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1.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572567

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the name of the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that occurred in 2019. The virus-host-specific interactions, molecular targets on host cell deaths, and the involved signaling are crucial issues, which become potential targets for treatment. Spike protein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), cathepsin L-cysteine peptidase, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), open reading frame 7a (ORF7a), viral main protease (3C-like protease (3CLpro) or Mpro), RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (Nsp12), non-structural protein 13 (Nsp13) helicase, and papain-like proteinase (PLpro) are molecules associated with SARS-CoV infection and propagation. SARS-CoV-2 can induce host cell death via five kinds of regulated cell death, i.e., apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, autophagy, and PANoptosis. The mechanisms of these cell deaths are well established and can be disrupted by synthetic small molecules or natural products. There are a variety of compounds proven to play roles in the cell death inhibition, such as pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) for apoptosis, necrostatin-1 for necroptosis, MCC950, a potent and specific inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome in pyroptosis, and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, which can mitigate the corresponding cell death pathways. However, NF-κB signaling is another critical anti-apoptotic or survival route mediated by SARS-CoV-2. Such signaling promotes viral survival, proliferation, and inflammation by inducing the expression of apoptosis inhibitors such as Bcl-2 and XIAP, as well as cytokines, e.g., TNF. As a result, tiny natural compounds functioning as proteasome inhibitors such as celastrol and curcumin can be used to modify NF-κB signaling, providing a responsible method for treating SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The natural constituents that aid in inhibiting viral infection, progression, and amplification of coronaviruses are also emphasized, which are in the groups of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, diarylheptanoids, and anthraquinones. Natural constituents derived from medicinal herbs have anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties, as well as inhibitory effects, on the viral life cycle, including viral entry, replication, assembly, and release of COVID-19 virions. The phytochemicals contain a high potential for COVID-19 treatment. As a result, SARS-CoV-2-infected cell death processes and signaling might be of high efficacy for therapeutic targeting effects and yielding encouraging outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Death/drug effects , Drug Discovery/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Furans/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , Necroptosis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Pyroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2348-2359, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526356

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection, which can lead to pneumonia, lung injury, and death in susceptible populations. Understanding viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for development of effective treatments. An Immune-Viral Dynamics Model (IVDM) is developed to describe SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics and COVID-19 disease progression. A dataset of 60 individual patients with COVID-19 with clinical viral load (VL) and reported disease severity were assembled from literature. Viral infection and replication mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, viral-induced cell death, and time-dependent immune response are incorporated in the model to describe the dynamics of viruses and immune response. Disease severity are tested as a covariate to model parameters. The IVDM was fitted to the data and parameters were estimated using the nonlinear mixed-effect model. The model can adequately describe individual viral dynamics profiles, with disease severity identified as a covariate on infected cell death rate. The modeling suggested that it takes about 32.6 days to reach 50% of maximum cell-based immunity. Simulations based on virtual populations suggested a typical mild case reaches VL limit of detection (LOD) by 13 days with no treatment, a moderate case by 17 days, and a severe case by 41 days. Simulations were used to explore hypothetical treatments with different initiation time, disease severity, and drug effects to demonstrate the usefulness of such modeling in informing decisions. Overall, the IVDM modeling and simulation platform enables simulations for viral dynamics and treatment efficacy and can be used to aid in clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) and dose-efficacy response analysis for COVID-19 drug development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development/methods , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Models, Biological , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Death/immunology , Datasets as Topic , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nonlinear Dynamics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480450

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease is a neglected illness caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and its treatment is done only with two drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole. However, both drugs are ineffective in the chronic phase, in addition to causing serious side effects. This context of therapeutic limitation justifies the continuous research for alternative drugs. Here, we study the in vitro trypanocidal effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide, a molecule that has in its chemical structure a toxicophoric nitroaromatic group (NO2). The set of results obtained in this work highlights the potential for repurposing nimesulide in the treatment of this disease that affects millions of people around the world.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Drug Repositioning , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Animals , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasites/drug effects , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/ultrastructure
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(41)2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450313

ABSTRACT

Cancer therapy reduces tumor burden via tumor cell death ("debris"), which can accelerate tumor progression via the failure of inflammation resolution. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop treatment modalities that stimulate the clearance or resolution of inflammation-associated debris. Here, we demonstrate that chemotherapy-generated debris stimulates metastasis by up-regulating soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and the prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4). Therapy-induced tumor cell debris triggers a storm of proinflammatory and proangiogenic eicosanoid-driven cytokines. Thus, targeting a single eicosanoid or cytokine is unlikely to prevent chemotherapy-induced metastasis. Pharmacological abrogation of both sEH and EP4 eicosanoid pathways prevents hepato-pancreatic tumor growth and liver metastasis by promoting macrophage phagocytosis of debris and counterregulating a protumorigenic eicosanoid and cytokine storm. Therefore, stimulating the clearance of tumor cell debris via combined sEH and EP4 inhibition is an approach to prevent debris-stimulated metastasis and tumor growth.


Subject(s)
Eicosanoids/metabolism , Epoxide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Macrophages/immunology , Neoplasm Metastasis/pathology , Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP4 Subtype/biosynthesis , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neoplasm Metastasis/prevention & control , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Phagocytosis/immunology , RAW 264.7 Cells
5.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388457

ABSTRACT

Mammalian cells detect microbial molecules known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as indicators of potential infection. Upon PAMP detection, diverse defensive responses are induced by the host, including those that promote inflammation and cell-intrinsic antimicrobial activities. Host-encoded molecules released from dying or damaged cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), also induce defensive responses. Both DAMPs and PAMPs are recognized for their inflammatory potential, but only the latter are well established to stimulate cell-intrinsic host defense. Here, we report a class of DAMPs that engender an antiviral state in human epithelial cells. These DAMPs include oxPAPC (oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), PGPC (1-palmitoyl-2-glutaryl phosphatidylcholine), and POVPC [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine], oxidized lipids that are naturally released from dead or dying cells. Exposing cells to these DAMPs prior to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection limits viral replication. Mechanistically, these DAMPs prevent viral entry, thereby limiting the percentage of cells that are productively infected and consequently restricting viral load. We found that the antiviral actions of oxidized lipids are distinct from those mediated by the PAMP Poly I:C, in that the former induces a more rapid antiviral response without the induction of the interferon response. These data support a model whereby interferon-independent defensive activities can be induced by DAMPs, which may limit viral replication before PAMP-mediated interferon responses are induced. This antiviral activity may impact viruses that disrupt interferon responses in the oxygenated environment of the lung, such as influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2.IMPORTANCE In this work, we explored how a class of oxidized lipids, spontaneously created during tissue damage and unprogrammed cell lysis, block the earliest events in RNA virus infection in the human epithelium. This gives us novel insight into the ways that we view infection models, unveiling a built-in mechanism to slow viral growth that neither engages the interferon response nor is subject to known viral antagonism. These oxidized phospholipids act prior to infection, allowing time for other, better-known innate immune mechanisms to take effect. This discovery broadens our understanding of host defenses, introducing a soluble factor that alters the cellular environment to protect from RNA virus infection.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , A549 Cells , Cell Death/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/metabolism , Kinetics , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/pharmacology , Phosphatidylcholines/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vesiculovirus/drug effects , Vesiculovirus/physiology , Viral Load
6.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2348-2359, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268104

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection, which can lead to pneumonia, lung injury, and death in susceptible populations. Understanding viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for development of effective treatments. An Immune-Viral Dynamics Model (IVDM) is developed to describe SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics and COVID-19 disease progression. A dataset of 60 individual patients with COVID-19 with clinical viral load (VL) and reported disease severity were assembled from literature. Viral infection and replication mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, viral-induced cell death, and time-dependent immune response are incorporated in the model to describe the dynamics of viruses and immune response. Disease severity are tested as a covariate to model parameters. The IVDM was fitted to the data and parameters were estimated using the nonlinear mixed-effect model. The model can adequately describe individual viral dynamics profiles, with disease severity identified as a covariate on infected cell death rate. The modeling suggested that it takes about 32.6 days to reach 50% of maximum cell-based immunity. Simulations based on virtual populations suggested a typical mild case reaches VL limit of detection (LOD) by 13 days with no treatment, a moderate case by 17 days, and a severe case by 41 days. Simulations were used to explore hypothetical treatments with different initiation time, disease severity, and drug effects to demonstrate the usefulness of such modeling in informing decisions. Overall, the IVDM modeling and simulation platform enables simulations for viral dynamics and treatment efficacy and can be used to aid in clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) and dose-efficacy response analysis for COVID-19 drug development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development/methods , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Models, Biological , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Death/immunology , Datasets as Topic , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nonlinear Dynamics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
7.
Biol Open ; 9(10)2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255997

