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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21462, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500517

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). More than 143 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported to date, with the global death rate at 2.13%. Currently, there are no licensed therapeutics for controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection. The antiviral effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme that inhibits the inflammatory response and reduces oxidative stress, have been investigated in several viral infections. To confirm whether HO-1 suppresses SARS-CoV-2 infection, we assessed the antiviral activity of hemin, an effective and safe HO-1 inducer, in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that treatment with hemin efficiently suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication (selectivity index: 249.7012). Besides, the transient expression of HO-1 using an expression vector also suppressed the growth of the virus in cells. Free iron and biliverdin, which are metabolic byproducts of heme catalysis by HO-1, also suppressed the viral infection. Additionally, hemin indirectly increased the expression of interferon-stimulated proteins known to restrict SARS-CoV-2 replication. Overall, the findings suggested that HO-1, induced by hemin, effectively suppressed SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Therefore, HO-1 could be potential therapeutic candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Hemin/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Heme Oxygenase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Hemin/chemistry , Hemin/pharmacology , Humans , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 789-798, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498508

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected more than 210 million individuals globally and resulted in over 4 million deaths since the first report in December 2019. The early use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for light and ordinary patients, can rapidly improve symptoms, shorten hospitalization days and reduce severe cases transformed from light and normal. Many TCM formulas and products have a wide application in treating infectious and non-infectious diseases. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (P. cuspidatum), is an important Traditional Chinese Medicine with actions of clearing away heat and eliminating dampness, draining the gallbladder to relieve jaundice, removing blood stasis to alleviate pain, resolving phlegm and arrest cough. In the search for anti-SARS-CoV-2, P. cuspidatum was recommended as as a therapeutic drug of COVID-19 pneumonia.In this study, we aimed to identifies P. cuspidatum is the potential broad-spectrum inhibitor for the treatment of coronaviruses infections. Methods: In the present study , we infected human malignant embryonal rhabdomyoma (RD) cells with the OC43 strain of the coronavirus, which represent an alternative model for SARS-CoV-2 and then employed the cell viability assay kit for the antiviral activity. We combined computer aided virtual screening to predicte the binding site and employed Surface plasmon resonance analysis (SPR) to comfirm the interaction between drugs and coronavirus. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology to identify drug's inhibition in the proteolytic activity of 3CLpro and Plpro. Results: Based on our results, polydatin and resveratrol derived from P. cuspidatum significantly suppressed HCoV-OC43 replication. 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of polydatin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and Plpro, MERS Mpro and Plpro were 18.66, 125, 14.6 and 25.42 µm, respectively. IC50 values of resveratrol inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and Plpro, MERS Mpro and Plpro were 29.81 ,60.86, 16.35 and19.04 µM, respectively. Finally, SPR assay confirmed that polydatin and resveratrol had high affinity to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV 3Clpro, MERS-CoV 3Clpro and PLpro protein. Conclusions: we identified the antiviral activity of flavonoids polydatin and resveratrol on RD cells. Polydatin and resveratrol were found to be specific and selective inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2, 3CLpro and PLpro, viral cysteine proteases. In summary, this study identifies P. cuspidatum as the potential broad-spectrum inhibitor for the treatment of coronaviruses infections.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fallopia japonica/chemistry , Glucosides/pharmacology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Glucosides/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Resveratrol/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stilbenes/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Viral Proteins/metabolism
3.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470935

ABSTRACT

Excessive host inflammation following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with severity and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We recently reported that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit (S1) induces pro-inflammatory responses by activating toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in macrophages. A standardized extract of Asparagus officinalis stem (EAS) is a unique functional food that elicits anti-photoaging effects by suppressing pro-inflammatory signaling in hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B-exposed skin fibroblasts. To elucidate its potential in preventing excessive inflammation in COVID-19, we examined the effects of EAS on pro-inflammatory responses in S1-stimulated macrophages. Murine peritoneal exudate macrophages were co-treated with EAS and S1. Concentrations and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Expression and phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins were analyzed using western blotting and fluorescence immunomicroscopy. EAS significantly attenuated S1-induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 in a concentration-dependent manner without reducing cell viability. EAS also markedly suppressed the S1-induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-1ß. However, among the TLR4 signaling proteins, EAS did not affect the degradation of inhibitor κBα, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 subunit, and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase p54 subunit after S1 exposure. In contrast, EAS significantly suppressed S1-induced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Attenuation of S1-induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-1ß by the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126 was greater than that by the Akt inhibitor perifosine, and the effects were potentiated by simultaneous treatment with both inhibitors. These results suggest that EAS attenuates S1-induced IL-6 and IL-1ß production by suppressing p44/42 MAPK and Akt signaling in macrophages. Therefore, EAS may be beneficial in regulating excessive inflammation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asparagus Plant/chemistry , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Asparagus Plant/metabolism , Butadienes/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Stems/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects
4.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 421-423, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436359

ABSTRACT

Green tea extracts effectively inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Ten-fold serially diluted solutions of catechin mixture reagent from green tea were mixed with the viral culture fluid at a volume ratio of 9:1, respectively, and incubated at room temperature for 5 min. The solution of 10 mg/mL catechin reagent reduced the viral titer by 4.2 log and 1.0 mg/mL solution by one log. Pre-infection treatment of cells with the reagent alone did not affect viral growth. In addition, cells treated with only the reagent were assayed for host cell viability using the WST-8 system, and almost no host cell damage by the treatment was observed. These findings suggested that the direct treatment of virus with the reagent before inoculation decreased the viral activity and that catechins might have the potential to suppress SARSCoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tea/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5552, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434105

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by the extreme release of inflammatory mediators into the blood in response to infection (e.g., bacterial infection, COVID-19), resulting in the dysfunction of multiple organs. Currently, there is no direct treatment for sepsis. Here we report an abiotic hydrogel nanoparticle (HNP) as a potential therapeutic agent for late-stage sepsis. The HNP captures and neutralizes all variants of histones, a major inflammatory mediator released during sepsis. The highly optimized HNP has high capacity and long-term circulation capability for the selective sequestration and neutralization of histones. Intravenous injection of the HNP protects mice against a lethal dose of histones through the inhibition of platelet aggregation and migration into the lungs. In vivo administration in murine sepsis model mice results in near complete survival. These results establish the potential for synthetic, nonbiological polymer hydrogel sequestrants as a new intervention strategy for sepsis therapy and adds to our understanding of the importance of histones to this condition.


Subject(s)
Hydrogels/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Animals , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Cell Adhesion , Cell Survival/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Histones/antagonists & inhibitors , Histones/metabolism , Histones/toxicity , Hydrogels/chemistry , Hydrogels/metabolism , Hydrogels/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/metabolism , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Protein Binding , Sepsis/mortality , Survival Rate
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5536, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428813

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important human pathogens for which no specific treatment is available. Here, we provide evidence that pharmacological reprogramming of ER stress pathways can be exploited to suppress CoV replication. The ER stress inducer thapsigargin efficiently inhibits coronavirus (HCoV-229E, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) replication in different cell types including primary differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells, (partially) reverses the virus-induced translational shut-down, improves viability of infected cells and counteracts the CoV-mediated downregulation of IRE1α and the ER chaperone BiP. Proteome-wide analyses revealed specific pathways, protein networks and components that likely mediate the thapsigargin-induced antiviral state, including essential (HERPUD1) or novel (UBA6 and ZNF622) factors of ER quality control, and ER-associated protein degradation complexes. Additionally, thapsigargin blocks the CoV-induced selective autophagic flux involving p62/SQSTM1. The data show that thapsigargin hits several central mechanisms required for CoV replication, suggesting that this compound (or derivatives thereof) may be developed into broad-spectrum anti-CoV drugs.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Extracts , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Proteome/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
J Med Chem ; 64(19): 14887-14894, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428719

ABSTRACT

Antiviral treatments of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been extensively pursued to conquer the pandemic. To inhibit the viral entry to the host cell, we designed and obtained three peptide sequences via quartz crystal microbalance measurement screening, which showed high affinity at nanomole to the S1 subunit of the spike protein and wild-type SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Circular dichroism spectroscopy measurements revealed significant conformation changes of the S1 protein upon encounter with the three peptides. The peptides were able to effectively block the infection of a pseudovirus to 50% by inhibiting the host cell lines binding with the S1 protein, evidenced by the results from Western blotting and pseudovirus luciferase assay. Moreover, the combination of the three peptides could increase the inhibitory rate to 75%. In conclusion, the three chemically synthetic neutralizing peptides and their combinations hold promising potential as effective therapeutics in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Peptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Circular Dichroism , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Protein Subunits/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412708

ABSTRACT

Effective treatments for COVID-19 are urgently needed. However, discovering single-agent therapies with activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been challenging. Combination therapies play an important role in antiviral therapies, due to their improved efficacy and reduced toxicity. Recent approaches have applied deep learning to identify synergistic drug combinations for diseases with vast preexisting datasets, but these are not applicable to new diseases with limited combination data, such as COVID-19. Given that drug synergy often occurs through inhibition of discrete biological targets, here we propose a neural network architecture that jointly learns drug-target interaction and drug-drug synergy. The model consists of two parts: a drug-target interaction module and a target-disease association module. This design enables the model to utilize drug-target interaction data and single-agent antiviral activity data, in addition to available drug-drug combination datasets, which may be small in nature. By incorporating additional biological information, our model performs significantly better in synergy prediction accuracy than previous methods with limited drug combination training data. We empirically validated our model predictions and discovered two drug combinations, remdesivir and reserpine as well as remdesivir and IQ-1S, which display strong antiviral SARS-CoV-2 synergy in vitro. Our approach, which was applied here to address the urgent threat of COVID-19, can be readily extended to other diseases for which a dearth of chemical-chemical combination data exists.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deep Learning , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Drug Synergism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Virol J ; 18(1): 182, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicines based on herbal extracts have been proposed as affordable treatments for patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Teas and drinks containing extracts of Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra have been widely used in Africa in efforts to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and fight COVID-19. METHODS: The plant extracts and Covid-Organics drink produced in Madagascar were tested for plaque reduction using both feline coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Their cytotoxicities were also investigated. RESULTS: Several extracts as well as Covid-Organics inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and FCoV infection at concentrations that did not affect cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: Some plant extracts show inhibitory activity against FCoV and SARS-CoV-2. However, it remains unclear whether peak plasma concentrations in humans can reach levels needed to inhibit viral infection following consumption of teas or Covid-Organics. Clinical studies are required to evaluate the utility of these drinks for COVID-19 prevention or treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Coronavirus, Feline/growth & development , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Viral Plaque Assay
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0251951, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394538

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity towards HeLa and HT29 cells displayed by Pediocin PA-1. We did this by carrying out sequence alignments and 3D modelling of related bacteriocins which have been studied in greater detail: Microcin E492, Enterocin AB heterodimer and Divercin V41. Microcin E492 interacts with Toll-Like Receptor 4 in order to activate an apoptosis reaction, sequence alignment showed a high homology between Pediocin PA-1 and Microcin E492 whereas 3D modelling showed Pediocin PA-1 interacting with TLR-4 in a way reminiscent of Microcin E492. Furthermore, Pediocin PA-1 had the highest homology with the Enterocin heterodimer, particularly chain A; Enterocin has also shown to cause an apoptotic response in cancer cells. Based on this we are led to strongly believe Pediocin PA-1 interacts with TLRs in order to cause cell death. If this is the case, it would explain the difference in cytotoxicity towards HeLa over HT29 cells, due to difference in expression of particular TLRs. Overall, we believe Pediocin PA-1 exhibits a dual effect which is dose dependant, like that of Microcin. Unfortunately, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we were unable to carry out experiments in the lab, and the unavailability of important data meant we were unable to provide and validate out solid conclusions, but rather suggestions. However, bioinformatic analysis is still able to provide information regarding structure and sequence analysis to draw plausible and evidence based conclusions. We have been able to highlight interesting findings and how these could be translated into future research and therapeutics in order to improve the quality of treatment and life of cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Bacteriocins/chemistry , Bacteriocins/pharmacology , Pediocins/chemistry , Pediocins/pharmacology , Protein Conformation , Amino Acid Sequence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bacteriocins/genetics , Bridged-Ring Compounds/chemistry , Bridged-Ring Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , HT29 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Pediocins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
11.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 18(5): 661-673, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a great challenge for the treatment of cancer patients. It presents as a severe respiratory infection in aged individuals, including some lung cancer patients. COVID-19 may be linked to the progression of aggressive lung cancer. In addition, the side effects of chemotherapy, such as chemotherapy resistance and the acceleration of cellular senescence, can worsen COVID-19. Given this situation, we investigated the role of paclitaxel (a chemotherapy drug) in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cellular senescence of gefitinib-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells (PC9-MET) to clarify the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC9-MET cells were treated with paclitaxel for 72 h and then evaluated by a cell viability assay, DAPI staining, Giemsa staining, apoptosis assay, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, SA-ß-Gal staining, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and Western blotting. RESULTS: Paclitaxel significantly reduced the viability of PC9-MET cells and induced morphological signs of apoptosis. The apoptotic effects of paclitaxel were observed by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 (Asp 175), cleaved caspase-9 (Asp 330) and cleaved PARP (Asp 214). In addition, paclitaxel increased ROS production, leading to DNA damage. Inhibition of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine attenuates paclitaxel-induced DNA damage. Importantly, paclitaxel eliminated cellular senescence, as observed by SA-ß-Gal staining. Cellular senescence elimination was associated with p53/p21 and p16/pRb signaling inactivation. CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel may be a promising anticancer drug and offer a new therapeutic strategy for managing gefitinib-resistant NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Gefitinib/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects
12.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390542

ABSTRACT

The rising prevalence of diabetes is threatening global health. It is known not only for the occurrence of severe complications but also for the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, which shows that it exacerbates susceptibility to infections. Current therapies focus on artificially maintaining insulin homeostasis, and a durable cure has not yet been achieved. We demonstrate that our set of small molecule inhibitors of DYRK1A kinase potently promotes ß-cell proliferation, enhances long-term insulin secretion, and balances glucagon level in the organoid model of the human islets. Comparable activity is seen in INS-1E and MIN6 cells, in isolated mice islets, and human iPSC-derived ß-cells. Our compounds exert a significantly more pronounced effect compared to harmine, the best-documented molecule enhancing ß-cell proliferation. Using a body-like environment of the organoid, we provide a proof-of-concept that small-molecule-induced human ß-cell proliferation via DYRK1A inhibition is achievable, which lends a considerable promise for regenerative medicine in T1DM and T2DM treatment.


Subject(s)
Homeostasis , Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/enzymology , Insulin/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Genes, Reporter , Harmine/pharmacology , Homeostasis/drug effects , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , Kinetics , Male , Mice , Models, Biological , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Rats , Transforming Growth Factor beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
13.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 47: 116393, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385129

ABSTRACT

The continued toll of COVID-19 has halted the smooth functioning of civilization on a global scale. With a limited understanding of all the essential components of viral machinery and the lack of structural information of this new virus, initial drug discovery efforts had limited success. The availability of high-resolution crystal structures of functionally essential SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including 3CLpro, supports the development of target-specific therapeutics. 3CLpro, the main protease responsible for the processing of viral polypeptide, plays a vital role in SARS-CoV-2 viral replication and translation and is an important target in other coronaviruses. Additionally, 3CLpro is the target of repurposed drugs, such as lopinavir and ritonavir. In this study, target proteins were retrieved from the protein data bank (PDB IDs: 6 M03, 6LU7, 2GZ7, 6 W63, 6SQS, 6YB7, and 6YVF) representing different open states of the main protease to accommodate macromolecular substrate. A hydroxyethylamine (HEA) library was constructed from harvested chemical structures from all the series being used in our laboratories for screening against malaria and Leishmania parasites. The database consisted of ∼1000 structure entries, of which 70% were new to ChemSpider at the time of screening. This in-house library was subjected to high throughput virtual screening (HTVS), followed by standard precision (SP) and then extra precision (XP) docking (Schrodinger LLC 2021). The ligand strain and complex energy of top hits were calculated by Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) method. Promising hit compounds (n = 40) specifically binding to 3CLpro with high energy and average MM/GBSA scores were then subjected to (100-ns) MD simulations. Using this sequential selection followed by an in-silico validation approach, we found a promising HEA-based compound (N,N'-((3S,3'S)-piperazine-1,4-diylbis(3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutane-4,2-diyl))bis(2-(5-methyl-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)-3-phenylpropanamide)), which showed high in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Further to reduce the size of the otherwise larger ligand, a pharmacophore-based predicted library of âˆ¼42 derivatives was constructed, which were added to the previous compound library and rescreened virtually. Out of several hits from the predicted library, two compounds were synthesized, tested against SARS-CoV-2 culture, and found to have markedly improved antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Ethylamines/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Ethylamines/metabolism , Ethylamines/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thermodynamics , Vero Cells
14.
J Toxicol Sci ; 46(9): 425-435, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389030

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells by binding with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). While ACE2 is expressed in multiple cell types, it has been implicated in the clinical progression of COVID-19 as an entry point for SARS-CoV-2 into respiratory cells. Human respiratory cells, such as airway and alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells, are considered essential for COVID-19 research; however, primary human respiratory cells are difficult to obtain. In the present study, we generated ATII and club cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and drug testing. The differentiated cells expressed ATII markers (SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, SLC34A2) or club cell markers (SCGB1A1 and SCGB3A2). Differentiated cells, which express ACE2 and TMPRSS2, were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir treatment decreased intracellular SARS-CoV-2 viral replication and, furthermore, treatment with bleomycin showed cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that hiPSC-derived AT2 and club cells provide a useful in vitro model for drug development.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bleomycin/toxicity , Cell Differentiation , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Toxicity Tests , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253489, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388925

ABSTRACT

In the pursuit of suitable and effective solutions to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we investigated the efficacy of several phenolic compounds in controlling key cellular mechanisms involved in its infectivity. The way the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects the cell is a complex process and comprises four main stages: attachment to the cognate receptor, cellular entry, replication and cellular egress. Since, this is a multi-part process, it creates many opportunities to develop effective interventions. Targeting binding of the virus to the host receptor in order to prevent its entry has been of particular interest. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, among 56 tested polyphenols, including plant extracts, brazilin, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, and curcumin displayed the highest binding with the receptor-binding domain of spike protein, inhibiting viral attachment to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, and thus cellular entry of pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 virions. Both, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate at 25 µg/ml and curcumin above 10 µg/ml concentration, showed binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor reducing at the same time its activity in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Our study also demonstrates that brazilin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, and to a still greater extent, curcumin, decrease the activity of transmembrane serine protease 2 both in cell-free and cell-based assays. Similar pattern was observed with cathepsin L, although only theaflavin-3,3'-digallate showed a modest diminution of cathepsin L expression at protein level. Finally, each of these three compounds moderately increased endosomal/lysosomal pH. In conclusion, this study demonstrates pleiotropic anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy of specific polyphenols and their prospects for further scientific and clinical investigations.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Curcumin/pharmacology , Humans , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virion/drug effects , Virion/metabolism , Virion/physiology , Virus Attachment/drug effects
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 218, 2020 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387198

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cardiac Glycosides/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Bufanolides/chemistry , Bufanolides/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cardiac Glycosides/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Digoxin/chemistry , Digoxin/pharmacology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Phenanthrenes/chemistry , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367925

ABSTRACT

An escalating pandemic of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus is impacting global health, and effective antivirals are needed. Umifenovir (Arbidol) is an indole-derivative molecule, licensed in Russia and China for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza and other respiratory viral infections. It has been shown that umifenovir has broad spectrum activity against different viruses. We evaluated the sensitivity of different coronaviruses, including the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, to umifenovir using in vitro assays. Using a plaque assay, we revealed an antiviral effect of umifenovir against seasonal HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 coronaviruses in Vero E6 cells, with estimated 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 10.0 ± 0.5 µM and 9.0 ± 0.4 µM, respectively. Umifenovir at 90 µM significantly suppressed plaque formation in CMK-AH-1 cells infected with SARS-CoV. Umifenovir also inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus, with EC50 values ranging from 15.37 ± 3.6 to 28.0 ± 1.0 µM. In addition, 21-36 µM of umifenovir significantly suppressed SARS-CoV-2 virus titers (≥2 log TCID50/mL) in the first 24 h after infection. Repurposing of antiviral drugs is very helpful in fighting COVID-19. A safe, pan-antiviral drug such as umifenovir could be extremely beneficial in combating the early stages of a viral pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Indoles/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Plaque Assay , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 225: 113789, 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364001

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 as a positive-sense single-stranded RNA coronavirus caused the global outbreak of COVID-19. The main protease (Mpro) of the virus as the major enzyme processing viral polyproteins contributed to the replication and transcription of SARS-CoV-2 in host cells, and has been characterized as an attractive target in drug discovery. Herein, a set of 1,4-naphthoquinones with juglone skeleton were prepared and evaluated for the inhibitory efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. More than half of the tested naphthoquinones could effectively inhibit the target enzyme with an inhibition rate of more than 90% at the concentration of 10 µM. In the structure-activity relationships (SARs) analysis, the characteristics of substituents and their position on juglone core scaffold were recognized as key ingredients for enzyme inhibitory activity. The most active compound, 2-acetyl-8-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (15), which exhibited much higher potency in enzyme inhibitions than shikonin as the positive control, displayed an IC50 value of 72.07 ± 4.84 nM towards Mpro-mediated hydrolysis of the fluorescently labeled peptide. It fit well into the active site cavity of the enzyme by forming hydrogen bonds with adjacent amino acid residues in molecular docking studies. The results from in vitro antiviral activity evaluation demonstrated that the most potent Mpro inhibitor could significantly suppress the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells within the low micromolar concentrations, with its EC50 value of about 4.55 µM. It was non-toxic towards the host Vero E6 cells under tested concentrations. The present research work implied that juglone skeleton could be a primary template for the development of potent Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Design , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Docking Simulation , Naphthoquinones/metabolism , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 273: 118567, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363900

ABSTRACT

Diffuse alveolar injury and pulmonary fibrosis (PF) are the main causes of death of Covid-19 cases. In this study a low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) with unique structural was obtained from Laminaria japonica, and its anti- PF and anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) bioactivity were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. After LWMF treatment the fibrosis and inflammatory factors stimulated by Bleomycin (BLM) were in lung tissue. Immunohistochemical and Western-blot results found the expression of COL2A1, ß-catenin, TGF-ß, TNF-α and IL-6 were declined in mice lung tissue. Besides, the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt were inhibited by LMWF. In addition, the progression of EMT induced by TGF-ß1 was inhibited by LMWF through down-regulated both TGF-ß/Smad and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These data indicate that unique LMWF can protect the lung from fibrosis by weakening the process of inflammation and EMT, and it is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Polysaccharides/administration & dosage , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , A549 Cells , Animals , Bleomycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytokines/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Weight , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/mortality , Signal Transduction/drug effects
20.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355046

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused an extensive pandemic of COVID-19 all around the world. Key viral enzymes are suitable molecular targets for the development of new antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 which could represent potential treatments of the corresponding disease. With respect to its essential role in the replication of viral RNA, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is one of the prime targets. HeE1-2Tyr and related derivatives were originally discovered as inhibitors of the RdRp of flaviviruses. Here, we present that these pyridobenzothiazole derivatives also significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, as demonstrated using both polymerase- and cell-based antiviral assays.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzothiazoles/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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