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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1831): 20200228, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284967


The goal of achieving enhanced diagnosis and continuous monitoring of human health has led to a vibrant, dynamic and well-funded field of research in medical sensing and biosensor technologies. The field has many sub-disciplines which focus on different aspects of sensor science; engaging engineers, chemists, biochemists and clinicians, often in interdisciplinary teams. The trends which dominate include the efforts to develop effective point of care tests and implantable/wearable technologies for early diagnosis and continuous monitoring. This review will outline the current state of the art in a number of relevant fields, including device engineering, chemistry, nanoscience and biomolecular detection, and suggest how these advances might be employed to develop effective systems for measuring physiology, detecting infection and monitoring biomarker status in wild animals. Special consideration is also given to the emerging threat of antimicrobial resistance and in the light of the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, zoonotic infections. Both of these areas involve significant crossover between animal and human health and are therefore well placed to seed technological developments with applicability to both human and animal health and, more generally, the reviewed technologies have significant potential to find use in the measurement of physiology in wild animals. This article is part of the theme issue 'Measuring physiology in free-living animals (Part II)'.

Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Synthetic Biology/methods , Wearable Electronic Devices , Zika Virus Infection/veterinary , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Animals , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Animals, Wild/virology , Biomarkers/analysis , Cell Engineering/methods , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Nanotechnology/instrumentation , Nanotechnology/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109948, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459528


With the number of cases crossing six million (and more than three hundred and seventy thousand deaths) worldwide, there is a dire need of a vaccine (and repurposing of drugs) for SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). It can be argued that a vaccine may be the most efficient way to contain the spread of this disease and prevent its future onset. While many attempts are being made to design and develop a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, pertinent technological hitches do exist. That is perhaps one of the reasons that we don't have vaccine for coronaviruses (including SARS-CoV-1 and MERS). Recently developed CRISPR-mediated genome editing approach can be repurposed into a cell-modification endeavor in addition to (and rather than) correcting defective parts of genome. With this premise, B-cells can be engineered into universal donor, antigen specific, perpetually viable, long lasting, non-oncogenic, relatively benign, antibody producing cells which may serve as an effective vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 and, by the same rationale, other viruses and pathogens.

B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Engineering/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cell Engineering/methods , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Mice , Models, Genetic , Models, Immunological , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology