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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(21): 12502-12516, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546005

ABSTRACT

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that exist in all eukaryotes investigated and are derived from back-splicing of certain pre-mRNA exons. Here, we report the application of artificial circRNAs designed to act as antisense-RNAs. We systematically tested a series of antisense-circRNAs targeted to the SARS-CoV-2 genome RNA, in particular its structurally conserved 5'-untranslated region. Functional assays with both reporter transfections as well as with SARS-CoV-2 infections revealed that specific segments of the SARS-CoV-2 5'-untranslated region can be efficiently accessed by specific antisense-circRNAs, resulting in up to 90% reduction of virus proliferation in cell culture, and with a durability of at least 48 h. Presenting the antisense sequence within a circRNA clearly proved more efficient than in the corresponding linear configuration and is superior to modified antisense oligonucleotides. The activity of the antisense-circRNA is surprisingly robust towards point mutations in the target sequence. This strategy opens up novel applications for designer circRNAs and promising therapeutic strategies in molecular medicine.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral/genetics , RNA, Antisense/genetics , RNA, Circular/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , 5' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Base Sequence , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Design , HeLa Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA-Seq/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells
2.
Sci Adv ; 6(48)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388431

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a robust inflammatory response that damages the vascular endothelium, impairing gas exchange. While restoration of microcapillaries is critical to avoid mortality, therapeutic targeting of this process requires a greater understanding of endothelial repair mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelium possesses substantial regenerative capacity and lineage tracing reveals that native endothelium is the source of vascular repair after influenza injury. Ablation of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor 2 (COUP-TF2) (Nr2f2), a transcription factor implicated in developmental angiogenesis, reduced endothelial proliferation, exacerbating viral lung injury in vivo. In vitro, COUP-TF2 regulates proliferation and migration through activation of cyclin D1 and neuropilin 1. Upon influenza injury, nuclear factor κB suppresses COUP-TF2, but surviving endothelial cells ultimately reestablish vascular homeostasis dependent on restoration of COUP-TF2. Therefore, stabilization of COUP-TF2 may represent a therapeutic strategy to enhance recovery from pathogens, including H1N1 influenza and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COUP Transcription Factor II/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Lung/cytology , Lung/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Regeneration/genetics , Animals , COUP Transcription Factor II/genetics , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Knockout Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Transfection
3.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 345-354, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824852

ABSTRACT

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a typical neurotropic coronavirus that mainly invades the central nervous system (CNS) in piglets and causes vomiting and wasting disease. Emerging evidence suggests that PHEV alters microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles, and miRNA has also been postulated to be involved in its pathogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying this process have not been fully explored. In this study, we found that PHEV infection upregulates miR-142a-3p RNA expression in N2a cells and in the CNS of mice. Downregulation of miR-142a-3p by an miRNA inhibitor led to a significant repression of viral proliferation, implying that it acts as a positive regulator of PHEV proliferation. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, miR-142a-3p was found to bind directly bound to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of Rab3a mRNA and downregulate its expression. Knockdown of Rab3a expression by transfection with an miR-142a-3p mimic or Rab3a siRNA significantly increased PHEV replication in N2a cells. Conversely, the use of an miR-142a-3p inhibitor or overexpression of Rab3a resulted in a marked restriction of viral production at both the mRNA and protein level. Our data demonstrate that miR-142a-3p promotes PHEV proliferation by directly targeting Rab3a mRNA, and this provides new insights into the mechanisms of PHEV-related pathogenesis and virus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Swine/virology , rab3A GTP-Binding Protein/genetics , 3' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Down-Regulation/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics
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