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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 780900, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662580

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have potent self-renewal capacity and differentiate into multiple cell types. For many reasons, these cells are a promising therapeutic alternative to treat patients with severe COVID-19 and pulmonary post-COVID sequelae. These cells are not only essential for tissue regeneration; they can also alter the pulmonary environment through the paracrine secretion of several mediators. They can control or promote inflammation, induce other stem cells differentiation, restrain the virus load, and much more. In this work, we performed single-cell RNA-seq data analysis of MSCs in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from control individuals and COVID-19 patients with mild and severe clinical conditions. When we compared samples from mild cases with control individuals, most genes transcriptionally upregulated in COVID-19 were involved in cell proliferation. However, a new set of genes with distinct biological functions was upregulated when we compared severely affected with mild COVID-19 patients. In this analysis, the cells upregulated genes related to cell dispersion/migration and induced the γ-activated sequence (GAS) genes, probably triggered by IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. Then, IRF-1 was upregulated, one of the GAS target genes, leading to the interferon-stimulated response (ISR) and the overexpression of many signature target genes. The MSCs also upregulated genes involved in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, virus control, cell chemotaxis, and used the cytoplasmic RNA danger sensors RIG-1, MDA5, and PKR. In a non-comparative analysis, we observed that MSCs from severe cases do not express many NF-κB upstream receptors, such as Toll-like (TLRs) TLR-3, -7, and -8; tumor necrosis factor (TNFR1 or TNFR2), RANK, CD40, and IL-1R1. Indeed, many NF-κB inhibitors were upregulated, including PPP2CB, OPTN, NFKBIA, and FHL2, suggesting that MSCs do not play a role in the "cytokine storm" observed. Therefore, lung MSCs in COVID-19 sense immune danger and act protectively in concert with the pulmonary environment, confirming their therapeutic potential in cell-based therapy for COVID-19. The transcription of MSCs senescence markers is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Regeneration/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cell Movement/immunology , Cytoplasm/immunology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Up-Regulation/immunology , Young Adult
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 761949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581340

ABSTRACT

The decline in mucosal immunity during aging increases susceptibility, morbidity and mortality to infections acquired via the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts in the elderly. We previously showed that this immunosenescence includes a reduction in the functional maturation of M cells in the follicle-associated epithelia (FAE) covering the Peyer's patches, diminishing the ability to sample of antigens and pathogens from the gut lumen. Here, co-expression analysis of mRNA-seq data sets revealed a general down-regulation of most FAE- and M cell-related genes in Peyer's patches from aged mice, including key transcription factors known to be essential for M cell differentiation. Conversely, expression of ACE2, the cellular receptor for SARS-Cov-2 virus, was increased in the aged FAE. This raises the possibility that the susceptibility of aged Peyer's patches to infection with the SARS-Cov-2 virus is increased. Expression of key Paneth cell-related genes was also reduced in the ileum of aged mice, consistent with the adverse effects of aging on their function. However, the increased expression of these genes in the villous epithelium of aged mice suggested a disturbed distribution of Paneth cells in the aged intestine. Aging effects on Paneth cells negatively impact on the regenerative ability of the gut epithelium and could indirectly impede M cell differentiation. Thus, restoring Paneth cell function may represent a novel means to improve M cell differentiation in the aging intestine and increase mucosal vaccination efficacy in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Immunosenescence/immunology , Paneth Cells/immunology , Peyer's Patches/immunology , Animals , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 372, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493075

ABSTRACT

Varying differentiation of myeloid cells is common in tumors, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic diseases. The release of cytokines from myeloid cells is an important driving factor that leads to severe COVID-19 cases and subsequent death. This review briefly summarizes the results of single-cell sequencing of peripheral blood, lung tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid of COVID-19 patients and describes the differentiation trajectory of myeloid cells in patients. Moreover, we describe the function and mechanism of abnormal differentiation of myeloid cells to promote disease progression. Targeting myeloid cell-derived cytokines or checkpoints is essential in developing a combined therapeutic strategy for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Myeloid Cells/virology , Single-Cell Analysis
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 731100, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450811

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a serious infectious disease that has led to a global pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. High-affinity neutralizing antibody is important for controlling infection, which is closely regulated by follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Tfh cells play a central role in promoting germinal center reactions and driving cognate B cell differentiation for antibody secretion. Available studies indicate a close relationship between virus-specific Tfh cell-mediated immunity and SARS-CoV-2 infection progression. Although several lines of evidence have suggested that Tfh cells contribute to the control of SARS-CoV-2 infection by eliciting neutralizing antibody productions, further studies are needed to elucidate Tfh-mediated effector mechanisms in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Here, we summarize the functional features and roles of virus-specific Tfh cells in the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and in COVID-19 vaccines, and highlight the potential of targeting Tfh cells as therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T Follicular Helper Cells/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Germinal Center/cytology , Germinal Center/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , T Follicular Helper Cells/cytology
5.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 1825-1844, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: NASH will soon become the leading cause of liver transplantation in the United States and is also associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. Currently, there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs available that slow NASH progression or address NASH liver involvement in COVID-19. Because animal models cannot fully recapitulate human NASH, we hypothesized that stem cells isolated directly from end-stage liver from patients with NASH may address current knowledge gaps in human NASH pathology. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We devised methods that allow the derivation, proliferation, hepatic differentiation, and extensive characterization of bipotent ductal organoids from irreversibly damaged liver from patients with NASH. The transcriptomes of organoids derived from NASH liver, but not healthy liver, show significant up-regulation of proinflammatory and cytochrome p450-related pathways, as well as of known liver fibrosis and tumor markers, with the degree of up-regulation being patient-specific. Functionally, NASH liver organoids exhibit reduced passaging/growth capacity and hallmarks of NASH liver, including decreased albumin production, increased free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, increased sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli, and increased cytochrome P450 metabolism. After hepatic differentiation, NASH liver organoids exhibit reduced ability to dedifferentiate back to the biliary state, consistent with the known reduced regenerative ability of NASH livers. Intriguingly, NASH liver organoids also show strongly increased permissiveness to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vesicular stomatitis pseudovirus as well as up-regulation of ubiquitin D, a known inhibitor of the antiviral interferon host response. CONCLUSION: Expansion of primary liver stem cells/organoids derived directly from irreversibly damaged liver from patients with NASH opens up experimental avenues for personalized disease modeling and drug development that has the potential to slow human NASH progression and to counteract NASH-related SARS-CoV-2 effects.


Subject(s)
End Stage Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Organoids/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , End Stage Liver Disease/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Healthy Volunteers , Hepatocytes/immunology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/immunology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Liver/cytology , Liver/immunology , Liver Regeneration , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Organoids/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Up-Regulation/immunology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304673

ABSTRACT

Macrophages (Mφs) are instrumental regulators of the immune response whereby they acquire diverse functional phenotypes following their exposure to microenvironmental cues that govern their differentiation from monocytes and their activation. The complexity and diversity of the mycobacterial cell wall have empowered mycobacteria with potent immunomodulatory capacities. A heat-killed (HK) whole-cell preparation of Mycobacterium obuense (M. obuense) has shown promise as an adjunctive immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, HK M. obuense has been shown to trigger the differentiation of human monocytes into a monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) type named Mob-MDM. However, the transcriptomic profile and functional properties of Mob-MDMs remain undefined during an activation state. Here, we characterized cytokine/chemokine release patterns and transcriptomic profiles of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon γ (IFNγ)-activated human MDMs that were differentiated with HK M. obuense (Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ)), macrophage colony-stimulating factor M-MDM(LPS/IFNγ)), or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-MDM(LPS/IFNγ)). Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) demonstrated a unique cytokine/chemokine release pattern (interleukin (IL)-10low, IL-12/23p40low, IL-23p19/p40low, chemokine (C-x-C) motif ligand (CXCL)9low) that was distinct from those of M-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) and GM-MDM(LPS/IFNγ). Furthermore, M-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) maintained IL-10 production at significantly higher levels compared to GM-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) and Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) despite being activated with M1-Mφ-activating stimuli. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis pointed to a distinct transcriptome profile for Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) relative to both M-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) and GM-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) that comprised 417 transcripts. Functional gene-set enrichment analysis revealed significant overrepresentation of signaling pathways and biological processes that were uniquely related to Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ). Our findings lay a foundation for the potential integration of HK M. obuense in specific cell-based immunotherapeutic modalities such as adoptive transfer of Mφs (Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ)) for cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/immunology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophage Activation/drug effects , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacology , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/metabolism , Transcriptome
7.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195824

ABSTRACT

New vaccines are urgently needed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which kills more than 1.4 million people each year. CD4 T cell differentiation is a key determinant of protective immunity against Mtb, but it is not fully understood how host-pathogen interactions shape individual antigen-specific T cell populations and their protective capacity. Here, we investigated the immunodominant Mtb antigen, MPT70, which is upregulated in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ) or nutrient/oxygen deprivation of in vitro-infected macrophages. Using a murine aerosol infection model, we compared the in vivo expression kinetics of MPT70 to a constitutively expressed antigen, ESAT-6, and analyzed their corresponding CD4 T cell phenotype and vaccine protection. For wild-type Mtb, we found that in vivo expression of MPT70 was delayed compared to ESAT-6. This delayed expression was associated with induction of less differentiated MPT70-specific CD4 T cells but, compared to ESAT-6, also reduced protection after vaccination. In contrast, infection with an MPT70-overexpressing Mtb strain promoted highly differentiated KLRG1+CX3CR1+ CD4 T cells with limited lung-homing capacity. Importantly, this differentiated phenotype could be prevented by vaccination, and against the overexpressing strain, vaccination with MPT70 conferred protection similar to vaccination with ESAT-6. Together, our data indicate that high in vivo antigen expression drives T cells toward terminal differentiation and that targeted vaccination with adjuvanted protein can counteract this phenomenon by maintaining T cells in a protective less differentiated state. These observations shed new light on host-pathogen interactions and provide guidance on how future Mtb vaccines can be designed to tip the immune balance in favor of the host.IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis, caused by Mtb, constitutes a global health crisis of massive proportions and the impact of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is expected to cause a rise in tuberculosis-related deaths. Improved vaccines are therefore needed more than ever, but a lack of knowledge on protective immunity hampers their development. The present study shows that constitutively expressed antigens with high availability drive highly differentiated CD4 T cells with diminished protective capacity, which could be a survival strategy by Mtb to evade T cell immunity against key antigens. We demonstrate that immunization with such antigens can counteract this phenomenon by maintaining antigen-specific T cells in a state of low differentiation. Future vaccine strategies should therefore explore combinations of multiple highly expressed antigens and we suggest that T cell differentiation could be used as a readily measurable parameter to identify these in both preclinical and clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Gene Expression , Genes, Bacterial , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis Vaccines/genetics , Tuberculosis Vaccines/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
8.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(6): 1325-1333, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159066

ABSTRACT

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play an essential role in regulating the GC reaction and, consequently, the generation of high-affinity antibodies and memory B cells. Therefore, Tfh cells are critical for potent humoral immune responses against various pathogens and their dysregulation has been linked to autoimmunity and cancer. Tfh cell differentiation is a multistep process, in which cognate interactions with different APC types, costimulatory and coinhibitory pathways, as well as cytokines are involved. However, it is still not fully understood how a subset of activated CD4+ T cells begins to express the Tfh cell-defining chemokine receptor CXCR5 during the early stage of the immune response, how some CXCR5+ pre-Tfh cells enter the B-cell follicles and mature further into GC Tfh cells, and how Tfh cells are maintained in the memory compartment. In this review, we discuss recent advances on how antigen and cognate interactions are important for Tfh cell differentiation and long-term persistence of Tfh cell memory, and how this is relevant to the current understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis and the development of potent SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/pathology
9.
Mol Immunol ; 134: 109-117, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142153

ABSTRACT

Th17 cells are a lineage of CD4+ T helper cells with Th17-specific transcription factors RORγt and RoRα. Since its discovery in 2005, research on Th17 has been in rapid progress, and increasing cytokines or transcription factors have been uncovered in the activation and differentiation of Th17 cells. Furthermore, growing evidence proves there are two different subsets of Th17 cells, namely non-pathogenic Th17 (non-pTh17) and pathogenic Th17 (pTh17), both of which play important roles in adaptive immunity, especially in host defenses, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. In this review, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms of Th17 cells differentiation, and their roles in immunity and diseases.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Humans , Yin-Yang
10.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 39: 345-368, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069448

ABSTRACT

For many infections and almost all vaccines, neutralizing-antibody-mediated immunity is the primary basis and best functional correlate of immunological protection. Durable long-term humoral immunity is mediated by antibodies secreted by plasma cells that preexist subsequent exposures and by memory B cells that rapidly respond to infections once they have occurred. In the midst of the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, it is important to define our current understanding of the unique roles of memory B cells and plasma cells in immunity and the factors that control the formation and persistence of these cell types. This fundamental knowledge is the basis to interpret findings from natural infections and vaccines. Here, we review transcriptional and metabolic programs that promote and support B cell fates and functions, suggesting points at which these pathways do and do not intersect.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunologic Memory , Plasma Cells/immunology , Plasma Cells/metabolism , Animals , Biomarkers , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cell Survival/genetics , Cell Survival/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Germinal Center/metabolism , Humans , Immunologic Memory/genetics , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Transcription, Genetic
11.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(4): e13191, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068062

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the agent that causes COVID-19, invades epithelial cells, including those of the respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosa, using angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) as a receptor. Subsequent inflammation can promote rapid virus clearance, but severe cases of COVID-19 are characterized by an inefficient immune response that fails to clear the infection. Using primary epithelial organoids from human colon, we explored how the central antiviral mediator IFN-γ, which is elevated in COVID-19, affects epithelial cell differentiation, ACE2 expression, and susceptibility to infection with SARS-CoV-2. In mouse and human colon, ACE2 is mainly expressed by surface enterocytes. Inducing enterocyte differentiation in organoid culture resulted in increased ACE2 production. IFN-γ treatment promoted differentiation into mature KRT20+ enterocytes expressing high levels of ACE2, increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and resulted in enhanced virus production in infected cells. Similarly, infection-induced epithelial interferon signaling promoted enterocyte maturation and enhanced ACE2 expression. We here reveal a mechanism by which IFN-γ-driven inflammatory responses induce a vulnerable epithelial state with robust replication of SARS-CoV-2, which may have an impact on disease outcome and virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Colon/immunology , Colon/pathology , Colon/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Enterocytes/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Enterocytes/virology , Gene Expression , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/administration & dosage , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Mice , Organoids/immunology , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/immunology
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024587

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses through their capacity to recruit and provide help to multiple immune effectors, in addition to exerting direct effector functions. CD4+ T cells are increasingly recognized as playing an essential role in the control of chronic viral infections. In this review, we present recent advances in understanding the nature of CD4+ T cell help provided to antiviral effectors. Drawing from our studies of natural human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) control, we then focus on the role of high-affinity T cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes in mediating antiviral CD4+ T cell responses. Last, we discuss the role of TCR affinity in determining CD4+ T cell differentiation, reviewing the at times divergent studies associating TCR signal strength to the choice of a T helper 1 (Th1) or a T follicular helper (Tfh) cell fate.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , T Follicular Helper Cells/cytology , T Follicular Helper Cells/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 600405, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013339

ABSTRACT

Aberrant T cell differentiation and lymphopenia are hallmarks of severe COVID-19 disease. Since T cells must race to cull infected cells, they are quick to differentiate and achieve cytotoxic function. With this responsiveness, comes hastened apoptosis, due to a coupled mechanism of death and differentiation in both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes via CD95 (Fas) and serine-threonine kinase (Akt). T cell lymphopenia in severe cases may represent cell death or peripheral migration. These facets depict SARS-Cov-2 as a lympho-manipulative pathogen; it distorts T cell function, numbers, and death, and creates a dysfunctional immune response. Whether preservation of T cells, prevention of their aberrant differentiation, and expansion of their population may alter disease course is unknown. Its investigation requires experimental interrogation of the linked differentiation and death pathway by agents known to uncouple T cell proliferation and differentiation in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , fas Receptor/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 596553, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979020

ABSTRACT

The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been related to uncontrolled inflammatory innate responses and impaired adaptive immune responses mostly due to exhausted T lymphocytes and lymphopenia. In this work we have characterized the nature of the lymphopenia and demonstrate a set of factors that hinder the effective control of virus infection and the activation and arming of effector cytotoxic T CD8 cells and showing signatures defining a high-risk population. We performed immune profiling of the T helper (Th) CD4+ and T CD8+ cell compartments in peripheral blood of 144 COVID-19 patients using multiparametric flow cytometry analysis. On the one hand, there was a consistent lymphopenia with an overrepresentation of non-functional T cells, with an increased percentage of naive Th cells (CD45RA+, CXCR3-, CCR4-, CCR6-, CCR10-) and persistently low frequency of markers associated with Th1, Th17, and Th1/Th17 memory-effector T cells compared to healthy donors. On the other hand, the most profound alteration affected the Th1 subset, which may explain the poor T cells responses and the persistent blood virus load. Finally, the decrease in Th1 cells may also explain the low frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that express the HLA-DR and CD38 activation markers observed in numerous patients who showed minimal or no lymphocyte activation response. We also identified the percentage of HLA-DR+CD4+ T cells, PD-1+CD+4/CD8+ T cells in blood, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as useful factors for predicting critical illness and fatal outcome in patients with confirmed COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/immunology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
15.
Immunol Rev ; 296(1): 120-131, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-819984

ABSTRACT

The majority of all vaccines work by inducing protective antibody responses. The mechanisms by which the B cells responsible for producing protective antibodies are elicited to respond are not well understood. Interclonal B cell competition to complex antigens, particularly in germinal centers, has emerged as an important hurdle in designing effective vaccines. This review will focus on recent advances in understanding the roles of B cell precursor frequency, B cell receptor affinity for antigen, antigen avidity, and other factors that can substantially alter the outcomes of B cell responses to complex antigens. Understanding the interdependence of these fundamental factors that affect B cell responses can inform current vaccine design efforts for pathogens with complex proteins as candidate immunogens such as HIV, influenza, and coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cell Competition/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Immunomodulation , Animals , Antigens/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cell Competition/genetics , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Germinal Center/metabolism , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/metabolism
16.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(6): 100095, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779772

ABSTRACT

Induction of protective mucosal T cell memory remains a formidable challenge to vaccinologists. Using a combination adjuvant strategy that elicits potent CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, we define the tenets of vaccine-induced pulmonary T cell immunity. An acrylic-acid-based adjuvant (ADJ), in combination with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA) or CpG, promotes mucosal imprinting but engages distinct transcription programs to drive different degrees of terminal differentiation and disparate polarization of TH1/TC1/TH17/TC17 effector/memory T cells. Combination of ADJ with GLA, but not CpG, dampens T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, mitigates terminal differentiation of effectors, and enhances the development of CD4 and CD8 TRM cells that protect against H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses. Mechanistically, vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells play a vital role in optimal programming of CD8 TRM and viral control. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into vaccine-induced multifaceted mucosal T cell immunity with implications in the development of vaccines against respiratorypathogens, including influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Acrylic Resins/administration & dosage , Acrylic Resins/pharmacology , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Inflammation , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/drug effects , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , /immunology , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists
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