Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 113021, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute -respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) through interaction of the spike protein (SP) with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and its receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2). Repair mechanisms induced following virus infection can restore the protective barrier through wound healing. Then, cells from the epithelial basal layer repopulate the damaged area, followed by cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as changes in gene expression. METHODS: Using Beas-2B cells and SP, we investigated whether ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) contributes to restoration of the bronchial epithelial layer. ACE2 expression was measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. SP-ACE2 interaction was analyzed by flow cytometry and visualized through immunostaining. Cell migration was assessed using single cell path tracking and wound healing assay. RESULTS: Upon ACE2 overexpression in HeLa, HEK293T, and Beas-2B cells following the transfection of pCMV-ACE2 plasmid DNA, SP binding on each cell was increased in the ACE2 overexpression group compared to pCMV-transfected control cells. SP treatment delayed the migration of BEAS-2B cells compared to the control. SP also reduced cell migration, even under ACE2 overexpression; SP binding was greater in ACE2-overexpressed cells than control cells. UDCA interfered significantly with the binding of SP to ACE2 under our experimental conditions. UDCA also restored the inhibitory migration of Beas-2B cells induced by SP treatment. CONCLSION: Our data demonstrate that UDCA can contribute to the inhibition of abnormal airway epithelial cell migration. These results suggest that UDCA can enhance the repair mechanism, to prevent damage caused by SP-ACE2 interaction and enhance restoration of the epithelial basal layer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Movement , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacology
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 780900, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662580

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have potent self-renewal capacity and differentiate into multiple cell types. For many reasons, these cells are a promising therapeutic alternative to treat patients with severe COVID-19 and pulmonary post-COVID sequelae. These cells are not only essential for tissue regeneration; they can also alter the pulmonary environment through the paracrine secretion of several mediators. They can control or promote inflammation, induce other stem cells differentiation, restrain the virus load, and much more. In this work, we performed single-cell RNA-seq data analysis of MSCs in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from control individuals and COVID-19 patients with mild and severe clinical conditions. When we compared samples from mild cases with control individuals, most genes transcriptionally upregulated in COVID-19 were involved in cell proliferation. However, a new set of genes with distinct biological functions was upregulated when we compared severely affected with mild COVID-19 patients. In this analysis, the cells upregulated genes related to cell dispersion/migration and induced the γ-activated sequence (GAS) genes, probably triggered by IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. Then, IRF-1 was upregulated, one of the GAS target genes, leading to the interferon-stimulated response (ISR) and the overexpression of many signature target genes. The MSCs also upregulated genes involved in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, virus control, cell chemotaxis, and used the cytoplasmic RNA danger sensors RIG-1, MDA5, and PKR. In a non-comparative analysis, we observed that MSCs from severe cases do not express many NF-κB upstream receptors, such as Toll-like (TLRs) TLR-3, -7, and -8; tumor necrosis factor (TNFR1 or TNFR2), RANK, CD40, and IL-1R1. Indeed, many NF-κB inhibitors were upregulated, including PPP2CB, OPTN, NFKBIA, and FHL2, suggesting that MSCs do not play a role in the "cytokine storm" observed. Therefore, lung MSCs in COVID-19 sense immune danger and act protectively in concert with the pulmonary environment, confirming their therapeutic potential in cell-based therapy for COVID-19. The transcription of MSCs senescence markers is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Regeneration/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cell Movement/immunology , Cytoplasm/immunology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Up-Regulation/immunology , Young Adult
3.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7005-7017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524524

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressor protein p53 remains in a wild type but inactive form in ~50% of all human cancers. Thus, activating it becomes an attractive approach for targeted cancer therapies. In this regard, our lab has previously discovered a small molecule, Inauhzin (INZ), as a potent p53 activator with no genotoxicity. Method: To improve its efficacy and bioavailability, here we employed nanoparticle encapsulation, making INZ-C, an analog of INZ, to nanoparticle-encapsulated INZ-C (n-INZ-C). Results: This approach significantly improved p53 activation and inhibition of lung and colorectal cancer cell growth by n-INZ-C in vitro and in vivo while it displayed a minimal effect on normal human Wi38 and mouse MEF cells. The improved activity was further corroborated with the enhanced cellular uptake observed in cancer cells and minimal cellular uptake observed in normal cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticle encapsulation prolongates the half-life of INZ-C from 2.5 h to 5 h in mice. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that we have established a nanoparticle system that could enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of INZ-C as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Indoles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacokinetics , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
4.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502370

ABSTRACT

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an evolutionarily conserved and multifunctional protein that drives inflammation in disease. Gal-3's role in the central nervous system has been less studied than in the immune system. However, recent studies show it exacerbates Alzheimer's disease and is upregulated in a large variety of brain injuries, while loss of Gal-3 function can diminish symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Several novel molecular pathways for Gal-3 were recently uncovered. It is a natural ligand for TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells), TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), and IR (insulin receptor). Gal-3 regulates a number of pathways including stimulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and modulating Wnt signalling in a context-dependent manner. Gal-3 typically acts in pathology but is now known to affect subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the healthy brain. Despite its myriad interactors, Gal-3 has surprisingly specific and important functions in regulating SVZ neurogenesis in disease. Gal-1, a similar lectin often co-expressed with Gal-3, also has profound effects on brain pathology and adult neurogenesis. Remarkably, Gal-3's carbohydrate recognition domain bears structural similarity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein necessary for cell entry. Gal-3 can be targeted pharmacologically and is a valid target for several diseases involving brain inflammation. The wealth of molecular pathways now known further suggest its modulation could be therapeutically useful.


Subject(s)
Galectin 3/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Neurogenesis , Animals , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Movement , Galectin 3/chemistry , Galectin 3/genetics , Humans , Inflammation , Lateral Ventricles/cytology , Lateral Ventricles/growth & development , Lateral Ventricles/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells/cytology , Signal Transduction
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0253108, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the work environment and COVID-19 mitigation measures for homeless shelter workers and assess occupational risk factors for COVID-19. METHODS: Between June 9-August 10, 2020, we conducted a self-administered survey among homeless shelter workers in Washington, Massachusetts, Utah, Maryland, and Georgia. We calculated frequencies for work environment, personal protective equipment use, and SARS-CoV-2 testing history. We used generalized linear models to produce unadjusted prevalence ratios (PR) to assess risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Of the 106 respondents, 43.4% reported frequent close contact with clients; 75% were worried about work-related SARS-CoV-2 infections; 15% reported testing positive. Close contact with clients was associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (PR 3.97, 95%CI 1.06, 14.93). CONCLUSIONS: Homeless shelter workers may be at risk of being exposed to individuals with COVID-19 during the course of their work. Frequent close contact with clients was associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Protecting these critical essential workers by implementing mitigation measures and prioritizing for COVID-19 vaccination is imperative during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Cell Movement/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403545

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality in women and it kills twice as many women as breast cancer. A key role in the pathophysiology of stroke plays the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) within the neurovascular unit. While estrogen induces vascular protective actions, its influence on stroke remains unclear. Moreover, experiments assessing its impact on endothelial cells to induce barrier integrity are non-conclusive. Since pericytes play an active role in regulating BBB integrity and function, we hypothesize that estradiol may influence BBB by regulating their activity. In this study using human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) we investigated the impact of estradiol on key pericyte functions known to influence BBB integrity. HBVPs expressed estrogen receptors (ER-α, ER-ß and GPER) and treatment with estradiol (10 nM) inhibited basal cell migration but not proliferation. Since pericyte migration is a hallmark for BBB disruption following injury, infection and inflammation, we investigated the effects of estradiol on TNFα-induced PC migration. Importantly, estradiol prevented TNFα-induced pericyte migration and this effect was mimicked by PPT (ER-α agonist) and DPN (ER-ß agonist), but not by G1 (GPR30 agonist). The modulatory effects of estradiol were abrogated by MPP and PHTPP, selective ER-α and ER-ß antagonists, respectively, confirming the role of ER-α and ER-ß in mediating the anti-migratory actions of estrogen. To delineate the intracellular mechanisms mediating the inhibitory actions of estradiol on PC migration, we investigated the role of AKT and MAPK activation. While estradiol consistently reduced the TNFα-induced MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, only the inhibition of MAPK, but not Akt, significantly abrogated the migratory actions of TNFα. In transendothelial electrical resistance measurements, estradiol induced barrier function (TEER) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells co-cultured with pericytes, but not in HBMECs cultured alone. Importantly, transcriptomics analysis of genes modulated by estradiol in pericytes showed downregulation of genes known to increase cell migration and upregulation of genes known to inhibit cell migration. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that estradiol modulates pericyte activity and thereby improves endothelial integrity.


Subject(s)
Brain/blood supply , Cell Movement/drug effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Gene Expression Profiling , Pericytes/cytology , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Pericytes/drug effects , Pericytes/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390655

ABSTRACT

The identification of thrombospondin-1 as an angiogenesis inhibitor in 1990 prompted interest in its role in cancer biology and potential as a therapeutic target. Decreased thrombospondin-1 mRNA and protein expression are associated with progression in several cancers, while expression by nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment and circulating levels in cancer patients can be elevated. THBS1 is not a tumor suppressor gene, but the regulation of its expression in malignant cells by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes mediates some of their effects on carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. In addition to regulating angiogenesis and perfusion of the tumor vasculature, thrombospondin-1 limits antitumor immunity by CD47-dependent regulation of innate and adaptive immune cells. Conversely, thrombospondin-1 is a component of particles released by immune cells that mediate tumor cell killing. Thrombospondin-1 differentially regulates the sensitivity of malignant and nonmalignant cells to genotoxic stress caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The diverse activities of thrombospondin-1 to regulate autophagy, senescence, stem cell maintenance, extracellular vesicle function, and metabolic responses to ischemic and genotoxic stress are mediated by several cell surface receptors and by regulating the functions of several secreted proteins. This review highlights progress in understanding thrombospondin-1 functions in cancer and the challenges that remain in harnessing its therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Thrombospondin 1/physiology , Tumor Microenvironment/physiology , Animals , Cell Adhesion , Cell Movement , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Mice , Neoplasms/blood supply , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Thrombospondin 1/genetics , Thrombospondin 1/metabolism
8.
Sci Adv ; 6(48)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388431

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a robust inflammatory response that damages the vascular endothelium, impairing gas exchange. While restoration of microcapillaries is critical to avoid mortality, therapeutic targeting of this process requires a greater understanding of endothelial repair mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelium possesses substantial regenerative capacity and lineage tracing reveals that native endothelium is the source of vascular repair after influenza injury. Ablation of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor 2 (COUP-TF2) (Nr2f2), a transcription factor implicated in developmental angiogenesis, reduced endothelial proliferation, exacerbating viral lung injury in vivo. In vitro, COUP-TF2 regulates proliferation and migration through activation of cyclin D1 and neuropilin 1. Upon influenza injury, nuclear factor κB suppresses COUP-TF2, but surviving endothelial cells ultimately reestablish vascular homeostasis dependent on restoration of COUP-TF2. Therefore, stabilization of COUP-TF2 may represent a therapeutic strategy to enhance recovery from pathogens, including H1N1 influenza and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COUP Transcription Factor II/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Lung/cytology , Lung/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Regeneration/genetics , Animals , COUP Transcription Factor II/genetics , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Knockout Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Transfection
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9919466, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358940

ABSTRACT

Thrombus is considered to be the pathological source of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease and thrombotic complications, while oxidative stress is regarded as an important factor in vascular endothelial injury and thrombus formation. Therefore, antioxidative stress and maintaining the normal function of vascular endothelial cells are greatly significant in regulating vascular tension and maintaining a nonthrombotic environment. Leonurine (LEO) is a unique alkaloid isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt (a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)), which has shown a good effect on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. In this study, we explored the protective effect and action mechanism of LEO on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The protective effects of LEO on H2O2-induced HUVECs were determined by measuring the cell viability, cell migration, tube formation, and oxidative biomarkers. The underlying mechanism of antioxidation of LEO was investigated by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Our results showed that LEO treatment promoted cell viability; remarkably downregulated the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and upregulated the nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in H2O2-induced HUVECs. At the same time, LEO treatment significantly promoted the phosphorylation level of angiogenic protein PI3K, Akt, and eNOS and the expression level of survival factor Bcl2 and decreased the expression level of death factor Bax and caspase3. In conclusion, our findings suggested that LEO can ameliorate the oxidative stress damage and insufficient angiogenesis of HUVECs induced by H2O2 through activating the PI3K/Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346516

ABSTRACT

We recently developed a molecule (GT-73) that blocked leukocyte transendothelial migration from blood to the peripheral tissues, supposedly by affecting the platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) function. GT-73 was tested in an LPS-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mouse model. The rationale for this is based on the finding that the mortality of COVID-19 patients is partly caused by ARDS induced by a massive migration of leukocytes to the lungs. In addition, the role of tert-butyl and methyl ester moieties in the biological effect of GT-73 was investigated. A human leukocyte, transendothelial migration assay was applied to validate the blocking effect of GT-73 derivatives. Finally, a mouse model of LPS-induced ARDS was used to evaluate the histological and biochemical effects of GT-73. The obtained results showed that GT-73 has a unique structure that is responsible for its biological activity; two of its chemical moieties (tert-butyl and a methyl ester) are critical for this effect. GT-73 is a prodrug, and its lipophilic tail covalently binds to PECAM-1 via Lys536. GT-73 significantly decreased the number of infiltrating leukocytes in the lungs and reduced the inflammation level. Finally, GT-73 reduced the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In summary, we concluded that GT-73, a blocker of white blood cell transendothelial migration, has a favorable profile as a drug candidate for the treatment of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Leukocytes/drug effects , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Cell Adhesion/immunology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Leukocytes/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/immunology , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674079, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305644

ABSTRACT

At homeostasis the vast majority of neutrophils in the circulation expresses CD16 and CD62L within a narrow expression range, but this quickly changes in disease. Little is known regarding the changes in kinetics of neutrophils phenotypes in inflammatory conditions. During acute inflammation more heterogeneity was found, characterized by an increase in CD16dim banded neutrophils. These cells were probably released from the bone marrow (left shift). Acute inflammation induced by human experimental endotoxemia (LPS model) was additionally accompanied by an immediate increase in a CD62Llow neutrophil population, which was not as explicit after injury/trauma induced acute inflammation. The situation in sub-acute inflammation was more complex. CD62Llow neutrophils appeared in the peripheral blood several days (>3 days) after trauma with a peak after 10 days. A similar situation was found in the blood of COVID-19 patients returning from the ICU. Sorted CD16low and CD62Llow subsets from trauma and COVID-19 patients displayed the same nuclear characteristics as found after experimental endotoxemia. In diseases associated with chronic inflammation (stable COPD and treatment naive HIV) no increases in CD16low or CD62Llow neutrophils were found in the peripheral blood. All neutrophil subsets were present in the bone marrow during homeostasis. After LPS rechallenge, these subsets failed to appear in the circulation, but continued to be present in the bone marrow, suggesting the absence of recruitment signals. Because the subsets were reported to have different functionalities, these results on the kinetics of neutrophil subsets in a range of inflammatory conditions contribute to our understanding on the role of neutrophils in health and disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Endotoxemia/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Wounds and Injuries/immunology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Cell Movement , Cells, Cultured , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , L-Selectin/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Young Adult
12.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 28: 100406, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258358

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 Pneumonia of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infection, persists to have high disease burden especially in cancer patients. Increased inflammation and thromboembolic processes are blamed to influence cancer patients more than the others but due to lack of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of the both the virus itself and the response of the host, more basic and translational disease modeling research is needed to understand Cancer-Covid-19 interaction. In this study, serum samples from the patients, who were hospitalized due to Covid-19 pneumonia, applied to different cancer cells and cytotoxicity, motility, proliferation and gene expression analysis were performed. Serum samples derived from healthy volunteers and the fetal bovine serum that is used regularly in cell culture experiments used as controls. Hospitalized Covid-19 patients who had also cancer, were retrospectively screened, and their clinical course were recorded. Overall 12 Patient (PS) and 4 healthy serums (CS) were included in the experiments. PS applied cells showed increased motility in A549 cells as well as lost cell to cell connection in MCF7 and HCT116 cells, and induced expression of VIM, ZEB1 and SNAIL2 mRNA levels. Eight cancer diagnosed patients who were hospitalized due to Covid-19 between April and September 2020 were also reviewed retrospectively, which 5 of them were dead during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thorax CT images of the 2 patients showed increased metastatic nodules in the lungs as of January 2021. The results of the study indicate that metastasis may be one of the prolonged consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in cancer sufferers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/physiology , Immune Sera , Neoplasms/pathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immune Sera/adverse effects , Immune Sera/toxicity , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology
13.
SLAS Discov ; 26(9): 1091-1106, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255878

ABSTRACT

Lung imaging and autopsy reports among COVID-19 patients show elevated lung scarring (fibrosis). Early data from COVID-19 patients as well as previous studies from severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and other respiratory disorders show that the extent of lung fibrosis is associated with a higher mortality, prolonged ventilator dependence, and poorer long-term health prognosis. Current treatments to halt or reverse lung fibrosis are limited; thus, the rapid development of effective antifibrotic therapies is a major global medical need that will continue far beyond the current COVID-19 pandemic. Reproducible fibrosis screening assays with high signal-to-noise ratios and disease-relevant readouts such as extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition (the hallmark of fibrosis) are integral to any antifibrotic therapeutic development. Therefore, we have established an automated high-throughput and high-content primary screening assay measuring transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß)-induced ECM deposition from primary human lung fibroblasts in a 384-well format. This assay combines longitudinal live cell imaging with multiparametric high-content analysis of ECM deposition. Using this assay, we have screened a library of 2743 small molecules representing approved drugs and late-stage clinical candidates. Confirmed hits were subsequently profiled through a suite of secondary lung fibroblast phenotypic screening assays quantifying cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. In silico target prediction and pathway network analysis were applied to the confirmed hits. We anticipate this suite of assays and data analysis tools will aid the identification of new treatments to mitigate against lung fibrosis associated with COVID-19 and other fibrotic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/pathology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mass Screening , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
14.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(15): 1681-1687, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243784

ABSTRACT

Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex that mediates the interaction between different proteins as a basic linker in the transcription mechanism of eukaryotes. It interacts with RNA polymerase II and participates in the process of gene expression. Mediator complex subunit 19 or regulation by oxygen 3, or lung cancer metastasis-related protein 1 is located at the head of the mediator complex; it is a multi-protein co-activator that induces the transcription of RNA polymerase II by DNA transcription factors. It is a tumor-related gene that plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis and is closely related to the occurrence and development of the cancers of the lung, bladder, skin, etc. Here, we used the structure of mediator complex subunit 19 to review its role in tumor progression, fat metabolism, drug therapy, as well as the novel coronavirus, which has attracted much attention at present, suggesting that mediator complex subunit 19 has broad application in the occurrence and development of clinical diseases. As a tumor-related gene, the role and mechanism of mediator complex subunit 19 in the regulation of tumor growth could be of great significance for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of mediator complex subunit 19 -related tumors.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Mediator Complex/physiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Cycle/physiology , Cell Movement , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3010, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237999

ABSTRACT

Resident memory T cells (TRM) positioned within the respiratory tract are probably required to limit SARS-CoV-2 spread and COVID-19. Importantly, TRM are mostly non-recirculating, which reduces the window of opportunity to examine these cells in the blood as they move to the lung parenchyma. Here, we identify circulating virus-specific T cell responses during acute infection with functional, migratory and apoptotic patterns modulated by viral proteins and associated with clinical outcome. Disease severity is associated predominantly with IFNγ and IL-4 responses, increased responses against S peptides and apoptosis, whereas non-hospitalized patients have increased IL-12p70 levels, degranulation in response to N peptides and SARS-CoV-2-specific CCR7+ T cells secreting IL-10. In convalescent patients, lung-TRM are frequently detected even 10 months after initial infection, in which contemporaneous blood does not reflect tissue-resident profiles. Our study highlights a balanced anti-inflammatory antiviral response associated with a better outcome and persisting TRM cells as important for future protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Apoptosis/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Movement/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-4/immunology , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
16.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 24, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084770

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stem cells, have been intensely investigated for clinical applications within the last decades. However, the majority of registered clinical trials applying MSC therapy for diverse human diseases have fallen short of expectations, despite the encouraging pre-clinical outcomes in varied animal disease models. This can be attributable to inconsistent criteria for MSCs identity across studies and their inherited heterogeneity. Nowadays, with the emergence of advanced biological techniques and substantial improvements in bio-engineered materials, strategies have been developed to overcome clinical challenges in MSC application. Here in this review, we will discuss the major challenges of MSC therapies in clinical application, the factors impacting the diversity of MSCs, the potential approaches that modify MSC products with the highest therapeutic potential, and finally the usage of MSCs for COVID-19 pandemic disease.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/therapy , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cell Differentiation , Cell Movement , Clinical Trials as Topic , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Genetic Engineering/methods , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
17.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(1): 49-64, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065885

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding of the fundamental processes underlying the versatile clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is incomplete without comprehension of how different immune cells are recruited to various compartments of virus-infected lungs, and how this recruitment differs among individuals with different levels of disease severity. As in other respiratory infections, leukocyte recruitment to the respiratory system in people with COVID-19 is orchestrated by specific leukocyte trafficking molecules, and when uncontrolled and excessive it results in various pathological complications, both in the lungs and in other organs. In the absence of experimental data from physiologically relevant animal models, our knowledge of the trafficking signals displayed by distinct vascular beds and epithelial cell layers in response to infection by SARS-CoV-2 is still incomplete. However, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus elicit partially conserved inflammatory responses in the different respiratory epithelial cells encountered early in infection and may trigger partially overlapping combinations of trafficking signals in nearby blood vessels. Here, we review the molecular signals orchestrating leukocyte trafficking to airway and lung compartments during primary pneumotropic influenza virus infections and discuss potential similarities to distinct courses of primary SARS-CoV-2 infections. We also discuss how an imbalance in vascular activation by leukocytes outside the airways and lungs may contribute to extrapulmonary inflammatory complications in subsets of patients with COVID-19. These multiple molecular pathways are potential targets for therapeutic interventions in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Movement/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Epidemics , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
18.
Molecules ; 26(1)2020 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043025

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Nicotine is implicated in the SARS-COV-2 infection through activation of the α7-nAChR and over-expression of ACE2. Our objective was to clarify the role of nicotine in SARS-CoV-2 infection exploring its molecular and cellular activity. (2) Methods: HBEpC or si-mRNA-α7-HBEpC were treated for 1 h, 48 h or continuously with 10-7 M nicotine, a concentration mimicking human exposure to a cigarette. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and cell counting, migration by cell migration assay, senescence by SA-ß-Gal activity, and anchorage-independent growth by cloning in soft agar. Expression of Ki67, p53/phospho-p53, VEGF, EGFR/pEGFR, phospho-p38, intracellular Ca2+, ATP and EMT were evaluated by ELISA and/or Western blotting. (3) Results: nicotine induced through α7-nAChR (i) increase in cell viability, (ii) cell proliferation, (iii) Ki67 over-expression, (iv) phospho-p38 up-regulation, (v) EGFR/pEGFR over-expression, (vi) increase in basal Ca2+ concentration, (vii) reduction of ATP production, (viii) decreased level of p53/phospho-p53, (ix) delayed senescence, (x) VEGF increase, (xi) EMT and consequent (xii) enhanced migration, and (xiii) ability to grow independently of the substrate. (4) Conclusions: Based on our results and on evidence showing that nicotine potentiates viral infection, it is likely that nicotine is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Nicotine/adverse effects , Respiratory System/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Receptors, Nicotinic/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Smoking/adverse effects , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/metabolism
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917002

ABSTRACT

Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) are upregulated during early responses to tissue damage and are expected to transiently compromise the mechanical microenvironment. Fibroblasts are key regulators of tissue mechanics in the lungs and other organs. However, the effects of IL-1ß on fibroblast mechanics and functions remain unclear. Here we treated human pulmonary fibroblasts from control donors with IL-1ß and used Atomic Force Microscopy to unveil that IL-1ß significantly reduces the stiffness of fibroblasts concomitantly with a downregulation of filamentous actin (F-actin) and alpha-smooth muscle (α-SMA). Likewise, COL1A1 mRNA was reduced, whereas that of collagenases MMP1 and MMP2 were upregulated, favoring a reduction of type-I collagen. These mechanobiology changes were functionally associated with reduced proliferation and enhanced migration upon IL-1ß stimulation, which could facilitate lung repair by drawing fibroblasts to sites of tissue damage. Our observations reveal that IL-1ß may reduce local tissue rigidity by acting both intracellularly and extracellularly through the downregulation of fibroblast contractility and type I collagen deposition, respectively. These IL-1ß-dependent mechanical effects may enhance lung repair further by locally increasing pulmonary tissue compliance to preserve normal lung distension and function. Moreover, our results support that IL-1ß provides innate anti-fibrotic protection that may be relevant during the early stages of lung repair.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-1beta/physiology , Lung/physiology , Actins/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Movement/physiology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type I/genetics , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type III/genetics , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Elasticity/drug effects , Elasticity/physiology , Female , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/physiology , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/pharmacology , Lung/cytology , Lung/drug effects , Male , Microscopy, Atomic Force , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Regeneration/genetics , Regeneration/physiology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Wound Healing/genetics , Wound Healing/physiology , Young Adult
20.
Immunology ; 161(3): 200-208, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755305

ABSTRACT

Cell migration is an essential, energetically demanding process in immunity. Immune cells navigate the body via chemokines and other immune mediators, which are altered under inflammatory conditions of injury or infection. Several factors determine the migratory abilities of different types of immune cells in diverse contexts, including the precise co-ordination of cytoskeletal remodelling, the expression of specific chemokine receptors and integrins, and environmental conditions. In this review, we present an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the relationship of each of these factors with cellular metabolism, with a focus on the spatial organization of glycolysis and mitochondria, reciprocal regulation of chemokine receptors and the influence of environmental changes.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement/immunology , Cytoskeleton/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Animals , Chemokines/metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Integrins/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL