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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(21): 4642-4649, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860273

ABSTRACT

Like all viral infections, SARS-CoV-2 acts at multiple levels, hijacking fundamental cellular functions and assuring its replication and immune system evasion. In particular, the viral 3' Open Reading Frame (ORF3a) codes for a hydrophobic protein, which embeds in the cellular membrane, where it acts as an ion viroporin and is related to strong inflammatory response. Here we report equilibrium and enhanced sampling molecular dynamic simulation of the SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a in a model lipid bilayer, showing how the protein permeabilizes the lipid membrane, via the formation of a water channel, which in turn assures ion transport. We report the free energy profile for both K+ and Cl- transfer from the cytosol to the extracellular domain. The important role of ORF3a in the viral cycle and its high conservation among coronaviruses may also make it a target of choice for future antiviral development, further justifying the elucidation of its mechanism at the atomistic level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Membrane , Viroporin Proteins , Cell Membrane/virology , Humans , Lipids , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nature ; 603(7902): 706-714, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764186

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in 20211 and has multiple mutations in its spike protein2. Here we show that the spike protein of Omicron has a higher affinity for ACE2 compared with Delta, and a marked change in its antigenicity increases Omicron's evasion of therapeutic monoclonal and vaccine-elicited polyclonal neutralizing antibodies after two doses. mRNA vaccination as a third vaccine dose rescues and broadens neutralization. Importantly, the antiviral drugs remdesivir and molnupiravir retain efficacy against Omicron BA.1. Replication was similar for Omicron and Delta virus isolates in human nasal epithelial cultures. However, in lung cells and gut cells, Omicron demonstrated lower replication. Omicron spike protein was less efficiently cleaved compared with Delta. The differences in replication were mapped to the entry efficiency of the virus on the basis of spike-pseudotyped virus assays. The defect in entry of Omicron pseudotyped virus to specific cell types effectively correlated with higher cellular RNA expression of TMPRSS2, and deletion of TMPRSS2 affected Delta entry to a greater extent than Omicron. Furthermore, drug inhibitors targeting specific entry pathways3 demonstrated that the Omicron spike inefficiently uses the cellular protease TMPRSS2, which promotes cell entry through plasma membrane fusion, with greater dependency on cell entry through the endocytic pathway. Consistent with suboptimal S1/S2 cleavage and inability to use TMPRSS2, syncytium formation by the Omicron spike was substantially impaired compared with the Delta spike. The less efficient spike cleavage of Omicron at S1/S2 is associated with a shift in cellular tropism away from TMPRSS2-expressing cells, with implications for altered pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Membrane Fusion , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Nasal Mucosa/pathology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , Virulence , Virus Replication
3.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 9735626, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677416

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was characterized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Dec. 2019. SARS-CoV-2 binds to the cell membrane through spike proteins on its surface and infects the cell. Furin, a host-cell enzyme, possesses a binding site for the spike protein. Thus, molecules that block furin could potentially be a therapeutic solution. Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that can hypothetically inhibit furin because of their arginine-rich structure. Theta-defensins, a subclass of defensins, have attracted attention as drug candidates due to their small size, unique structure, and involvement in several defense mechanisms. Theta-defensins could be a potential treatment for COVID-19 through furin inhibition and an anti-inflammatory mechanism. Note that inflammatory events are a significant and deadly condition that could happen at the later stages of COVID-19 infection. Here, the potential of theta-defensins against SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated through in silico approaches. Based on docking analysis results, theta-defensins can function as furin inhibitors. Additionally, a novel candidate peptide against COVID-19 with optimal properties regarding antigenicity, stability, electrostatic potential, and binding strength was proposed. Further in vitro/in vivo investigations could verify the efficiency of the designed novel peptide.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Defensins/pharmacology , Drug Design , Furin/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalytic Domain , Cell Membrane/virology , Computer Simulation , Data Mining , Furin/chemistry , Humans , Inflammation , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/chemistry , Software , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Static Electricity
4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555020

