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1.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 588532, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288595

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive malignant tumor of the digestive system worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and aflatoxin exposure are predominant causes of HCC in China, whereas hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcohol intake are likely the main risk factors in other countries. It is an unmet need to recognize the underlying molecular mechanisms of HCC in China. Methods: In this study, microarray datasets (GSE84005, GSE84402, GSE101685, and GSE115018) derived from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were analyzed to obtain the common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by R software. Moreover, the gene ontology (GO) functional annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed by using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and hub genes were identified by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and Cytoscape, respectively. The hub genes were verified using Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, and Kaplan-Meier Plotter online databases were performed on the TCGA HCC dataset. Moreover, the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database was used to verify candidate genes' protein expression levels. Results: A total of 293 common DEGs were screened, including 103 up-regulated genes and 190 down-regulated genes. Moreover, GO analysis implied that common DEGs were mainly involved in the oxidation-reduction process, cytosol, and protein binding. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis presented that common DEGs were mainly enriched in metabolic pathways, complement and coagulation cascades, cell cycle, p53 signaling pathway, and tryptophan metabolism. In the PPI network, three subnetworks with high scores were detected using the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plugin. The top 10 hub genes identified were CDK1, CCNB1, AURKA, CCNA2, KIF11, BUB1B, TOP2A, TPX2, HMMR and CDC45. The other public databases confirmed that high expression of the aforementioned genes related to poor overall survival among patients with HCC. Conclusion: This study primarily identified candidate genes and pathways involved in the underlying mechanisms of Chinese HCC, which is supposed to provide new targets for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC in China.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Cycle/genetics , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Protein Interaction Maps , Signal Transduction/genetics
2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D497-D508, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232151

ABSTRACT

Almost twenty years after its initial release, the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) resource remains an invaluable source of information for the study of motif-mediated protein-protein interactions. ELM provides a comprehensive, regularly updated and well-organised repository of manually curated, experimentally validated short linear motifs (SLiMs). An increasing number of SLiM-mediated interactions are discovered each year and keeping the resource up-to-date continues to be a great challenge. In the current update, 30 novel motif classes have been added and five existing classes have undergone major revisions. The update includes 411 new motif instances mostly focused on cell-cycle regulation, control of the actin cytoskeleton, membrane remodelling and vesicle trafficking pathways, liquid-liquid phase separation and integrin signalling. Many of the newly annotated motif-mediated interactions are targets of pathogenic motif mimicry by viral, bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens, providing invaluable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying infectious diseases. The current ELM release includes 317 motif classes incorporating 3934 individual motif instances manually curated from 3867 scientific publications. ELM is available at: http://elm.eu.org.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/genetics , Databases, Protein , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Software , Actin Cytoskeleton/chemistry , Actin Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , Cell Cycle/genetics , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/virology , Cyclins/chemistry , Cyclins/genetics , Cyclins/metabolism , Eukaryotic Cells/cytology , Eukaryotic Cells/metabolism , Eukaryotic Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Integrins/chemistry , Integrins/genetics , Integrins/metabolism , Mice , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Protein Binding , Rats , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transport Vesicles/chemistry , Transport Vesicles/metabolism , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/metabolism
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099580

ABSTRACT

Transcriptome studies have reported the dysregulation of cell cycle-related genes and the global inhibition of host mRNA translation in COVID-19 cases. However, the key genes and cellular mechanisms that are most affected by the severe outcome of this disease remain unclear. For this work, the RNA-seq approach was used to study the differential expression in buffy coat cells of two groups of people infected with SARS-CoV-2: (a) Mild, with mild symptoms; and (b) SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), who were admitted to the intensive care unit with the severe COVID-19 outcome. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 1009 up-regulated and 501 down-regulated genes in the SARS group, with 10% of both being composed of long non-coding RNA. Ribosome and cell cycle pathways were enriched among down-regulated genes. The most connected proteins among the differentially expressed genes involved transport dysregulation, proteasome degradation, interferon response, cytokinesis failure, and host translation inhibition. Furthermore, interactome analysis showed Fibrillarin to be one of the key genes affected by SARS-CoV-2. This protein interacts directly with the N protein and long non-coding RNAs affecting transcription, translation, and ribosomal processes. This work reveals a group of dysregulated processes, including translation and cell cycle, as key pathways altered in severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Gene Expression Profiling , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Cell Cycle/genetics
4.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408628

ABSTRACT

The present study sought to identify gene networks that are hallmarks of the developing inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (iWAT) and the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the mouse. RNA profiling revealed that the iWAT of postnatal (P) day 6 mice expressed thermogenic and lipid catabolism transcripts, along with the abundance of transcripts associated with the beige adipogenesis program. This was an unexpected finding, as thermogenic BAT was believed to be the only site of nonshivering thermogenesis in the young mouse. However, the transcriptional landscape of BAT in P6 mice suggests that it is still undergoing differentiation and maturation, and that the iWAT temporally adopts thermogenic and lipolytic potential. Moreover, P6 iWAT and adult (P56) BAT were similar in their expression of immune gene networks, but P6 iWAT was unique in the abundant expression of antimicrobial proteins and virus entry factors, including a possible receptor for SARS-CoV-2. In summary, postnatal iWAT development is associated with a metabolic shift from thermogenesis and lipolysis towards fat storage. However, transcripts of beige-inducing signal pathways including ß-adrenergic receptors and interleukin-4 signaling were underrepresented in young iWAT, suggesting that the signals for thermogenic fat differentiation may be different in early postnatal life and in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes, Beige/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cell Cycle/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Ontology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Biological , Muscle Development/genetics , Neuropeptides/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673692, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325525

ABSTRACT

In a perspective entitled 'From plant survival under severe stress to anti-viral human defense' we raised and justified the hypothesis that transcript level profiles of justified target genes established from in vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) induction in plants as a reference compared to virus-induced profiles can identify differential virus signatures that link to harmful reprogramming. A standard profile of selected genes named 'ReprogVirus' was proposed for in vitro-scanning of early virus-induced reprogramming in critical primary infected cells/tissues as target trait. For data collection, the 'ReprogVirus platform' was initiated. This initiative aims to identify in a common effort across scientific boundaries critical virus footprints from diverse virus origins and variants as a basis for anti-viral strategy design. This approach is open for validation and extension. In the present study, we initiated validation by experimental transcriptome data available in public domain combined with advancing plant wet lab research. We compared plant-adapted transcriptomes according to 'RegroVirus' complemented by alternative oxidase (AOX) genes during de novo programming under SE-inducing conditions with in vitro corona virus-induced transcriptome profiles. This approach enabled identifying a major complex trait for early de novo programming during SARS-CoV-2 infection, called 'CoV-MAC-TED'. It consists of unbalanced ROS/RNS levels, which are connected to increased aerobic fermentation that links to alpha-tubulin-based cell restructuration and progression of cell cycle. We conclude that anti-viral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies need to rigorously target 'CoV-MAC-TED' in primary infected nose and mouth cells through prophylactic and very early therapeutic strategies. We also discuss potential strategies in the view of the beneficial role of AOX for resilient behavior in plants. Furthermore, following the general observation that ROS/RNS equilibration/redox homeostasis is of utmost importance at the very beginning of viral infection, we highlight that 'de-stressing' disease and social handling should be seen as essential part of anti-viral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies.


Subject(s)
Cellular Reprogramming/genetics , Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase/genetics , Arabidopsis/genetics , Arabidopsis/growth & development , Cell Cycle/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Daucus carota/genetics , Daucus carota/growth & development , Fermentation , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tubulin/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
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