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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5536, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428813

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important human pathogens for which no specific treatment is available. Here, we provide evidence that pharmacological reprogramming of ER stress pathways can be exploited to suppress CoV replication. The ER stress inducer thapsigargin efficiently inhibits coronavirus (HCoV-229E, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) replication in different cell types including primary differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells, (partially) reverses the virus-induced translational shut-down, improves viability of infected cells and counteracts the CoV-mediated downregulation of IRE1α and the ER chaperone BiP. Proteome-wide analyses revealed specific pathways, protein networks and components that likely mediate the thapsigargin-induced antiviral state, including essential (HERPUD1) or novel (UBA6 and ZNF622) factors of ER quality control, and ER-associated protein degradation complexes. Additionally, thapsigargin blocks the CoV-induced selective autophagic flux involving p62/SQSTM1. The data show that thapsigargin hits several central mechanisms required for CoV replication, suggesting that this compound (or derivatives thereof) may be developed into broad-spectrum anti-CoV drugs.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Extracts , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Proteome/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(16): 2249-2254, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343564

ABSTRACT

The enhanced osteoblast differentiation is beneficial to the prevention of osteoporosis. In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide (LRP-S2A) with the potential of promoting osteoblast differentiation was obtained from the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum, a traditional herb for treatment of postmenopausal metabolic disorders. Structural identification indicated that LRP-S2A, with a relative molecular weight of 2.65 × 106 Da and an uronic acid content of 41.8%, contained Rha, Ara, Gal, Glc and GlcA in a molar ratio of 1.00 : 2.07 : 0.57 : 2.59 : 4.33 and was composed of a backbone consisting of 6-O-Me-α-(1→4)-D-GlcpA, 2-O-acetyl-α-(1→4)-D-Glcp, α-(1→2,4)-L-Rhap, ß-(1→3)-D-Galp andα-(1→3,5)-L-Araf, and some branches consisting of 6-O-Me-α-(1→4)-D-GlcpA and terminal α-L-Araf. These results suggested that LRP-S2A with the potential of promoting osteoblast differentiation was a new acidic polysaccharide.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Lycium/chemistry , Osteoblasts/cytology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Fruit/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Weight , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Uronic Acids/analysis
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323266

ABSTRACT

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and causes remodeling of the small airways. However, the exact smoke-induced effects on the different types of small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) are poorly understood. Here, using air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures, single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals previously unrecognized transcriptional heterogeneity within the small airway epithelium and cell type-specific effects upon acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Smoke triggers detoxification and inflammatory responses and aberrantly activates and alters basal cell differentiation. This results in an increase of inflammatory basal-to-secretory cell intermediates and, particularly after chronic smoke exposure, a massive expansion of a rare inflammatory and squamous metaplasia associated KRT6A+ basal cell state and an altered secretory cell landscape. ALI cultures originating from healthy non-smokers and COPD smokers show similar responses to cigarette smoke exposure, although an increased pro-inflammatory profile is conserved in the latter. Taken together, the in vitro models provide high-resolution insights into the smoke-induced remodeling of the small airways resembling the pathological processes in COPD airways. The data may also help to better understand other lung diseases including COVID-19, as the data reflect the smoke-dependent variable induction of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors across SAEC populations.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling/drug effects , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cigarette Smoking/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Neoplasms, Basal Cell/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Smoke , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304662

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, on red blood cell parameters in the context of iron homeostasis in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and evaluate its effect on cell size in vitro. Everolimus has a significant impact on red blood cell parameters in patients with TSC. The most common alteration was microcytosis. The mean MCV value decreased by 9.2%, 12%, and 11.8% after 3, 6, and 12 months of everolimus treatment. The iron level declined during the first 3 months, and human soluble transferrin receptor concentration increased during 6 months of therapy. The size of K562 cells decreased when cultured in the presence of 5 µM everolimus by approximately 8%. The addition of hemin to the cell culture with 5 µM everolimus did not prevent any decrease in cell size. The stage of erythroid maturation did not affect the response to everolimus. Our results showed that the mTOR inhibitor everolimus caused red blood cell microcytosis in vivo and in vitro. This effect is not clearly related to a deficit of iron and erythroid maturation. This observation confirms that mTOR signaling plays a complex role in the control of cell size.


Subject(s)
Cell Size/drug effects , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Erythrocytes/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Adolescent , Biomarkers , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Line , Child , Child, Preschool , Erythrocyte Indices , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Everolimus/administration & dosage , Everolimus/adverse effects , Everolimus/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Iron/metabolism , K562 Cells , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
5.
SLAS Discov ; 26(9): 1091-1106, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255878

ABSTRACT

Lung imaging and autopsy reports among COVID-19 patients show elevated lung scarring (fibrosis). Early data from COVID-19 patients as well as previous studies from severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and other respiratory disorders show that the extent of lung fibrosis is associated with a higher mortality, prolonged ventilator dependence, and poorer long-term health prognosis. Current treatments to halt or reverse lung fibrosis are limited; thus, the rapid development of effective antifibrotic therapies is a major global medical need that will continue far beyond the current COVID-19 pandemic. Reproducible fibrosis screening assays with high signal-to-noise ratios and disease-relevant readouts such as extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition (the hallmark of fibrosis) are integral to any antifibrotic therapeutic development. Therefore, we have established an automated high-throughput and high-content primary screening assay measuring transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß)-induced ECM deposition from primary human lung fibroblasts in a 384-well format. This assay combines longitudinal live cell imaging with multiparametric high-content analysis of ECM deposition. Using this assay, we have screened a library of 2743 small molecules representing approved drugs and late-stage clinical candidates. Confirmed hits were subsequently profiled through a suite of secondary lung fibroblast phenotypic screening assays quantifying cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. In silico target prediction and pathway network analysis were applied to the confirmed hits. We anticipate this suite of assays and data analysis tools will aid the identification of new treatments to mitigate against lung fibrosis associated with COVID-19 and other fibrotic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/pathology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mass Screening , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
6.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(1): 285-290, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082312

ABSTRACT

The paper presents the results of a standard and complex treatment method using the peptide drug thymus thymalin in patients with COVID-19. One of the mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effect of thymalin is considered to be the ability of this peptide drug to influence the differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). It was found that, as a result of standard treatment, patients in the control group showed a decrease in the concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, C-reactive protein, D-dimer. The addition of thymalin to standard therapy accelerated the decline in both these indicators and the indicators of the T cell system. This has helped reduce the risk of blood clots in COVID-19 patients. The revealed properties of the thymus peptide preparation are the rationale for its inclusion in the complex treatment of coronavirus infection. Peptideswith potential biological activity against SARS-CoV-2 virus [29]. Note: Nitrogen atoms are shown in blue, oxygen atoms - in red, carbon atoms - in gray, hydrogen atoms - in white, and phosphorus atoms - in yellow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thymus Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Hematopoiesis/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Thymus Hormones/genetics , Thymus Hormones/metabolism
7.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 170(1): 118-122, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959313

ABSTRACT

Thymalin is a polypeptide complex isolated from the thymus and regulating the functions of the immune system. Thymalin is effective in therapy of acute respiratory syndrome, chronic obstructive bronchitis, and other immunopathology. Thymalin increases functional activity of T lymphocytes, but the targeted molecular mechanism of its biological activity requires further study. We studied the influence of thymalin on differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and expression of CD28 molecule involved in the implementation of antiviral immunity in COVID-19 infection. It was found that thymalin reduced the expression of CD44 (stem cell marker) and CD117 (molecule of the intermediate stage of HSC differentiation) by 2-3 times and increased the expression of CD28 (marker of mature T lymphocytes) by 6.8 times. This indirectly indicates that thymalin stimulated differentiation of CD117+ cells into mature CD28+T lymphocytes. It is known that in patients with severe COVID-19, the number of CD28+, CD4+, CD8+T lymphocytes in the blood decreased, which attested to a pronounced suppression of immunity. It is possible that the antiviral effect of thymalin consists in compensatory stimulation of HSC differentiation into CD28+T lymphocytes at the stage of immunity suppression in unfavorable course of viral infection. Thymalin can be considered as an immunoprotective peptide drug for the prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/physiology , Thymus Hormones/pharmacology , CD28 Antigens/genetics , CD28 Antigens/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Fetal Blood/cytology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/pathology , Humans , Hyaluronan Receptors/genetics , Hyaluronan Receptors/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/physiology , Thymus Hormones/physiology
9.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103039, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838297

ABSTRACT

The signalling receptor for LPS, CD14, is a key marker of, and facilitator for, pro-inflammatory macrophage function. Pro-inflammatory macrophage differentiation remains a process facilitating a broad array of disease pathologies, and has recently emerged as a potential target against cytokine storm in COVID19. Here, we perform a whole-genome CRISPR screen to identify essential nodes regulating CD14 expression in myeloid cells, using the differentiation of THP-1 cells as a starting point. This strategy uncovers many known pathways required for CD14 expression and regulating macrophage differentiation while additionally providing a list of novel targets either promoting or limiting this process. To speed translation of these results, we have then taken the approach of independently validating hits from the screen using well-curated small molecules. In this manner, we identify pharmacologically tractable hits that can either increase CD14 expression on non-differentiated monocytes or prevent CD14 upregulation during macrophage differentiation. An inhibitor for one of these targets, MAP2K3, translates through to studies on primary human monocytes, where it prevents upregulation of CD14 following M-CSF induced differentiation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. Therefore, this screening cascade has rapidly identified pharmacologically tractable nodes regulating a critical disease-relevant process.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Biomarkers , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Macrophages/drug effects , THP-1 Cells
10.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(6): 100095, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779772

ABSTRACT

Induction of protective mucosal T cell memory remains a formidable challenge to vaccinologists. Using a combination adjuvant strategy that elicits potent CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, we define the tenets of vaccine-induced pulmonary T cell immunity. An acrylic-acid-based adjuvant (ADJ), in combination with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA) or CpG, promotes mucosal imprinting but engages distinct transcription programs to drive different degrees of terminal differentiation and disparate polarization of TH1/TC1/TH17/TC17 effector/memory T cells. Combination of ADJ with GLA, but not CpG, dampens T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, mitigates terminal differentiation of effectors, and enhances the development of CD4 and CD8 TRM cells that protect against H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses. Mechanistically, vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells play a vital role in optimal programming of CD8 TRM and viral control. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into vaccine-induced multifaceted mucosal T cell immunity with implications in the development of vaccines against respiratorypathogens, including influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Acrylic Resins/administration & dosage , Acrylic Resins/pharmacology , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Inflammation , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/drug effects , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , /immunology , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists
11.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 20(9): 1025-1031, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670937

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The globally rampant SARS CoV-2 pandemic requires novel medical strategies to control the severity of disease and death due to complications. Of the 15-20% patients that develop pulmonary symptoms, a sub-set develops an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) rapidly progressing into a critical condition. Marked elevation of cytokines/chemokines is observed with elevation of additional markers of inflammation, coagulation, and organ damage such as CRP, D-dimer, LDH, Ferritin and Troponin-I. This hyperinflammation leads to worsening of oxygen saturation due to pulmonary infiltration and exudation, organ damage, and dysfunction of coagulation pathway and may lead to multi-organ failure. AREAS COVERED: The role of anti-inflammatory monoclonal antibodies such as Itolizumab, in cytokine storm. EXPERT OPINION: Itolizumab, an anti-CD6 humanized IgG1 mAb, binds to domain-1 of CD-6 that is responsible for priming, activation, and differentiation of T-cells. Itolizumab significantly reduces T-cell proliferation along with substantial downregulation of the production of cytokines/chemokines. Approved for moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis in 2013 it is currently being studied for addressing COVID-19 related cytokine storm and its complications. This article reviews its use in COVID-19 infections; its dose, administration protocol, contra-indications, and safety in treating moderate-to-severe ARDS by preventing and treating the cytokine storm and its complications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome
12.
Cytotherapy ; 22(8): 458-472, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AIMS: Human platelet lysate can replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) for xeno-free ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but pooling of platelet concentrates (PCs) increases risks of pathogen transmission. We evaluated the feasibility of performing nanofiltration of platelet lysates and determined the impact on expansion of bone marrow-derived MSCs. METHODS: Platelet lysates were prepared by freeze-thawing of pathogen-reduced (Intercept) PCs suspended in 65% storage solution (SPP+) and 35% plasma, and by serum-conversion of PCs suspended in 100% plasma. Lysates were added to the MSC growth media at 10% (v/v), filtered and subjected to cascade nanofiltration on 35- and 19-nm Planova filters. Media supplemented with 10% starting platelet lysates or FBS were used as the controls. Impacts of nanofiltration on the growth media composition, removal of platelet extracellular vesicles (PEVs) and MSC expansion were evaluated. RESULTS: Nanofiltration did not detrimentally affect contents of total protein and growth factors or the biochemical composition. The clearance factor of PEVs was >3 log values. Expansion, proliferation, membrane markers, differentiation potential and immunosuppressive properties of cells in nanofiltered media were consistently better than those expanded in FBS-supplemented media. Compared with FBS, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis genes were expressed more in nanofiltered media, and there were fewer senescent cells over six passages. CONCLUSIONS: Nanofiltration of growth media supplemented with two types of platelet lysates, including one prepared from pathogen-reduced PCs, is technically feasible. These data support the possibility of developing pathogen-reduced xeno-free growth media for clinical-grade propagation of human cells.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/cytology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Filtration , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Nanotechnology , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Lineage/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Culture Media/pharmacology , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Particle Size , Serum/chemistry
13.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(12): 6988-6999, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186413

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of infections with viruses like Sars-CoV-2, Ebola virus and Zika virus lead to major global health and economic problems because of limited treatment options. Therefore, new antiviral drug candidates are urgently needed. The promising new antiviral drug candidate silvestrol effectively inhibited replication of Corona-, Ebola-, Zika-, Picorna-, Hepatis E and Chikungunya viruses. Besides a direct impact on pathogens, modulation of the host immune system provides an additional facet to antiviral drug development because suitable immune modulation can boost innate defence mechanisms against the pathogens. In the present study, silvestrol down-regulated several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CCL2, CCL18) and increased TNF-α during differentiation and activation of M1-macrophages, suggesting that the effects of silvestrol might cancel each other out. However, silvestrol amplified the anti-inflammatory potential of M2-macrophages by increasing expression of anti-inflammatory surface markers CD206, TREM2 and reducing release of pro-inflammatory IL-8 and CCL2. The differentiation of dendritic cells in the presence of silvestrol is characterized by down-regulation of several surface markers and cytokines indicating that differentiation is impaired by silvestrol. In conclusion, silvestrol influences the inflammatory status of immune cells depending on the cell type and activation status.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cytokines/genetics , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Chikungunya virus/drug effects , Chikungunya virus/growth & development , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Cytokines/classification , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Ebolavirus/growth & development , Ebolavirus/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hepatitis E virus/drug effects , Hepatitis E virus/growth & development , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Organ Specificity , Picornaviridae/drug effects , Picornaviridae/growth & development , Picornaviridae/immunology , Primary Cell Culture , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Zika Virus/drug effects , Zika Virus/growth & development , Zika Virus/immunology
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