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in nursing piglets. Studies showed that PDCoV uses porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) as an entry receptor, but the infection of pAPN-knockout cells or pigs with PDCoV revealed that pAPN might be not a critical functional receptor, implying there exists an unidentified receptor involved in PDCoV infection. Herein, we report that sialic acid (SA) can act as an attachment receptor for PDCoV invasion and facilitate its infection. We first demonstrated that the carbohydrates destroyed on the cell membrane using NaIO4 can alleviate the susceptibility of cells to PDCoV. Further study showed that the removal of SA, a typical cell-surface carbohydrate, could influence the PDCoV infectivity to the cells significantly, suggesting that SA was involved in the infection. The results of plaque assay and Western blotting revealed that SA promoted PDCoV infection by increasing the number of viruses binding to SA on the cell surface during the adsorption phase, which was also confirmed by atomic force microscopy at the microscopic level. In in vivo experiments, we found that the distribution levels of PDCoV and SA were closely relevant in the swine intestine, which contains huge amount of trypsin. We further confirmed that SA-binding capacity to PDCoV is related to the pre-treatment of PDCoV with trypsin. In conclusion, SA is a novel attachment receptor for PDCoV infection to enhance its attachment to cells, which is dependent on the pre-treatment of trypsin on PDCoV. This study paves the way for dissecting the mechanisms of PDCoV-host interactions and provides new strategies to control PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/physiology , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Trypsin/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Animals , Carbohydrates , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Intestines/metabolism , Intestines/virology , Periodic Acid/pharmacology , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Trypsin/pharmacology
5.
J Sep Sci ; 45(2): 456-467, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499288

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been studied since the early clinical treatment of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Considering these two chiral drugs are currently in use as the racemate, high-expression angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 cell membrane chromatography was established for investigating the differences of two paired enantiomers binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Molecular docking assay and detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped virus entry into angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-HEK293T cells were also conducted for further investigation. Results showed that each single enantiomer could bind well to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, but there were differences between the paired enantiomers and corresponding racemate in frontal analysis. R-Chloroquine showed better angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding ability compared to S-chloroquine/chloroquine (racemate). S-Hydroxychloroquine showed better angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding ability than R-hydroxychloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. Moreover, each single enantiomer was proved effective compared with the control group; compared with S-chloroquine or the racemate, R-chloroquine showed better inhibitory effects at the same concentration. As for hydroxychloroquine, R-hydroxychloroquine showed better inhibitory effects than S-hydroxychloroquine, but it slightly worse than the racemate. In conclusion, R-chloroquine showed better angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding ability and inhibitory effects compared to S-chloroquine/chloroquine (racemate). S-Hydroxychloroquine showed better angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding ability than R-hydroxychloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (racemate), while the effect of preventing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus from entering cells was weaker than R-hydroxychloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (racemate).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Hydroxychloroquine/chemistry , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Molecular Docking Simulation , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Solvents , Stereoisomerism , Virus Internalization
6.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438526

ABSTRACT

Eukaryotic cells contain dynamic membrane-bound organelles that are constantly remodeled in response to physiological and environmental cues. Key organelles are the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane, which are interconnected by vesicular traffic through the secretory transport route. Numerous viruses, especially enveloped viruses, use and modify compartments of the secretory pathway to promote their replication, assembly and cell egression by hijacking the host cell machinery. In some cases, the subversion mechanism has been uncovered. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of how the secretory pathway is subverted and exploited by viruses belonging to Picornaviridae, Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae, Poxviridae, Parvoviridae and Herpesviridae families.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Golgi Apparatus/virology , Secretory Pathway/physiology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Biological Transport/physiology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Humans
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 502, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387327

ABSTRACT

The multifunctional nucleocapsid (N) protein in SARS-CoV-2 binds the ~30 kb viral RNA genome to aid its packaging into the 80-90 nm membrane-enveloped virion. The N protein is composed of N-terminal RNA-binding and C-terminal dimerization domains that are flanked by three intrinsically disordered regions. Here we demonstrate that the N protein's central disordered domain drives phase separation with RNA, and that phosphorylation of an adjacent serine/arginine rich region modulates the physical properties of the resulting condensates. In cells, N forms condensates that recruit the stress granule protein G3BP1, highlighting a potential role for N in G3BP1 sequestration and stress granule inhibition. The SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein independently induces N protein phase separation, and three-component mixtures of N + M + RNA form condensates with mutually exclusive compartments containing N + M or N + RNA, including annular structures in which the M protein coats the outside of an N + RNA condensate. These findings support a model in which phase separation of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein contributes both to suppression of the G3BP1-dependent host immune response and to packaging genomic RNA during virion assembly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , DNA Helicases/genetics , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/genetics , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/genetics , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
8.
J Mol Biol ; 433(10): 166946, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386061

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a major infectious disease threat, and include the zoonotic-origin human pathogens SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV (SARS-2, SARS-1, and MERS). Entry of coronaviruses into host cells is mediated by the spike (S) protein. In our previous ESR studies, the local membrane ordering effect of the fusion peptide (FP) of various viral glycoproteins including the S of SARS-1 and MERS has been consistently observed. We previously determined that the sequence immediately downstream from the S2' cleavage site is the bona fide SARS-1 FP. In this study, we used sequence alignment to identify the SARS-2 FP, and studied its membrane ordering effect. Although there are only three residue differences, SARS-2 FP induces even greater membrane ordering than SARS-1 FP, possibly due to its greater hydrophobicity. This may be a reason that SARS-2 is better able to infect host cells. In addition, the membrane binding enthalpy for SARS-2 is greater. Both the membrane ordering of SARS-2 and SARS-1 FPs are dependent on Ca2+, but that of SARS-2 shows a greater response to the presence of Ca2+. Both FPs bind two Ca2+ ions as does SARS-1 FP, but the two Ca2+ binding sites of SARS-2 exhibit greater cooperativity. This Ca2+ dependence by the SARS-2 FP is very ion-specific. These results show that Ca2+ is an important regulator that interacts with the SARS-2 FP and thus plays a significant role in SARS-2 viral entry. This could lead to therapeutic solutions that either target the FP-calcium interaction or block the Ca2+ channel.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , Calcium/pharmacology , Calorimetry , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/virology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Thermodynamics , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
9.
Immunol Res ; 69(6): 496-519, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363786

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 S protein on the membrane of infected cells can promote receptor-dependent syncytia formation, relating to extensive tissue damage and lymphocyte elimination. In this case, it is challenging to obtain neutralizing antibodies and prevent them through antibodies effectively. Considering that, in the current study, structural domain search methods are adopted to analyze the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to find the fusion mechanism. The results show that after the EF-hand domain of S protein bound to calcium ions, S2 protein had CaMKII protein activities. Besides, the CaMKII_AD domain of S2 changed S2 conformation, facilitating the formation of HR1-HR2 six-helix bundles. Apart from that, the Ca2+-ATPase of S2 pumped calcium ions from the virus cytoplasm to help membrane fusion, while motor structures of S drove the CaATP_NAI and CaMKII_AD domains to extend to the outside and combined the viral membrane and the cell membrane, thus forming a calcium bridge. Furthermore, the phospholipid-flipping-ATPase released water, triggering lipid mixing and fusion and generating fusion pores. Then, motor structures promoted fusion pore extension, followed by the cytoplasmic contents of the virus being discharged into the cell cytoplasm. After that, the membrane of the virus slid onto the cell membrane along the flowing membrane on the gap of the three CaATP_NAI. At last, the HR1-HR2 hexamer would fall into the cytoplasm or stay on the cell membrane. Therefore, the CaMKII_like system of S protein facilitated membrane fusion for further inducing syncytial multinucleated giant cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/metabolism , Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Giant Cells/metabolism , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Membrane/physiology , Cell Membrane/virology , Giant Cells/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Virus Internalization
10.
Biochimie ; 179: 229-236, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326922

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019), a respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus strain, SARS-CoV-2, has affected more than 42 million people already, with more than one million deaths worldwide (as of October 25, 2020). We are in urgent need of therapeutic interventions that target the host-virus interface, which requires a molecular understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 life-cycle. Like other positive-sense RNA viruses, coronaviruses remodel intracellular membranes to form specialized viral replication compartments, including double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), where viral RNA genome replication takes place. Here we review the current knowledge of the structure, lipid composition, function, and biogenesis of coronavirus-induced DMVs, highlighting the druggable viral and cellular factors that are involved in the formation and function of DMVs.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Coronavirus/physiology , Host Microbial Interactions , Virus Replication , Cell Membrane/virology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2099: 9-20, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292544

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with a broad host range. The extent of MERS-CoV in nature can be traced to its adaptable cell entry steps. The virus can bind host-cell carbohydrates as well as proteinaceous receptors. Following receptor interaction, the virus can utilize diverse host proteases for cleavage activation of virus-host cell membrane fusion and subsequent genome delivery. The fusion and genome delivery steps can be completed at variable times and places, either at or near cell surfaces or deep within endosomes. Investigators focusing on the CoVs have developed several methodologies that effectively distinguish these different cell entry pathways. Here we describe these methods, highlighting virus-cell entry factors, entry inhibitors, and viral determinants that specify the cell entry routes. While the specific methods described herein were utilized to reveal MERS-CoV entry pathways, they are equally suited for other CoVs, as well as other protease-dependent viral species.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization , Cell Membrane/virology , Endosomes/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009662, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259253

ABSTRACT

Signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPA) is a well-known inhibitor of phagocytosis when it complexes with CD47 expressed on target cells. Here we show that SIRPA decreased in vitro infection by a number of pathogenic viruses, including New World and Old World arenaviruses, Zika virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and pseudoviruses bearing the Machupo virus, Ebola virus and SARS-CoV-2 glycoproteins, but not HSV-1, MLV or mNoV. Moreover, mice with targeted mutation of the Sirpa gene that renders it non-functional were more susceptible to infection with the New World arenaviruses Junín virus vaccine strain Candid 1 and Tacaribe virus, but not MLV or mNoV. All SIRPA-inhibited viruses have in common the requirement for trafficking to a low pH endosomal compartment. This was clearly demonstrated with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, which was only inhibited by SIRPA in cells in which it required trafficking to the endosome. Similar to its role in phagocytosis inhibition, SIRPA decreased virus internalization but not binding to cell surface receptors. We also found that increasing SIRPA levels via treatment with IL-4 led to even greater anti-viral activity. These data suggest that enhancing SIRPA's activity could be a target for anti-viral therapies.


Subject(s)
Endocytosis , RNA Viruses/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/physiology , Virus Internalization , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Delivery Systems , Integrins/immunology , Interleukin-4/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Protein Domains , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Vero Cells
13.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160040

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have caused severe diseases in humans and animals. Endocytic pathways, such as clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CavME), play an important role for CoVs to penetrate the cell membrane barrier. In this study, a novel CoV entry manner is unraveled in which clathrin and caveolae can cooperatively mediate endocytosis of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV). Using multicolor live-cell imaging, the dynamics of the fluorescently labeled clathrin structures, caveolae structures, and PEDV were dissected. During CavME of PEDV, we found that clathrin structures can fuse with caveolae near the cell plasma membrane, and the average time of PEDV penetrating the cell membrane was within ∼3 min, exhibiting a rapid course of PEDV entry. Moreover, based on the dynamic recruitment of clathrin and caveolae structures and viral motility, the direct evidence also shows that about 20% of PEDVs can undergo an abortive entry via CME and CavME. Additionally, the dynamic trafficking of PEDV from clathrin and caveolae structures to early endosomes, and from early endosomes to late endosomes, and viral fusion were directly dissected, and PEDV fusion mainly occurred in late endosomes within ∼6.8 min after the transport of PEDV to late endosomes. Collectively, this work systematically unravels the early steps of PEDV infection, which expands our understanding of the mechanism of CoV infection.IMPORTANCE Emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses cause serious human and animal epidemics worldwide. For many enveloped viruses, including coronavirus, it is evident that breaking the plasma membrane barrier is a pivotal and complex process, which contains multiple dynamic steps. Although great efforts have been made to understand the mechanisms of coronavirus endocytic pathways, the direct real-time imaging of individual porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) internalization has not been achieved yet. In this study, we not only dissected the kinetics of PEDV entry via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis and the kinetics of endosome trafficking and viral fusion but also found a novel productive coronavirus entry manner in which clathrin and caveolae can cooperatively mediate endocytosis of PEDV. Moreover, we uncovered the existence of PEDV abortive endocytosis. In summary, the productive PEDV entry via the cooperation between clathrin and caveolae structures and the abortive endocytosis of PEDV provide new insights into coronavirus penetrating the plasma membrane barrier.


Subject(s)
Caveolae/metabolism , Clathrin/metabolism , Endocytosis/physiology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells
14.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100470, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101336

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major threat to global health. Vaccines are ideal solutions to prevent infection, but treatments are also needed for those who have contracted the virus to limit negative outcomes, when vaccines are not applicable. Viruses must cross host cell membranes during their life cycle, creating a dependency on processes involving membrane dynamics. Thus, in this study, we examined whether the synthetic machinery for glycosphingolipids, biologically active components of cell membranes, can serve as a therapeutic target to combat SARS-CoV-2. We examined the antiviral effect of two specific inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS): (i) Genz-123346, an analogue of the United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drug Cerdelga and (ii) GENZ-667161, an analogue of venglustat, which is currently under phase III clinical trials. We found that both GCS inhibitors inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, these inhibitors also disrupt replication of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Our data imply that synthesis of glycosphingolipids is necessary to support viral life cycles and suggest that GCS inhibitors should be further explored as antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Dioxanes/pharmacology , Glucosyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycosphingolipids/antagonists & inhibitors , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Quinuclidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Carbamates/chemical synthesis , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/enzymology , Cell Membrane/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Dioxanes/chemical synthesis , Dogs , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucosyltransferases/genetics , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Glycosphingolipids/biosynthesis , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/growth & development , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/enzymology , Influenza, Human/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Pyrrolidines/chemical synthesis , Quinuclidines/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Genome ; 64(6): 595-598, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088304

ABSTRACT

The frequent outbreaks of life-threatening RNA viruses, including the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), pose tremendous challenges to humanity. The author proposes that creating a more alkaline extracellular environment that is unsuitable for the fusion between the envelope of SARS-CoV-2 and the host cell membrane is a promising method to prevent the entry of coronaviruses into human cells. The alkaline environment could be achieved by exposing the general public to water-clustered negative air ions (NAIs), both indoors and outdoors, to induce a gradual increase in the pH of the human body. Previous studies have demonstrated that there are no harmful effects of high-concentration NAIs on human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Cell Membrane/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
16.
FASEB J ; 34(3): 4653-4669, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832736

ABSTRACT

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes significant economic losses in swine industry. Current studies on TGEV internalization mainly focus on viral receptors, but the internalization mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we used single-virus tracking to obtain the detailed insights into the dynamic events of the TGEV internalization and depict the whole sequential process. We observed that TGEVs could be internalized through clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and the internalization of TGEVs was almost completed within ~2 minutes after TGEVs attached to the cell membrane. Furthermore, the interactions of TGEVs with actin and dynamin 2 in real time during the TGEV internalization were visualized. To our knowledge, this is the first report that single-virus tracking technique is used to visualize the entire dynamic process of the TGEV internalization: before the TGEV internalization, with the assistance of actin, clathrin, and caveolin 1 would gather around the virus to form the vesicle containing the TGEV, and after ~60 seconds, dynamin 2 would be recruited to promote membrane fission. These results demonstrate that TGEVs enter ST cells via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytic, actin-dependent, and dynamin 2-dependent pathways.


Subject(s)
Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/metabolism , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/virology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/pathogenicity , Actins/metabolism , Animals , Caveolae/metabolism , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/physiology , Cell Membrane/virology , Clathrin/metabolism , Dynamin II/metabolism , Endocytosis/physiology , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Swine , Virus Internalization
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(7): 183274, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-820155

ABSTRACT

The gp41 type I membrane protein is part of the trimeric Env complex forming the spikes at the HIV surface. By interacting with cellular receptors, the Env protein complex initiates the infectious cycle of HIV. After the first contact has been established Env disassembles by shedding gp120 while the remaining gp41 undergoes a number of conformational changes which drive fusion of the cellular and the viral membranes. Here we investigated the membrane interactions and oligomerization of the two gp41 heptad repeat domains NHR and CHR. While these are thought to form a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion state little is known about their structure and role during prior fusion events. When investigated in aqueous buffer by CD and fluorescence quenching techniques the formation of NHR/CHR hetero-oligomers is detected. An equilibrium of monomers and hetero-oligomers is also observed in membrane environments. Furthermore, the partitioning to POPC or POPC/POPG 3/1 vesicles of the two domains alone or in combination has been studied. The membrane interactions were further characterized by 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy of uniaxially oriented samples which shows that the polypeptide helices are oriented parallel to the bilayer surface. The 31P solid-state NMR spectra of the same samples are indicative of considerable disordering of the membrane packing. The data support models where NHR and CHR insert in the viral and cellular membranes, respectively, where they exhibit an active role in the membrane fusion events.


