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1.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(12): 1156, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585874

ABSTRACT

Lots of cell death initiator and effector molecules, signalling pathways and subcellular sites have been identified as key mediators in both cell death processes in cancer. The XDeathDB visualization platform provides a comprehensive cell death and their crosstalk resource for deciphering the signaling network organization of interactions among different cell death modes associated with 1461 cancer types and COVID-19, with an aim to understand the molecular mechanisms of physiological cell death in disease and facilitate systems-oriented novel drug discovery in inducing cell deaths properly. Apoptosis, autosis, efferocytosis, ferroptosis, immunogenic cell death, intrinsic apoptosis, lysosomal cell death, mitotic cell death, mitochondrial permeability transition, necroptosis, parthanatos, and pyroptosis related to 12 cell deaths and their crosstalk can be observed systematically by the platform. Big data for cell death gene-disease associations, gene-cell death pathway associations, pathway-cell death mode associations, and cell death-cell death associations is collected by literature review articles and public database from iRefIndex, STRING, BioGRID, Reactom, Pathway's commons, DisGeNET, DrugBank, and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). An interactive webtool, XDeathDB, is built by web applications with R-Shiny, JavaScript (JS) and Shiny Server Iso. With this platform, users can search specific interactions from vast interdependent networks that occur in the realm of cell death. A multilayer spectral graph clustering method that performs convex layer aggregation to identify crosstalk function among cell death modes for a specific cancer. 147 hallmark genes of cell death could be observed in detail in these networks. These potential druggable targets are displayed systematically and tailoring networks to visualize specified relations is available to fulfil user-specific needs. Users can access XDeathDB for free at https://pcm2019.shinyapps.io/XDeathDB/ .


Subject(s)
Cell Death/physiology , Regulated Cell Death/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cluster Analysis , Databases, Factual , Humans , Necroptosis , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Software
2.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285369

ABSTRACT

Cell death mechanisms are crucial to maintain an appropriate environment for the functionality of healthy cells. However, during viral infections, dysregulation of these processes can be present and can participate in the pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease. In this review, we describe some features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and some immunopathogenic mechanisms characterizing the present coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Lymphopenia and monocytopenia are important contributors to COVID-19 immunopathogenesis. The fine mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still unknown, and several hypotheses have been raised, some of which assign a role to cell death as far as the reduction of specific types of immune cells is concerned. Thus, we discuss three major pathways such as apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis, and suggest that all of them likely occur simultaneously in COVID-19 patients. We describe that SARS-CoV-2 can have both a direct and an indirect role in inducing cell death. Indeed, on the one hand, cell death can be caused by the virus entry into cells, on the other, the excessive concentration of cytokines and chemokines, a process that is known as a COVID-19-related cytokine storm, exerts deleterious effects on circulating immune cells. However, the overall knowledge of these mechanisms is still scarce and further studies are needed to delineate new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cell Death/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Apoptosis/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Necroptosis/physiology , Virus Internalization
3.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e13871, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603778

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the primary causative organism in corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) infections, is a novel member of the human coronavirus family which was first identified in Wuhan, China, towards the end of 2019. This letter reveals new vital missing links in our current understanding of the mechanisms that lead to cell death triggered by ferroptotic stress in COVID-19 infection. It further reveal the importance of homocysteine mediated trans-sulfuration pathway in COVID-19 infection. Hence, Vitamin B6, folic acid, and Vitamin B12 should be incorporated in the treatment regimen for SARS CoV-2 infections to suppress complications, as the virus mediates altered host cell metabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cell Death/physiology , Ferroptosis/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Folic Acid/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vitamin B 12/administration & dosage , Vitamin B 6/administration & dosage
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