ABSTRACT

SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) has emerged as a global threat to humankind and is rapidly spreading. The infectivity, pathogenesis and infection of this virus are dependent on the interaction of SARS-CoV2 spike protein with human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Spike protein contains a receptor-binding domain (RBD) that recognizes hACE-2. In the present study, we are reporting a de novo designed novel hybrid antiviral 'VTAR-01' molecule that binds at the interface of RBD-hACE2 interaction. A series of antiviral molecules were tested for binding at the interface of RBD-hACE2 interaction. In silico screening, molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) analysis suggest ribavirin, ascorbate, lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine have strong interaction at the RBD-hACE2 interface. These four molecules were used for de novo fragment-based antiviral design. De novo designing, docking and MDS analysis identified a 'VTAR' hybrid molecule that has better interaction with this interface than all of the antivirals used to design it. We have further used retrosynthetic analysis and combinatorial synthesis to design 100 variants of VTAR molecules. Retrosynthetic analysis and combinatorial synthesis, along with docking and MDS, identified that VTAR-01 interacts with the interface of the RBD-ACE2 complex. MDS analysis confirmed its interaction with the RBD-ACE2 interface by involving Glu35 and Lys353 of ACE2, as well as Gln493 and Ser494 of RBD. Interaction of spike protein with ACE2 is essential for pathogenesis and infection of this virus; hence, this i n s ilico designed hybrid antiviral molecule (VTAR-01) that binds at the interface of RBD-hACE2 may be further developed to control the infection of SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Death/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Thermodynamics
8.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 130(4): 1143-1151, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189943

ABSTRACT

Many patients who suffer from pulmonary diseases cannot inflate their lungs normally, as they need mechanical ventilation (MV) to assist them. The stress associated with MV can damage the delicate epithelium in small airways and alveoli, which can cause complications resulting in ventilation-induced lung injuries (VILIs) in many cases, especially in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, efforts were directed to develop safe modes for MV. In our work, we propose a different approach to decrease injuries of epithelial cells (EpCs) upon MV. We alter EpCs' cytoskeletal structure to increase their survival rate during airway reopening conditions associated with MV. We tested two anti-inflammatory drugs dexamethasone (DEX) and transdehydroandrosterone (DHEA) to alter the cytoskeleton. Cultured rat L2 alveolar EpCs were exposed to airway reopening conditions using a parallel-plate perfusion chamber. Cells were exposed to a single bubble propagation to simulate stresses associated with mechanical ventilation in both control and study groups. Cellular injury and cytoskeleton reorganization were assessed via fluorescence microscopy, whereas cell topography was studied via atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results indicate that culturing cells in media, DEX solution, or DHEA solution did not lead to cell death (static cultures). Bubble flows caused significant cell injury. Preexposure to DEX or DHEA decreased cell death significantly. The AFM verified alteration of cell mechanics due to actin fiber depolymerization. These results suggest potential beneficial effects of DEX and DHEA for ARDS treatment for patients with COVID-19. They are also critical for VILIs and applicable to future clinical studies.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Preexposure of cultured cells to either dexamethasone or transdehydroandrosterone significantly decreases cellular injuries associated with mechanical ventilation due to their ability to alter the cell mechanics. This is an alternative protective method against VILIs instead of common methods that rely on modification of mechanical ventilator modes.


Subject(s)
Androsterone/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Death/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Lung Injury/etiology , Rats
9.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(5): 1610-1626, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957566

ABSTRACT

The receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a key mediator of regulated cell death and inflammation. Recent studies suggest that RIPK1 inhibition would fundamentally improve the therapy of RIPK1-dependent organ damage in stroke, myocardial infarction, kidney failure, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Additionally, it could ameliorate or prevent multi-organ failure induced by cytokine release in the context of hyperinflammation, as seen in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we searched for a RIPK1 inhibitor and present the aromatic antiepileptic and FDA-approved drug primidone (Liskantin®) as a potent inhibitor of RIPK1 activation in vitro and in a murine model of TNFα-induced shock, which mimics the hyperinflammatory state of cytokine release syndrome. Furthermore, we detected for the first time RIPK1 activation in the respiratory tract epithelium of hospitalized patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data provide a strong rationale for evaluating the drug primidone in conditions of hyperinflammation in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , Primidone/pharmacology , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Death/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , HT29 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/enzymology , Inflammation/pathology , Jurkat Cells , Mice , NIH 3T3 Cells , U937 Cells
10.
Cell ; 184(2): 460-475.e21, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917237

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-induced hypercytokinemia and inflammation are critically associated with COVID-19 severity. Baricitinib, a clinically approved JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, is currently being investigated in COVID-19 clinical trials. Here, we investigated the immunologic and virologic efficacy of baricitinib in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral shedding measured from nasal and throat swabs, bronchoalveolar lavages, and tissues was not reduced with baricitinib. Type I interferon (IFN) antiviral responses and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses remained similar between the two groups. Animals treated with baricitinib showed reduced inflammation, decreased lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, reduced NETosis activity, and more limited lung pathology. Importantly, baricitinib-treated animals had a rapid and remarkably potent suppression of lung macrophage production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for inflammation and neutrophil recruitment. These data support a beneficial role for, and elucidate the immunological mechanisms underlying, the use of baricitinib as a frontline treatment for inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Azetidines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Neutrophil Infiltration/drug effects , Purines/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects
11.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(10)2020 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810756

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is already responsible for far more deaths than previous pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs) from 2002 and 2012. The identification of clinically approved drugs to be repurposed to combat 2019 CoV disease (COVID-19) would allow the rapid implementation of potentially life-saving procedures. The major protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is considered a promising target, based on previous results from related CoVs with lopinavir (LPV), an HIV protease inhibitor. However, limited evidence exists for other clinically approved antiretroviral protease inhibitors. Extensive use of atazanavir (ATV) as antiretroviral and previous evidence suggesting its bioavailability within the respiratory tract prompted us to study this molecule against SARS-CoV-2. Our results show that ATV docks in the active site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with greater strength than LPV, blocking Mpro activity. We confirmed that ATV inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication, alone or in combination with ritonavir (RTV) in Vero cells and a human pulmonary epithelial cell line. ATV/RTV also impaired virus-induced enhancement of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. Together, our data strongly suggest that ATV and ATV/RTV should be considered among the candidate repurposed drugs undergoing clinical trials in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Atazanavir Sulfate/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Animals , Atazanavir Sulfate/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Death/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(8): 656, 2020 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725491

ABSTRACT

The current epidemic of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) calls for the development of inhibitors of viral replication. Here, we performed a bioinformatic analysis of published and purported SARS-CoV-2 antivirals including imatinib mesylate that we found to suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication on Vero E6 cells and that, according to the published literature on other coronaviruses is likely to act on-target, as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We identified a cluster of SARS-CoV-2 antivirals with characteristics of lysosomotropic agents, meaning that they are lipophilic weak bases capable of penetrating into cells. These agents include cepharentine, chloroquine, chlorpromazine, clemastine, cloperastine, emetine, hydroxychloroquine, haloperidol, ML240, PB28, ponatinib, siramesine, and zotatifin (eFT226) all of which are likely to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by non-specific (off-target) effects, meaning that they probably do not act on their 'official' pharmacological targets, but rather interfere with viral replication through non-specific effects on acidophilic organelles including autophagosomes, endosomes, and lysosomes. Imatinib mesylate did not fall into this cluster. In conclusion, we propose a tentative classification of SARS-CoV-2 antivirals into specific (on-target) versus non-specific (off-target) agents based on their physicochemical characteristics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cell Death/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175942

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and the novel coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a group of enveloped RNA viruses that cause a severe respiratory infection which is associated with a high mortality [...].


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cathepsins/metabolism , Cell Death/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness/mortality , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/enzymology , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Incidence , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/physiopathology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/enzymology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
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