Subject(s)
HIV Envelope Protein gp41/ultrastructure , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Membrane Fusion/genetics , Cell Membrane/genetics , Cell Membrane/virology , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/chemistry , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/genetics , Protein Conformation
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(40): 17024-17038, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772998

ABSTRACT

Broad-spectrum antivirals are powerful weapons against dangerous viruses where no specific therapy exists, as in the case of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We discovered that a lysine- and arginine-specific supramolecular ligand (CLR01) destroys enveloped viruses, including HIV, Ebola, and Zika virus, and remodels amyloid fibrils in semen that promote viral infection. Yet, it is unknown how CLR01 exerts these two distinct therapeutic activities. Here, we delineate a novel mechanism of antiviral activity by studying the activity of tweezer variants: the "phosphate tweezer" CLR01, a "carboxylate tweezer" CLR05, and a "phosphate clip" PC. Lysine complexation inside the tweezer cavity is needed to antagonize amyloidogenesis and is only achieved by CLR01. Importantly, CLR01 and CLR05 but not PC form closed inclusion complexes with lipid head groups of viral membranes, thereby altering lipid orientation and increasing surface tension. This process disrupts viral envelopes and diminishes infectivity but leaves cellular membranes intact. Consequently, CLR01 and CLR05 display broad antiviral activity against all enveloped viruses tested, including herpesviruses, Measles virus, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. Based on our mechanistic insights, we potentiated the antiviral, membrane-disrupting activity of CLR01 by introducing aliphatic ester arms into each phosphate group to act as lipid anchors that promote membrane targeting. The most potent ester modifications harbored unbranched C4 units, which engendered tweezers that were approximately one order of magnitude more effective than CLR01 and nontoxic. Thus, we establish the mechanistic basis of viral envelope disruption by specific tweezers and establish a new class of potential broad-spectrum antivirals with enhanced activity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bridged-Ring Compounds/pharmacology , Organophosphates/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/drug effects , Acid Phosphatase/chemistry , Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Amyloid/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Arginine/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Bridged-Ring Compounds/chemistry , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/virology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Lysine/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Organophosphates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins/chemistry , Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Zika Virus/drug effects
19.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 382, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646915

ABSTRACT

It is now established that a protein can switch between multiple conformations to enable altered functions. Several pathogens including SARS COV2 utilize context-dependent conformational switches of particular proteins to invade host membrane to establish infections. In this perspective, we first discuss the understanding of the conformational switch of a protein towards the productive infections as a dark side of nature. Next, the unexplored binary combination of the sequences of SARS COV2 spike protein and the similarity with diverse pathogen derived proteins have been discussed to obtain novel molecular insights into the process of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Drug Design , Humans , Infections , Protein Conformation , Viral Proteins/chemistry
20.
Biophys Chem ; 266: 106452, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706407

ABSTRACT

The Envelope (E) protein in SARS Coronavirus (CoV) is a small structural protein, incorporated as part of the envelope. A major fraction of the protein has been known to be associated with the host membranes, particularly organelles related to intracellular trafficking, prompting CoV packaging and propagation. Studies have elucidated the central hydrophobic transmembrane domain of the E protein being responsible for much of the viroporin activity in favor of the virus. However, newer insights into the organizational principles at the membranous compartments within the host cells suggest further complexity of the system. The lesser hydrophobic Carboxylic-terminal of the protein harbors interesting amino acid sequences- suggesting at the prevalence of membrane-directed amyloidogenic properties that remains mostly elusive. These highly conserved segments indicate at several potential membrane-associated functional roles that can redefine our comprehensive understanding of the protein. This should prompt further studies in designing and characterizing of effective targeted therapeutic measures.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 , Cell Membrane/pathology , Cell Membrane/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry
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