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1.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688673

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane proteins of adherens and tight junctions are known targets for viruses and bacterial toxins. The coronavirus receptor ACE2 has been localized at the apical surface of epithelial cells, but it is not clear whether ACE2 is localized at apical Cell-Cell junctions and whether it associates with junctional proteins. Here we explored the expression and localization of ACE2 and its association with transmembrane and tight junction proteins in epithelial tissues and cultured cells by data mining, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. ACE2 mRNA is abundant in epithelial tissues, where its expression correlates with the expression of the tight junction proteins cingulin and occludin. In cultured epithelial cells ACE2 mRNA is upregulated upon differentiation and ACE2 protein is widely expressed and co-immunoprecipitates with the transmembrane proteins ADAM17 and CD9. We show by immunofluorescence microscopy that ACE2 colocalizes with ADAM17 and CD9 and the tight junction protein cingulin at apical junctions of intestinal (Caco-2), mammary (Eph4) and kidney (mCCD) epithelial cells. These observations identify ACE2, ADAM17 and CD9 as new epithelial junctional transmembrane proteins and suggest that the cytokine-enhanced endocytic internalization of junction-associated protein complexes comprising ACE2 may promote coronavirus entry.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Intercellular Junctions/metabolism , Intercellular Junctions/virology , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Adherens Junctions/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Cadherins/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane Permeability , Coronavirus/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression/genetics , Tetraspanin 29/metabolism , Tight Junction Proteins/metabolism , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics
2.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(2): L477-L484, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376529

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome is the major cause of COVID-19 lethality. Cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 occurs via the interaction between its surface spike protein (SP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). It is unknown if the viral spike protein alone is capable of altering lung vascular permeability in the lungs or producing lung injury in vivo. To that end, we intratracheally instilled the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1SP) in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice that overexpress human ACE2 and examined signs of COVID-19-associated lung injury 72 h later. Controls included K18-hACE2 mice that received saline or the intact SP and wild-type (WT) mice that received S1SP. K18-hACE2 mice instilled with S1SP exhibited a decline in body weight, dramatically increased white blood cells and protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), upregulation of multiple inflammatory cytokines in BALF and serum, histological evidence of lung injury, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways in the lung. K18-hACE2 mice that received either saline or SP exhibited little or no evidence of lung injury. WT mice that received S1SP exhibited a milder form of COVID-19 symptoms, compared with the K18-hACE2 mice. Furthermore, S1SP, but not SP, decreased cultured human pulmonary microvascular transendothelial resistance (TER) and barrier function. This is the first demonstration of a COVID-19-like response by an essential virus-encoded protein by SARS-CoV-2 in vivo. This model of COVID-19-induced ALI may assist in the investigation of new therapeutic approaches for the management of COVID-19 and other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Membrane Permeability , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Subunits , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
3.
Adv Mater ; 33(34): e2101707, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316189

ABSTRACT

The transfer of foreign synthetic messenger RNA (mRNA) into cells is essential for mRNA-based protein-replacement therapies. Prophylactic mRNA COVID-19 vaccines commonly utilize nanotechnology to deliver mRNA encoding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine antigens, thereby triggering the body's immune response and preventing infections. In this study, a new combinatorial library of symmetric lipid-like compounds is constructed, and among which a lead compound is selected to prepare lipid-like nanoassemblies (LLNs) for intracellular delivery of mRNA. After multiround optimization, the mRNA formulated into core-shell-structured LLNs exhibits more than three orders of magnitude higher resistance to serum than the unprotected mRNA, and leads to sustained and high-level protein expression in mammalian cells. A single intravenous injection of LLNs into mice achieves over 95% mRNA translation in the spleen, without causing significant hematological and histological changes. Delivery of in-vitro-transcribed mRNA that encodes high-affinity truncated ACE2 variants (tACE2v mRNA) through LLNs induces elevated expression and secretion of tACE2v decoys, which is able to effectively block the binding of the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 to the human ACE2 receptor. The robust neutralization activity in vitro suggests that intracellular delivery of mRNA encoding ACE2 receptor mimics via LLNs may represent a potential intervention strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Galactosidases/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phosphatidylethanolamines/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Cell Membrane Permeability , Cell Survival/drug effects , Female , Galactosidases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Transfer Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphatidylethanolamines/metabolism , Protein Binding , RNA, Messenger/genetics
4.
SLAS Discov ; 26(9): 1079-1090, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314244

ABSTRACT

The recent renascence of phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is catalyzed by its ability to identify first-in-class drugs and deliver results when the exact molecular mechanism is partially obscure. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, life-threatening condition with a high mortality rate that has increased in frequency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite decades of laboratory and clinical study, no efficient pharmacological therapy for ARDS has been found. An increase in endothelial permeability is the primary event in ARDS onset, causing the development of pulmonary edema that leads to respiratory failure. Currently, the detailed molecular mechanisms regulating endothelial permeability are poorly understood. Therefore, the use of the PDD approach in the search for efficient ARDS treatment can be more productive than classic target-based drug discovery (TDD), but its use requires a new cell-based assay compatible with high-throughput (HTS) and high-content (HCS) screening. Here we report the development of a new plate-based image cytometry method to measure endothelial barrier function. The incorporation of image cytometry in combination with digital image analysis substantially decreases assay variability and increases the signal window. This new method simultaneously allows for rapid measurement of cell monolayer permeability and cytological analysis. The time-course of permeability increase in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in response to the thrombin and tumor necrosis factor α treatment correlates with previously published data obtained by transendothelial resistance (TER) measurements. Furthermore, the proposed image cytometry method can be easily adapted for HTS/HCS applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Image Cytometry/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cell Membrane Permeability/genetics , Drug Discovery , Endothelial Cells/ultrastructure , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phenotype , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/virology , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Edema/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombin/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308363

ABSTRACT

The cytoskeletal protein vimentin is secreted under various physiological conditions. Extracellular vimentin exists primarily in two forms: attached to the outer cell surface and secreted into the extracellular space. While surface vimentin is involved in processes such as viral infections and cancer progression, secreted vimentin modulates inflammation through reduction of neutrophil infiltration, promotes bacterial elimination in activated macrophages, and supports axonal growth in astrocytes through activation of the IGF-1 receptor. This receptor is overexpressed in cancer cells, and its activation pathway has significant roles in general cellular functions. In this study, we investigated the functional role of extracellular vimentin in non-tumorigenic (MCF-10a) and cancer (MCF-7) cells through the evaluation of its effects on cell migration, proliferation, adhesion, and monolayer permeability. Upon treatment with extracellular recombinant vimentin, MCF-7 cells showed increased migration, proliferation, and adhesion, compared to MCF-10a cells. Further, MCF-7 monolayers showed reduced permeability, compared to MCF-10a monolayers. It has been shown that the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can alter blood-brain barrier integrity. Surface vimentin also acts as a co-receptor between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the cell-surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Therefore, we also investigated the permeability of MCF-10a and MCF-7 monolayers upon treatment with extracellular recombinant vimentin, and its modulation of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain. These findings show that binding of extracellular recombinant vimentin to the cell surface enhances the permeability of both MCF-10a and MCF-7 monolayers. However, with SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain addition, this effect is lost with MCF-7 monolayers, as the extracellular vimentin binds directly to the viral domain. This defines an influence of extracellular vimentin in SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast/pathology , Cell Membrane Permeability , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism , Breast/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vimentin/genetics
6.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(2): L477-L484, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280498

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome is the major cause of COVID-19 lethality. Cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 occurs via the interaction between its surface spike protein (SP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). It is unknown if the viral spike protein alone is capable of altering lung vascular permeability in the lungs or producing lung injury in vivo. To that end, we intratracheally instilled the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1SP) in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice that overexpress human ACE2 and examined signs of COVID-19-associated lung injury 72 h later. Controls included K18-hACE2 mice that received saline or the intact SP and wild-type (WT) mice that received S1SP. K18-hACE2 mice instilled with S1SP exhibited a decline in body weight, dramatically increased white blood cells and protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), upregulation of multiple inflammatory cytokines in BALF and serum, histological evidence of lung injury, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways in the lung. K18-hACE2 mice that received either saline or SP exhibited little or no evidence of lung injury. WT mice that received S1SP exhibited a milder form of COVID-19 symptoms, compared with the K18-hACE2 mice. Furthermore, S1SP, but not SP, decreased cultured human pulmonary microvascular transendothelial resistance (TER) and barrier function. This is the first demonstration of a COVID-19-like response by an essential virus-encoded protein by SARS-CoV-2 in vivo. This model of COVID-19-induced ALI may assist in the investigation of new therapeutic approaches for the management of COVID-19 and other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Membrane Permeability , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Subunits , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
7.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 164: 3-18, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240535

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) arises from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is an enveloped RNA virus. COVID-19 has rapidly spread throughout the world by infecting more than 143 million people and causing 3.04 million deaths worldwide by 22 April 2021, confirmed by the World Health Organization. It caused great concern and pandemic all over the world, therewithal there has not been found any specific and efficient treatment yet. In the current review, we aimed to define the biophysical and biochemical aspects of SARS-CoV-2, including renin-angiotensin-system, cytokine storms, receptor binding, protein structural and functional features, molecular interactions, and conformational changes that take place during viral attachment and entering into human cells. It was also aimed to highlight the general hallmarks of COVID-19, including treatment strategies, diagnosis and even prevention. Thus, this review will serve as an updated comprehensive body of information and discussion on COVID-19 and will help the molecular scientists, biophysicists, clinicians, as well as medical engineers. Thereby, further understanding of COVID-19 will provide novel insights and advances in development of therapeutic potentials and vaccine alternatives as well as in detection of specific targets for diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Membrane Permeability , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Renin-Angiotensin System , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
8.
Biophys J ; 120(6): 1105-1119, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103746

ABSTRACT

Cell penetration after recognition of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus by the ACE2 receptor and the fusion of its viral envelope membrane with cellular membranes are the early steps of infectivity. A region of the Spike protein of the virus, identified as the "fusion peptide" (FP), is liberated at its N-terminal site by a specific cleavage occurring in concert with the interaction of the receptor-binding domain of the Spike. Studies have shown that penetration is enhanced by the required binding of Ca2+ ions to the FPs of coronaviruses, but the mechanisms of membrane insertion and destabilization remain unclear. We have predicted the preferred positions of Ca2+ binding to the SARS-CoV-2-FP, the role of Ca2+ ions in mediating peptide-membrane interactions, the preferred mode of insertion of the Ca2+-bound SARS-CoV-2-FP, and consequent effects on the lipid bilayer from extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and trajectory analyses. In a systematic sampling of the interactions of the Ca2+-bound peptide models with lipid membranes, SARS-CoV-2-FP penetrated the bilayer and disrupted its organization only in two modes involving different structural domains. In one, the hydrophobic residues F833/I834 from the middle region of the peptide are inserted. In the other, more prevalent mode, the penetration involves residues L822/F823 from the LLF motif, which is conserved in CoV-2-like viruses, and is achieved by the binding of Ca2+ ions to the D830/D839 and E819/D820 residue pairs. FP penetration is shown to modify the molecular organization in specific areas of the bilayer, and the extent of membrane binding of the SARS-CoV-2 FP is significantly reduced in the absence of Ca2+ ions. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights regarding the role of Ca2+ in mediating SARS-CoV-2 fusion and provide a detailed structural platform to aid the ongoing efforts in rational design of compounds to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 cell entry.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Cell Membrane Permeability , Membrane Lipids/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pressure , Probability , Protein Stability , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Water/chemistry
9.
Adv Mater ; 33(47): e2005927, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082338

ABSTRACT

While the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) accounts for the current global pandemic, the emergence of other unknown pathogens, named "Disease X," remains a serious concern in the future. Emerging or re-emerging pathogens continue to pose significant challenges to global public health. In response, the scientific community has been urged to create advanced platform technologies to meet the ever-increasing needs presented by these devastating diseases with pandemic potential. This review aims to bring new insights to allow for the application of advanced nanomaterials in future diagnostics, vaccines, and antiviral therapies, thereby addressing the challenges associated with the current preparedness strategies in clinical settings against viruses. The application of nanomaterials has advanced medicine and provided cutting-edge solutions for unmet needs. Herein, an overview of the currently available nanotechnologies is presented, highlighting the significant features that enable them to control infectious diseases, and identifying the challenges that remain to be addressed for the commercial production of nano-based products is presented. Finally, to conclude, the development of a nanomaterial-based system using a "One Health" approach is suggested. This strategy would require a transdisciplinary collaboration and communication between all stakeholders throughout the entire process spanning across research and development, as well as the preclinical, clinical, and manufacturing phases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Membrane Permeability , Drug Development , Humans , Pandemics , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Surface Properties , Theranostic Nanomedicine
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 533(4): 1276-1282, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The whole world was hit hard by the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Given that angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the viral entry molecule, understanding ACE2 has become a major focus of current COVID-19 research. ACE2 is highly expressed in the gut, but its role has not been fully understood and thus COVID-19 treatments intending to downregulate ACE2 level may cause untoward side effects. Gaining insight into the functions of ACE2 in gut homeostasis therefore merits closer examination, and is beneficial to find potential therapeutic alternatives for COVID-19. METHODS: We took advantage of Ace2 knockout out mice and isolated intestinal organoids to examine the role of ACE2 in intestinal stemness. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mouse model was established by 4% dextran sodium sulfate. LGR5 and KI67 levels were quantitated to reflect the virtue of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). FITC-dextran 4 (FD-4) assay was used to assess intestinal barrier function. RESULTS: Western blotting identified the expression of ACE2 in colon, which was consistent with the results of immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Moreover, Ace2-/- organoids showed decreased LRG5 and KI67 levels, and elevated calcium concentration. Furthermore, the permeability of ace2-/- organoids was markedly increased compared with ace2+/+ organoids. Collectively, ace2-/- mice were more susceptible than ace2+/+ mice to IBD, including earlier bloody stool, undermined intestinal architecture and more pronounced weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal that ACE2 contributes to the proliferation of intestinal stem cells and hence orchestrates the mucosal homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Epithelium/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/deficiency , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Membrane Permeability , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/enzymology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Intestines/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Organoids/metabolism , Stem Cells/cytology , Stem Cells/metabolism
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(10): 1228-1234, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767039

ABSTRACT

Introduction. COVID-19 has rapidly emerged as a pandemic infection that has caused significant mortality and economic losses. Potential therapies and prophylaxis against COVID-19 are urgently needed to combat this novel infection. As a result of in vitro evidence suggesting zinc sulphate may be efficacious against COVID-19, our hospitals began using zinc sulphate as add-on therapy to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.Aim. To compare outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients ordered to receive hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc sulphate versus hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone.Methodology. This was a retrospective observational study. Data was collected from medical records for all patients with admission dates ranging from 2 March 2020 through to 11 April 2020. Initial clinical characteristics on presentation, medications given during the hospitalization, and hospital outcomes were recorded. The study included patients admitted to any of four acute care NYU Langone Health Hospitals in New York City. Patients included were admitted to the hospital with at least one positive COVID-19 test and had completed their hospitalization. Patients were excluded from the study if they were never admitted to the hospital or if there was an order for other investigational therapies for COVID-19.Results. Patients taking zinc sulphate in addition to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (n=411) and patients taking hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone (n=521) did not differ in age, race, sex, tobacco use or relevant comorbidities. The addition of zinc sulphate did not impact the length of hospitalization, duration of ventilation or intensive care unit (ICU) duration. In univariate analyses, zinc sulphate increased the frequency of patients being discharged home, and decreased the need for ventilation, admission to the ICU and mortality or transfer to hospice for patients who were never admitted to the ICU. After adjusting for the time at which zinc sulphate was added to our protocol, an increased frequency of being discharged home (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.12-2.09) and reduction in mortality or transfer to hospice among patients who did not require ICU level of care remained significant (OR 0.449, 95 % CI 0.271-0.744).Conclusion. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that zinc sulphate may play a role in therapeutic management for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Zinc Sulfate/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization , Humans , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102898, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One-third of all deaths in hospitals are caused by sepsis. Despite its demonstrated prevalence and high case fatality rate, antibiotics remain the only target-oriented treatment option currently available. Starting from results showing that low-dose anthracyclines protect against sepsis in mice, we sought to find new causative treatment options to improve sepsis outcomes. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in mice, and different treatment options were evaluated regarding cytokine and biomarker expression, lung epithelial cell permeability, autophagy induction, and survival benefit. Results were validated in cell culture experiments and correlated with patient samples. FINDINGS: Effective low-dose epirubicin treatment resulted in substantial downregulation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degrading enzyme S1P lyase (SPL). Consequent accumulation and secretion of S1P in lung parenchyma cells stimulated the S1P-receptor type 3 (S1PR3) and mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and ERK, reducing tissue damage via increased disease tolerance. The protective effects of SPL inhibition were absent in S1PR3 deficient mice. Sepsis patients showed increased expression of SPL, stable expression of S1PR3, and increased levels of mucin-1 and surfactant protein D as indicators of lung damage. INTERPRETATION: Our work highlights a tissue-protective effect of SPL inhibition in sepsis due to activation of the S1P/S1PR3 axis and implies that SPL inhibitors and S1PR3 agonists might be potential therapeutics to protect against sepsis by increasing disease tolerance against infections. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), the German Research Foundation (DFG), RTG 1715 (to M. H. G. and I. R.) and the National Institutes of Health, Grant R01GM043880 (to S. S.).


Subject(s)
Aldehyde-Lyases/metabolism , Epirubicin/administration & dosage , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors/metabolism , Animals , Autophagy , Cell Membrane Permeability , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , Epirubicin/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mucin-1/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/metabolism , Random Allocation , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/metabolism , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors/genetics , Treatment Outcome , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
13.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 155: 29-35, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611000

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an atypical pneumonia invaded the city of Wuhan, China, and the causative agent of this disease turned out to be a new coronavirus. In January 2020, the World Health Organization named the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV and subsequently it is referred to as SARS-CoV2 and the related disease as CoViD-19 (Lai et al., 2020). Very quickly, the epidemic led to a pandemic and it is now a worldwide emergency requiring the creation of new antiviral therapies and a related vaccine. The purpose of this article is to review and investigate further the molecular mechanism by which the SARS-CoV2 virus infection proceeds via the formation of a hetero-trimer between its protein S, the ACE2 receptor and the B0AT1 protein, which is the "entry receptor" for the infection process involving membrane fusion (Li et al., 2003). A reverse engineering process uses the formalism of the Hill function to represent the functions related to the dynamics of the biochemical interactions of the viral infection process. Then, using a logical evaluation of viral density that measures the rate at which the cells are hijacked by the virus (and they provide a place for the virus to replicate) and considering the "time delay" given by the interaction between cell and virus, the expected duration of the incubation period is predicted. The conclusion is that the density of the virus varies from the "exposure time" to the "interaction time" (virus-cells). This model can be used both to evaluate the infectious condition and to analyze the incubation period. BACKGROUND: The ongoing threat of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV2 pandemic is alarming and strategies for combating infection are highly desired. This RNA virus belongs to the ß-coronavirus genus and is similar in some features to SARS-CoV. Currently, no vaccine or approved medical treatment is available. The complex dynamics of the rapid spread of this virus can be demonstrated with the aid of a computational framework. METHODS: A mathematical model based on the principles of cell-virus interaction is developed in this manuscript. The amino acid sequence of S proein and its interaction with the ACE-2 protein is mimicked with the aid of Hill function. The mathematical model with delay is solved with the aid of numerical solvers and the parametric values are obtained with the help of MCMC algorithm. RESULTS: A delay differential equation model is developed to demonstrate the dynamics of target cells, infected cells and the SARS-CoV2. The important parameters and coefficients are demonstrated with the aid of numerical computations. The resulting thresholds and forecasting may prove to be useful tools for future experimental studies and control strategies. CONCLUSIONS: From the analysis, I is concluded that control strategy via delay is a promising technique and the role of Hill function formalism in control strategies can be better interpreted in an inexpensive manner with the aid of a theoretical framework.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cell Membrane Permeability , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
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