308

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), assumed to cause antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), are notorious for their heterogeneity in targeting phospholipids and phospholipid-binding proteins. The persistent presence of Lupus anticoagulant and/or aPL against cardiolipin and/or ß2-glycoprotein I have been shown to be independent risk factors for vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in APS. aPL production is thought to be triggered by-among other factors-viral infections, though infection-associated aPL have mostly been considered non-pathogenic. Recently, the potential pathogenicity of infection-associated aPL has gained momentum since an increasing number of patients infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been described with coagulation abnormalities and hyperinflammation, together with the presence of aPL. Here, we present data from a multicentric, mixed-severity study including three cohorts of individuals who contracted SARS-CoV-2 as well as non-infected blood donors. We simultaneously measured 10 different criteria and non-criteria aPL (IgM and IgG) by using a line immunoassay. Further, IgG antibody response against three SARS-CoV-2 proteins was investigated using tripartite automated blood immunoassay technology. Our analyses revealed that selected non-criteria aPL were enriched concomitant to or after an infection with SARS-CoV-2. Linear mixed-effects models suggest an association of aPL with prothrombin (PT). The strength of the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 was further influenced by SARS-CoV-2 disease severity and sex of the individuals. In conclusion, our study is the first to report an association between disease severity, anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoreactivity, and aPL against PT in patients with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Prothrombin/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Communication/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Cell ; 184(26): 6243-6261.e27, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536467

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-induced "acute respiratory distress syndrome" (ARDS) is associated with prolonged respiratory failure and high mortality, but the mechanistic basis of lung injury remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyze pulmonary immune responses and lung pathology in two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 ARDS using functional single-cell genomics, immunohistology, and electron microscopy. We describe an accumulation of CD163-expressing monocyte-derived macrophages that acquired a profibrotic transcriptional phenotype during COVID-19 ARDS. Gene set enrichment and computational data integration revealed a significant similarity between COVID-19-associated macrophages and profibrotic macrophage populations identified in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. COVID-19 ARDS was associated with clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and ultrastructural hallmarks of pulmonary fibrosis. Exposure of human monocytes to SARS-CoV-2, but not influenza A virus or viral RNA analogs, was sufficient to induce a similar profibrotic phenotype in vitro. In conclusion, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 triggers profibrotic macrophage responses and pronounced fibroproliferative ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cell Communication , Cohort Studies , Fibroblasts/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology , Phenotype , Proteome/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transcription, Genetic
12.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 201-211, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517637

ABSTRACT

Although critical for host defense, innate immune cells are also pathologic drivers of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Innate immune dynamics during Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) ARDS, compared to ARDS from other respiratory pathogens, is unclear. Moreover, mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of dexamethasone during severe COVID-19 remain elusive. Using single-cell RNA sequencing and plasma proteomics, we discovered that, compared to bacterial ARDS, COVID-19 was associated with expansion of distinct neutrophil states characterized by interferon (IFN) and prostaglandin signaling. Dexamethasone during severe COVID-19 affected circulating neutrophils, altered IFNactive neutrophils, downregulated interferon-stimulated genes and activated IL-1R2+ neutrophils. Dexamethasone also expanded immunosuppressive immature neutrophils and remodeled cellular interactions by changing neutrophils from information receivers into information providers. Male patients had higher proportions of IFNactive neutrophils and preferential steroid-induced immature neutrophil expansion, potentially affecting outcomes. Our single-cell atlas (see 'Data availability' section) defines COVID-19-enriched neutrophil states and molecular mechanisms of dexamethasone action to develop targeted immunotherapies for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Communication , Chromatography, Liquid , Down-Regulation , Female , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pneumonia, Bacterial/complications , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/genetics , Prostaglandins/immunology , Proteomics , RNA-Seq , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Single-Cell Analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 226: 112357, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510060

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein mediates innate antiviral responses, including responses to certain coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We have previously shown that ultraviolet-A (UVA) therapy can prevent virus-induced cell death in human ciliated tracheal epithelial cells (HTEpC) infected with coronavirus-229E (CoV-229E), and results in increased intracellular levels of MAVS. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which UVA light can activate MAVS, and whether local UVA light application can activate MAVS at locations distant from the light source (e.g. via cell-to-cell communication). MAVS levels were compared in HTEpC exposed to 2 mW/cm2 narrow band (NB)-UVA for 20 min and in unexposed controls at 30-40% and at 100% confluency, and in unexposed HTEpC treated with supernatants or lysates from UVA-exposed cells or from unexposed controls. MAVS was also assessed in different sections of confluent monolayer plates where only one section was exposed to NB-UVA. Our results showed that UVA increases the expression of MAVS protein. Further, cells in a confluent monolayer exposed to UVA conferred an elevation in MAVS in cells adjacent to the exposed section, and also in cells in the most distant sections which were not exposed to UVA. In this study, human ciliated tracheal epithelial cells exposed to UVA demonstrate increased MAVS protein, and also appear to transmit this influence to confluent cells not exposed to UVA, likely via cell-cell signaling.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/radiotherapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Communication/immunology , Cell Communication/radiation effects , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/radiation effects , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/radiation effects , Humans , Immunity, Innate/radiation effects , Photobiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology , Signal Transduction/radiation effects , Trachea/cytology , Ultraviolet Therapy
14.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 324-339, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512992

ABSTRACT

Background: Macrophage infiltration around lipotoxic tubular epithelial cells (TECs) is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, how these two types of cells communicate remains obscure. We previously demonstrated that LRG1 was elevated in the process of kidney injury. Here, we demonstrated that macrophage-derived, LRG1-enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs) exacerbated DN. Methods: We induced an experimental T2DM mouse model with a HFD diet for four months. Renal primary epithelial cells and macrophage-derived EVs were isolated from T2D mice by differential ultracentrifugation. To investigate whether lipotoxic TEC-derived EV (EVe) activate macrophages, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were incubated with EVe. To investigate whether activated macrophage-derived EVs (EVm) induce lipotoxic TEC apoptosis, EVm were cocultured with primary renal tubular epithelial cells. Subsequently, we evaluated the effect of LRG1 in EVe by investigating the apoptosis mechanism. Results: We demonstrated that incubation of primary TECs of DN or HK-2 mTECs with lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) increased the release of EVe. Interestingly, TEC-derived EVe activated an inflammatory phenotype in macrophages and induced the release of macrophage-derived EVm. Furthermore, EVm could induce apoptosis in TECs injured by LPC. Importantly, we found that leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1)-enriched EVe activated macrophages via a TGFßR1-dependent process and that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-enriched EVm induced apoptosis in injured TECs via a death receptor 5 (DR5)-dependent process. Conclusion: Our findings indicated a novel cell communication mechanism between tubular epithelial cells and macrophages in DN, which could be a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Communication , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
15.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477930

ABSTRACT

A phenomenon known for over 100 years named "cell-in-cell" (CIC) is now undergoing its renaissance, mostly due to modern cell visualization techniques. It is no longer an esoteric process studied by a few cell biologists, as there is increasing evidence that CICs may have prognostic and diagnostic value for cancer patients. There are many unresolved questions stemming from the difficulties in studying CICs and the limitations of current molecular techniques. CIC formation involves a dynamic interaction between an outer or engulfing cell and an inner or engulfed cell, which can be of the same (homotypic) or different kind (heterotypic). Either one of those cells appears to be able to initiate this process, which involves signaling through cell-cell adhesion, followed by cytoskeleton activation, leading to the deformation of the cellular membrane and movements of both cells that subsequently result in CICs. This review focuses on the distinction of five known forms of CIC (cell cannibalism, phagoptosis, enclysis, entosis, and emperipolesis), their unique features, characteristics, and underlying molecular mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication/physiology , Entosis/physiology , Emperipolesis/physiology , Humans
16.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458308

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as novel mediators of intercellular communication. They work via delivering the sequestered cargo to cells in the close vicinity, as well as distant sites in the body, regulating pathophysiological processes. Cell death and inflammation are biologically crucial processes in both normal physiology and pathology. These processes are indistinguishably linked with their effectors modulating the other process. For instance, during an unresolvable infection, the upregulation of specific immune mediators leads to inflammation causing cell death and tissue damage. EVs have gained considerable interest as mediators of both cell death and inflammation during conditions, such as sepsis. This review summarizes the types of extracellular vesicles known to date and their roles in mediating immune responses leading to cell death and inflammation with specific focus on sepsis and lung inflammation.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Death , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/immunology , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Communication , Chemokines , Exosomes , Humans , Lung/immunology , Mice , Sepsis/physiopathology
17.
Immunology ; 163(3): 239-249, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434725

ABSTRACT

Communication between stromal and immune cells is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis, mount an effective immune response and promote tissue repair. This 'crosstalk' occurs in both the steady state and following a variety of insults, for example, in response to local injury, at sites of infection or cancer. What do we mean by crosstalk between cells? Reciprocal activation and/or regulation occurs between immune and stromal cells, by direct cell contact and indirect mechanisms, including the release of soluble cytokines. Moving beyond cell-to-cell contact, this review investigates the complexity of 'cross-space' cellular communication. We highlight different examples of cellular communication by a variety of lung stromal and immune cells following tissue insults. This review examines how the 'geography of the lung microenvironment' is altered in various disease states; more specifically, we investigate how this influences lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts via their communication with immune cells and each other.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Fibroblasts/immunology , Lung/pathology , Stromal Cells/immunology , Animals , Cell Communication , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Immunity, Cellular
18.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 39(8): 945-954, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427069

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a pandemic disaster, has drawn the attention of researchers in various fields to discover suitable therapeutic approaches for the management of COVID-19 patients. Currently, there are many worries about the rapid spread of COVID-19; there is no approved treatment for this infectious disease, despite many efforts to develop therapeutic procedures for COVID-19. Emerging evidence shows that mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) therapy can be a suitable option for the management of COVID-19. These cells have many biological features (including the potential of differentiation, high safety and effectiveness, secretion of trophic factors and immunoregulatory features) that make them suitable for the treatment of various diseases. However, some studies have questioned the positive role of MSC therapy in the treatment of COVID-19. Accordingly, in this paper, we will focus on the therapeutic impacts of MSCs and their critical role in cytokine storm of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Communication , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
19.
Trends Biochem Sci ; 47(1): 23-38, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401892

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses interact with a wide range of cellular RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) during their life cycle. The prevalence of these host-virus interactions has been highlighted by new methods that elucidate the composition of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). Applied to 11 viruses so far, these approaches have revealed hundreds of cellular RBPs that interact with viral (v)RNA in infected cells. However, consistency across methods is limited, raising questions about methodological considerations when designing and interpreting these studies. Here, we discuss these caveats and, through comparing available vRNA interactomes, describe RBPs that are consistently identified as vRNP components and outline their potential roles in infection. In summary, these novel approaches have uncovered a new universe of host-virus interactions holding great therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Proteome , RNA, Viral , Cell Communication , Host Microbial Interactions , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Proteome/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism
20.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(3): e9923, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389839

ABSTRACT

Molecular knowledge of biological processes is a cornerstone in omics data analysis. Applied to single-cell data, such analyses provide mechanistic insights into individual cells and their interactions. However, knowledge of intercellular communication is scarce, scattered across resources, and not linked to intracellular processes. To address this gap, we combined over 100 resources covering interactions and roles of proteins in inter- and intracellular signaling, as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. We added protein complex information and annotations on function, localization, and role in diseases for each protein. The resource is available for human, and via homology translation for mouse and rat. The data are accessible via OmniPath's web service (https://omnipathdb.org/), a Cytoscape plug-in, and packages in R/Bioconductor and Python, providing access options for computational and experimental scientists. We created workflows with tutorials to facilitate the analysis of cell-cell interactions and affected downstream intracellular signaling processes. OmniPath provides a single access point to knowledge spanning intra- and intercellular processes for data analysis, as we demonstrate in applications studying SARS-CoV-2 infection and ulcerative colitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Proteins/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Animals , Cell Communication , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Databases, Factual , Enzymes/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteins/genetics , Rats , Single-Cell Analysis , Software , Workflow
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