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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143217

ABSTRACT

Lipids are hydrophobic molecules involved in a plethora of biological functions; for example, they are employed for the storage of energy, serve as essential constituents of cell membranes and participate in the assembly of bilayer configuration [...].


Subject(s)
Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Lipids/analysis
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17520, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077118

ABSTRACT

SiRNA is a new generation of drug molecules and a new approach for treating a variety of diseases such as cancer and viral infections. SiRNA delivery to cells and translocation into cytoplasm are the main challenges in the clinical application of siRNA. Lipid carriers are one of the most successful carriers for siRNA delivery. In this study, we investigated the interaction of siRNA with a zwitterionic bilayer and how ion concentration and lipid conjugation can affect it. The divalent cation such as Mg2+ ions could promote the siRNA adsorption on the bilayer surface. The cation ions can bind to the head groups of lipids and the grooves of siRNA molecules and form bridges between the siRNA and bilayer surface. Our findings demonstrated the bridges formed by divalent ions could facilitate the attachment of siRNA to the membrane surface. We showed that the divalent cations can regulate the bridging-driven membrane attachment and it seems the result of this modulation can be used for designing biomimetic devices. In the following, we examined the effect of cations on the interaction between siRNA modified by cholesterol and the membrane surface. Our MD simulations showed that in the presence of Mg2+, the electrostatic and vdW energy between the membrane and siRNA were higher compared to those in the presence of NA+. We showed that the electrostatic interaction between membrane and siRNA cannot be facilitated only by cholesterol conjugated. Indeed, cations are essential to create coulomb repulsion and enable membrane attachment. This study provides important insight into liposome carriers for siRNA delivery and could help us in the development of siRNA-based therapeutics. Due to the coronavirus pandemic outbreak, these results may shed light on the new approach for treating these diseases and their molecular details.


Subject(s)
Lipid Bilayers , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Liposomes , Cations, Divalent , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cations , Cholesterol
3.
STAR Protoc ; 3(4): 101773, 2022 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042213

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein mediates membrane fusion between the virus and the target cells, triggering viral entry into the latter. Here, we describe a SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-mediated membrane fusion assay using a dual functional split reporter protein to quantitatively monitor the fusion kinetics of the viral and target cell membranes in living cells. This approach can be applied in various cell types, potentially predicting the pathogenicity of newly emerging variants. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Kimura et al. (2022b), Kimura et al. (2022c), Motozono et al. (2021), Saito et al. (2022a), Saito et al. (2022b), Suzuki et al. (2022), and Yamasoba et al. (2022).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Membrane Fusion , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cell Membrane/metabolism
4.
J Cell Biochem ; 123(8): 1281-1284, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013552

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been proposed to be an endothelial disease, as endothelial damage and oxidative stress contribute to its systemic inflammatory and thrombotic events. Polyphenols, natural antioxidant compounds appear as promising agents to prevent and treat COVID-19. Polyphenols bind and inhibit the F1 Fo -ATP synthase rotary catalysis. An early target of polyphenols may be the ectopic F1 Fo -ATP synthase expressed on the endothelial plasma membrane. Among the pleiotropic beneficial action of polyphenols in COVID-19, modulation of the ecto-F1 Fo -ATP synthase, lowering the oxidative stress produced by the electron transfer chain coupled to it, would not be negligible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polyphenols , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism
5.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(7): e2101349, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381824

ABSTRACT

White blood cells (WBCs) are immune cells that play essential roles in critical diseases including cancers, infections, and inflammatory disorders. Their dynamic and diverse functions have inspired the development of WBC membrane-coated nanoparticles (denoted "WBC-NPs"), which are formed by fusing the plasma membranes of WBCs, such as macrophages, neutrophils, T cells, and natural killer cells, onto synthetic nanoparticle cores. Inheriting the entire source cell antigens, WBC-NPs act as source cell decoys and simulate their broad biointerfacing properties with intriguing therapeutic potentials. Herein, the recent development and medical applications of WBC-NPs focusing on four areas, including WBC-NPs as carriers for drug delivery, as countermeasures for biological neutralization, as nanovaccines for immune modulation, and as tools for the isolation of circulating tumor cells and fundamental research is reviewed. Overall, the recent development and studies of WBC-NPs have established the platform as versatile nanotherapeutics and tools with broad medical application potentials.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Leukocytes , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism
6.
Cells ; 11(11)2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924204

ABSTRACT

Herein, we have verified the interaction between the functional peptides from the SARS-CoV-2 and cell membrane, and we further proved that peptides exhibit little membrane disruption. The specific amino acids (Lys, Ile, Glu, Asn, Gln, etc.) with charge or hydrophobic residues play a significant role during the functional-peptide binding to membrane. The findings could provide the hints related to viral infection and also might pave the way for development of new materials based on peptides with membrane-binding activity, which would enable functional peptides further as peptide adjuvants, in order to help deliver the cancer drug into tumor cells for the efficient tumor therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Amino Acid Sequence , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Humans , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Trypsin/metabolism
7.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903492

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, the whole world has been struggling with the life-threatening pandemic amongst all age groups and geographic areas caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has led to more than 468 million cases and over 6 million deaths reported worldwide (as of 20 March 2022), is one of the greatest threats to human health in history. Meanwhile, the lack of specific and irresistible treatment modalities provoked concentrated efforts in scientists around the world. Various mechanisms of cell entry and cellular dysfunction were initially proclaimed. Especially, mitochondria and cell membrane are crucial for the course of infection. The SARS-CoV-2 invasion depends on angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), expressed on host cells. Moreover, in this narrative review, we aim to discuss other cell organelles targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Lastly, we briefly summarize the studies on various drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Humans , Organelles/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
8.
ACS Sens ; 7(7): 2084-2092, 2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900429

ABSTRACT

With the rapid spread and multigeneration variation of coronavirus, rapid drug development has become imperative. A major obstacle to addressing this issue is adequately constructing the cell membrane at the molecular level, which enables in vitro observation of the cell response to virus and drug molecules quantitatively, shortening the drug experiment cycle. Herein, we propose a rapid and label-free supported lipid bilayer-based lab-on-a-chip biosensor for the screening of effective inhibition drugs. An extended gate electrode was prepared and functionalized by an angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor-incorporated supported lipid bilayer (SLB). Such an integrated system can convert the interactions of targets and membrane receptors into real-time charge signals. The platform can simulate the cell membrane microenvironment in vitro and accurately capture the interaction signal between the target and the cell membrane with minimized interference, thus observing the drug action pathway quantitatively and realizing drug screening effectively. Due to these label-free, low-cost, convenient, and integrated advantages, it is a suitable candidate method for the rapid drug screening for the early treatment and prevention of worldwide spread of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Coronavirus , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism
9.
Eur J Cell Biol ; 101(2): 151222, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881962

ABSTRACT

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major route through which cells internalise various substances and recycle membrane components. Via the coordinated action of many proteins, the membrane bends and invaginates to form a vesicle that buds off-along with its contents-into the cell. The contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to this highly dynamic process in mammalian cells is not well understood. Unlike in yeast, where there is a strict requirement for actin in CME, the significance of the actin cytoskeleton to mammalian CME is variable. However, a growing number of studies have established the actin cytoskeleton as a core component of mammalian CME, and our understanding of its contribution has been increasing at a rapid pace. In this review, we summarise the state-of-the-art regarding our understanding of the endocytic cytoskeleton, its physiological significance, and the questions that remain to be answered.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Clathrin , Actin Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , Animals , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Clathrin/metabolism , Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Endocytosis/physiology , Mammals/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism
10.
Virology ; 570: 1-8, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839383

ABSTRACT

Enveloped viruses such as Coronaviridae (CoV) enter the host cell by fusing the viral envelope directly with the plasma membrane (PM) or with the membrane of the endosome. Replication of the CoV genome takes place in membrane compartments formed by rearrangement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane network. Budding of these viruses occurs from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). The relationship between proteins and various membranes is crucial for the replication cycle of CoVs. The role of transmembrane domains (TMDs) and pre-transmembrane domains (pre-TMD) of viral proteins in this process is gaining more recognition. Here we present a thorough analysis of physico-chemical parameters, such as accessible surface area (ASA), average hydrophobicity (Hav), and contribution of specific amino acids in TMDs and pre-TMDs of single-span membrane proteins of human viruses. We focus on unique properties of these elements in CoV and postulate their role in adaptation to diverse host membranes and regulation of retention of membrane proteins during replication.


Subject(s)
Coronaviridae , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Protein Domains , Viral Proteins/metabolism
11.
Int J Pharm ; 620: 121757, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796680

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary diseases are currently one of the major threats of human health, especially considering the recent COVID-19 pandemic. However, the current treatments are facing the challenges like insufficient local drug concentrations, the fast lung clearance and risks to induce unexpected inflammation. Cell-derived membrane biomimetic nanocarriers are recently emerged delivery strategy, showing advantages of long circulation time, excellent biocompatibility and immune escape ability. In this review, applications of using cell-derived membrane biomimetic nanocarriers from diverse cell sources for the targeted therapy of pulmonary disease were summarized. In addition, improvements of the cell-derived membrane biomimetic nanocarriers for augmented therapeutic ability against different kinds of pulmonary diseases were introduced. This review is expected to provide a general guideline for the potential applications of cell-derived membrane biomimetic nanocarriers to treat pulmonary diseases.


Subject(s)
Biomimetic Materials , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Biomimetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Drug Carriers/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Nature ; 603(7902): 706-714, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764186

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in 20211 and has multiple mutations in its spike protein2. Here we show that the spike protein of Omicron has a higher affinity for ACE2 compared with Delta, and a marked change in its antigenicity increases Omicron's evasion of therapeutic monoclonal and vaccine-elicited polyclonal neutralizing antibodies after two doses. mRNA vaccination as a third vaccine dose rescues and broadens neutralization. Importantly, the antiviral drugs remdesivir and molnupiravir retain efficacy against Omicron BA.1. Replication was similar for Omicron and Delta virus isolates in human nasal epithelial cultures. However, in lung cells and gut cells, Omicron demonstrated lower replication. Omicron spike protein was less efficiently cleaved compared with Delta. The differences in replication were mapped to the entry efficiency of the virus on the basis of spike-pseudotyped virus assays. The defect in entry of Omicron pseudotyped virus to specific cell types effectively correlated with higher cellular RNA expression of TMPRSS2, and deletion of TMPRSS2 affected Delta entry to a greater extent than Omicron. Furthermore, drug inhibitors targeting specific entry pathways3 demonstrated that the Omicron spike inefficiently uses the cellular protease TMPRSS2, which promotes cell entry through plasma membrane fusion, with greater dependency on cell entry through the endocytic pathway. Consistent with suboptimal S1/S2 cleavage and inability to use TMPRSS2, syncytium formation by the Omicron spike was substantially impaired compared with the Delta spike. The less efficient spike cleavage of Omicron at S1/S2 is associated with a shift in cellular tropism away from TMPRSS2-expressing cells, with implications for altered pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Membrane Fusion , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Nasal Mucosa/pathology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , Virulence , Virus Replication
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667194

ABSTRACT

The TMEM16A/anoctamin-1 calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) contributes to a range of vital functions, such as the control of vascular tone and epithelial ion transport. The channel is a founding member of a family of 10 proteins (TMEM16x) with varied functions; some members (i.e., TMEM16A and TMEM16B) serve as CaCCs, while others are lipid scramblases, combine channel and scramblase function, or perform additional cellular roles. TMEM16x proteins are typically activated by agonist-induced Ca2+ release evoked by Gq-protein-coupled receptor (GqPCR) activation; thus, TMEM16x proteins link Ca2+-signalling with cell electrical activity and/or lipid transport. Recent studies demonstrate that a range of other cellular factors-including plasmalemmal lipids, pH, hypoxia, ATP and auxiliary proteins-also control the activity of the TMEM16A channel and its paralogues, suggesting that the TMEM16x proteins are effectively polymodal sensors of cellular homeostasis. Here, we review the molecular pathophysiology, structural biology, and mechanisms of regulation of TMEM16x proteins by multiple cellular factors.


Subject(s)
Anoctamin-1/metabolism , Anoctamins/metabolism , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Animals , Anoctamins/physiology , Biological Transport/physiology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Humans , Ion Transport/physiology , Phospholipid Transfer Proteins/metabolism
14.
Cell Chem Biol ; 29(2): 215-225.e5, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664751

ABSTRACT

Coagulation cofactors profoundly regulate hemostasis and are appealing targets for anticoagulants. However, targeting such proteins has been challenging because they lack an active site. To address this, we isolate an RNA aptamer termed T18.3 that binds to both factor V (FV) and FVa with nanomolar affinity and demonstrates clinically relevant anticoagulant activity in both plasma and whole blood. The aptamer also shows synergy with low molecular weight heparin and delivers potent anticoagulation in plasma collected from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Moreover, the aptamer's anticoagulant activity can be rapidly and efficiently reversed using protamine sulfate, which potentially allows fine-tuning of aptamer's activity post-administration. We further show that the aptamer achieves its anticoagulant activity by abrogating FV/FVa interactions with phospholipid membranes. Our success in generating an anticoagulant aptamer targeting FV/Va demonstrates the feasibility of using cofactor-binding aptamers as therapeutic protein inhibitors and reveals an unconventional working mechanism of an aptamer by interrupting protein-membrane interactions.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Aptamers, Nucleotide/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Factor V/antagonists & inhibitors , Factor Va/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Sequence , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/metabolism , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/metabolism , Base Pairing , Binding Sites , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Factor V/chemistry , Factor V/genetics , Factor V/metabolism , Factor Va/chemistry , Factor Va/genetics , Factor Va/metabolism , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/chemistry , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/metabolism , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immune Sera/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Protamines , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SELEX Aptamer Technique , Substrate Specificity
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625435

ABSTRACT

Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 contains a single-span transmembrane (TM) domain and plays roles in receptor binding, viral attachment and viral entry to the host cells. The TM domain of spike protein is critical for viral infectivity. Herein, the TM domain of spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was reconstituted in detergent micelles and subjected to structural analysis using solution NMR spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the TM domain of the protein forms a helical structure in detergent micelles. An unstructured linker is identified between the TM helix and heptapeptide repeat 2 region. The linker is due to the proline residue at position 1213. Side chains of the three tryptophan residues preceding to and within the TM helix important for the function of S-protein might adopt multiple conformations which may be critical for their function. The side chain of W1212 was shown to be exposed to solvent and the side chains of residues W1214 and W1217 are buried in micelles. Relaxation study shows that the TM helix is rigid in solution while several residues have exchanges. The secondary structure and dynamics of the TM domain in this study provide insights into the function of the TM domain of spike protein.


Subject(s)
Detergents/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cross-Linking Reagents/pharmacology , Detergents/chemistry , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Micelles , Models, Molecular , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Protein Domains/drug effects , Protein Structure, Secondary/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(4)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621335

ABSTRACT

After binding to its cell surface receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the host cell through directly fusing with plasma membrane (cell surface pathway) or undergoing endocytosis traveling to lysosome/late endosome for membrane fusion (endocytic pathway). However, the endocytic entry regulation by host cell remains elusive. Recent studies show ACE2 possesses a type I PDZ binding motif (PBM) through which it could interact with a PDZ domain-containing protein such as sorting nexin 27 (SNX27). In this study, we determined the ACE2-PBM/SNX27-PDZ complex structure, and, through a series of functional analyses, we found SNX27 plays an important role in regulating the homeostasis of ACE2 receptor. More importantly, we demonstrated SNX27, together with retromer complex (the core component of the endosomal protein sorting machinery), prevents ACE2/virus complex from entering lysosome/late endosome, resulting in decreased viral entry in cells where the endocytic pathway dominates. The ACE2/virus retrieval mediated by SNX27-retromer could be considered as a countermeasure against invasion of ACE2 receptor-using SARS coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Endosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sorting Nexins/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cytosol/metabolism , Endocytosis , Gene Expression Profiling , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Homeostasis , Humans , Lentivirus , Lysosomes/metabolism , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Sorting Nexins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
17.
Biologicals ; 75: 12-15, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The successful development of messenger RNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 opened up venues for clinical nucleotide-based vaccinations. For development of DNA vaccines, we tested whether the EGF domain peptide of Developmentally regulated endothelial locus1 (E3 peptide) enhances uptake of extracellularly applied plasmid DNA. METHODS: DNA plasmid encoding lacZ or GFP was applied with a conditioned culture medium containing E3 peptide to cell lines in vitro or mouse soleus muscles in vivo, respectively. After 48 h incubation, gene expression was examined by ß-galactosidase (ß-gal) assay and fluorescent microscope, respectively. RESULTS: Application of E3 peptide-containing medium to cultured cell lines induced intense ß-gal activity in a dose-dependent manner. Intra-gastrocnemius injection of E3 peptide-containing medium to mouse soleus muscle succeeded in the induction of GFP fluorescence in many cells around the injection site. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of E3 peptide facilitates transmembrane uptake of extracellular DNA plasmid which induces sufficient extrinsic gene expression.


Subject(s)
DNA/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor/chemistry , Gene Expression , Peptides , Plasmids/genetics , Plasmids/metabolism , Protein Domains , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Membrane/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Mice , Muscle, Skeletal , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/metabolism
18.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580417

ABSTRACT

Different serological assays were rapidly generated to study humoral responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein. Due to the intrinsic difficulty of working with SARS-CoV-2 authentic virus, most serological assays use recombinant forms of the Spike glycoprotein or its receptor binding domain (RBD). Cell-based assays expressing different forms of the Spike, as well as pseudoviral assays, are also widely used. To evaluate whether these assays recapitulate findings generated when the Spike is expressed in its physiological context (at the surface of the infected primary cells), we developed an intracellular staining against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) to distinguish infected from uninfected cells. Human airway epithelial cells (pAECs) were infected with authentic SARS-CoV-2 D614G or Alpha variants. We observed robust cell-surface expression of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike at the surface of the infected pAECs using the conformational-independent anti-S2 CV3-25 antibody. The infected cells were also readily recognized by plasma from convalescent and vaccinated individuals and correlated with several serological assays. This suggests that the antigenicity of the Spike present at the surface of the infected primary cells is maintained in serological assays involving expression of the native full-length Spike.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Bronchioles/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576961

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the role of complement (C') in infections with highly prevalent circulating human coronaviruses such as OC43, a group of viruses of major public health concern. Treatment of OC43-infected human lung cells with human serum resulted in C3 deposition on their surfaces and generation of C5a, indicating robust C' activation. Real-time cell viability assays showed that in vitro C'-mediated lysis of OC43 infected cells requires C3, C5 and C6 but not C7, and was substantially delayed as compared to rapid C'-mediated killing of parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5)-infected cells. In cells co-infected with OC43 and PIV5, C'-mediated lysis was delayed, similar to OC43 infected cells alone, suggesting that OC43 infection induced dominant inhibitory signals. When OC43-infected cells were treated with human serum, their cell surfaces contained both Vitronectin (VN) and Clusterin (CLU), two host cell C' inhibitors that can alter membrane attack complex (MAC) formation and C'-mediated killing. VN and CLU were not bound to OC43-infected cells after treatment with antibody-depleted serum. Reconstitution experiments with purified IgG and VN showed that human antibodies are both necessary and sufficient for VN recruitment to OC43-infected lung cells-novel findings with implications for CoV pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/metabolism , Clusterin/metabolism , Complement Inactivator Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Lung/virology , Vitronectin/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Survival/immunology , Complement Activation , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Parainfluenza Virus 5/immunology
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(50)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555255

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), binds to host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through its spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. However, the expression of ACE2 is extremely low in a variety of human tissues, especially in the airways. Thus, other coreceptors and/or cofactors on the surface of host cells may contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we identified nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYH9) as an important host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection of human pulmonary cells by using APEX2 proximity-labeling techniques. Genetic ablation of MYH9 significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in wild type (WT) A549 and Calu-3 cells, and overexpression of MYH9 enhanced the pseudovirus infection in WT A549 and H1299 cells. MYH9 was colocalized with the SARS-CoV-2 S and directly interacted with SARS-CoV-2 S through the S2 subunit and S1-NTD (N-terminal domain) by its C-terminal domain (designated as PRA). Further experiments suggested that endosomal or myosin inhibitors effectively block the viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 into PRA-A549 cells, while transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and cathepsin B and L (CatB/L) inhibitors do not, indicating that MYH9 promotes SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis and bypasses TMPRSS2 and CatB/L pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of MYH9 reduces authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection in Calu-3, ACE2-A549, and ACE2-H1299 cells. Together, our results suggest that MYH9 is a candidate host factor for SARS-CoV-2, which mediates the virus entering host cells by endocytosis in an ACE2-dependent manner, and may serve as a potential target for future clinical intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Myosin Heavy Chains/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Myosin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Myosin Heavy Chains/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS Virus/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
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