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1.
Blood ; 139(17): 2580-2581, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869037
2.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 18(5): 1525-1545, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763475

ABSTRACT

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stromal cells or medicinal signaling cells, are important adult stem cells for regenerative medicine, largely due to their regenerative characteristics such as self-renewal, secretion of trophic factors, and the capability of inducing mesenchymal cell lineages. MSCs also possess homing and trophic properties modulating immune system, influencing microenvironment around damaged tissues and enhancing tissue repair, thus offering a broad perspective in cell-based therapies. Therefore, it is not surprising that MSCs have been the broadly used adult stem cells in clinical trials. To gain better insights into the current applications of MSCs in clinical applications, we perform a comprehensive review of reported data of MSCs clinical trials conducted globally. We summarize the biological effects and mechanisms of action of MSCs, elucidating recent clinical trials phases and findings, highlighting therapeutic effects of MSCs in several representative diseases, including neurological, musculoskeletal diseases and most recent Coronavirus infectious disease. Finally, we also highlight the challenges faced by many clinical trials and propose potential solutions to streamline the use of MSCs in routine clinical applications and regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Adult Stem Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Adult , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , Regenerative Medicine
3.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 18(1): 142-154, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676351

ABSTRACT

In 2006, the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) was presented to the world, paving the way for the development of a magnitude of novel therapeutic alternatives, addressing a diverse range of diseases. However, despite the immense cell therapy potential, relatively few clinical trials evaluating iPSC-technology have actually translated into interventional, clinically applied treatment regimens. Herein, our aim was to determine trends in globally conducted clinical trials involving iPSCs. Data were derived both from well-known registries recording clinical trials from across the globe, and databases from individual countries. Comparisons were firstly drawn between observational and interventional studies before the latter was further analyzed in terms of therapeutic and nontherapeutic trials. Our main observations included global distribution, purpose, target size, and types of disorder relevant to evaluated trials. In terms of nontherapeutic trials, the USA conducted the majority, a large average number of participants-187-was included in the trials, and studies on circulatory system disorders comprised a slightly higher proportion of total studies. Conversely, Japan was the frontrunner in terms of conducting therapeutic trials, and the average number of participants was much lower, at roughly 29. Disorders of the circulatory, as well as nervous and visual systems, were all studied in equal measure. This review highlights the impact that iPSC-based cell therapies can have, should development thereof gain more traction. We lastly considered a few companies that are actively utilizing iPSCs in the development of therapies for various diseases, for whom the global trends in clinical trials could become increasingly important.


Subject(s)
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Japan
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 751869, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunological characteristics of COVID-19 show pathological hyperinflammation associated with lymphopenia and dysfunctional T cell responses. These features provide a rationale for restoring functional T cell immunity in COVID-19 patients by adoptive transfer of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells. METHODS: To generate SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 7 COVID-19 recovered and 13 unexposed donors. Consequently, we stimulated cells with SARS-CoV-2 peptide mixtures covering spike, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins. Then, we culture expanded cells with IL-2 for 21 days. We assessed immunophenotypes, cytokine profiles, antigen specificity of the final cell products. RESULTS: Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells could be expanded in both COVID-19 recovered and unexposed groups. Immunophenotypes were similar in both groups showing CD4+ T cell dominance, but CD8+ and CD3+CD56+ T cells were also present. Antigen specificity was determined by ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine assay, and cytotoxicity assays. One out of 14 individuals who were previously unexposed to SARS-CoV-2 failed to show antigen specificity. Moreover, ex-vivo expanded SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells mainly consisted of central and effector memory subsets with reduced alloreactivity against HLA-unmatched cells suggesting the possibility for the development of third-party partial HLA-matching products. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, our findings show that SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell can be readily expanded from both COVID-19 and unexposed individuals and can therefore be manufactured as a biopharmaceutical product to treat severe COVID-19 patients. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Ex-vivo expanded SARS-CoV-2 antigen specific T cells developed as third-party partial HLA-matching products may be a promising approach for treating severe COVID-19 patients that do not respond to previous treatment options.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/transplantation , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/transplantation , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(2): 210-221, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608557

ABSTRACT

Exploring the cross-talk between the immune system and advanced biomaterials to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection is a promising strategy. Here, we show that ACE2-overexpressing A549 cell-derived microparticles (AO-MPs) are a potential therapeutic agent against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasally administered AO-MPs dexterously navigate the anatomical and biological features of the lungs to enter the alveoli and are taken up by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Then, AO-MPs increase the endosomal pH but decrease the lysosomal pH in AMs, thus escorting bound SARS-CoV-2 from phago-endosomes to lysosomes for degradation. This pH regulation is attributable to oxidized cholesterol, which is enriched in AO-MPs and translocated to endosomal membranes, thus interfering with proton pumps and impairing endosomal acidification. In addition to promoting viral degradation, AO-MPs also inhibit the proinflammatory phenotype of AMs, leading to increased treatment efficacy in a SARS-CoV-2-infected mouse model without side effects. These findings highlight the potential use of AO-MPs to treat SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and showcase the feasibility of MP therapies for combatting emerging respiratory viruses in the future.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Endosomes/chemistry , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lysosomes/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mice, Transgenic , Oxidation-Reduction , RAW 264.7 Cells , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells
7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(24): e2102330, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599388

ABSTRACT

Immune modulation is one of the most effective approaches in the therapy of complex diseases, including public health emergency. However, most immune therapeutics such as drugs, vaccines, and cellular therapy suffer from the limitations of poor efficacy and adverse side effects. Fortunately, cell membrane-derived nanoparticles (CMDNs) have superior compatibility with other therapeutics and offer new opportunities to push the limits of current treatments in immune modulation. As the interface between cells and outer surroundings, cell membrane contains components which instruct intercellular communication and the plasticity of cytomembrane has significantly potentiated CMDNs to leverage our immune system. Therefore, cell membranes employed in immunomodulatory CMDNs have gradually shifted from natural to engineered. In this review, unique properties of immunomodulatory CMDNs and engineering strategies of emerging CMDNs for immune modulation, with an emphasis on the design logic are summarized. Further, this review points out some pressing problems to be solved during clinical translation and put forward some suggestions on the prospect of immunoregulatory CMDNs. It is anticipated that this review can provide new insights on the design of immunoregulatory CMDNs and expand their potentiation in the precise control of the dysregulated immune system.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunomodulation , Mice
8.
Scand J Immunol ; 95(2): e13131, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583260

ABSTRACT

The role of the immune system against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown in many aspects, and the protective or pathologic mechanisms of the immune response are poorly understood. Pro-inflammatory cytokine release and a consequent cytokine storm can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and result in multi-organ failure. There are many T cell subsets during anti-viral immunity. The Th17-associated response, as a pro-inflammatory pathway, and its consequent outcomes in many autoimmune disorders play a fundamental role in progression of systemic hyper-inflammation during COVID-19. Therapeutic strategies based on immunomodulation therapy could be helpful for targeting hyper-inflammatory immune responses in COVID-19, especially Th17-related inflammation and hyper-cytokinemia. Cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) seem to be promising strategies as orchestrators of the immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this review, we highlight Th17-related immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and discuss cell-based immunomodulatory strategies and their mechanisms for regulation of the hyper-inflammation during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Immunomodulation/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Adoptive Transfer/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokines/blood , Dendritic Cells/transplantation , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/transplantation
9.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 515-519, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574756

ABSTRACT

Blockade of IL-6 function by an anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody (tocilizumab, trade name Actemra) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, treatment with tocilizumab has also been found to alleviate the cytokine storm induced by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy. Patients with serious cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which suggested that tocilizumab might be an effective therapeutic for serious cases of COVID-19. In the first part of this short review, the therapeutic effect of tocilizumab for the disease induced by IL-6 overproduction is described. CRS induced by CAR-T-cell therapy and COVID-19 is then discussed.


Subject(s)
Arthritis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans
10.
Am J Transplant ; 22(4): 1261-1265, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570333

ABSTRACT

An unvaccinated adult male heart transplant recipient patient with recalcitrant COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2 delta variant with rising nasopharyngeal quantitative viral load was successfully treated with ALVR109, an off-the-shelf SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell therapy. Background immunosuppression included 0.1 mg/kg prednisone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil 1 gm twice daily for historical antibody-mediated rejection. Prior therapies included remdesivir, corticosteroids, and tocilizumab, with requirement for high-flow nasal oxygen. Lack of clinical improvement and acutely rising nasopharyngeal viral RNA more than 3 weeks into illness prompted the request of ALVR109 through an emergency IND. The day following the first ALVR109 infusion, the patient's nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA declined from 7.43 to 5.02 log10 RNA copies/ml. On post-infusion day 4, the patient transitioned to low-flow oxygen. Two subsequent infusions of ALVR109 were administered 10 and 26 days after the first; nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA became undetectable on Day 11, and he was discharged the following day on low-flow oxygen 5 weeks after the initial diagnosis of COVID-19. The clinical and virologic improvements observed in this patient following administration of ALVR109 suggest a potential benefit that warrants further exploration in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Adult , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Placenta ; 117: 161-168, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557002

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 has created a major health crisis across the globe. Invasion of SARS-CoV-2 into the lungs causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that result in the damage of lung alveolar epithelial cells. Currently, there is no standard treatment available to treat the disease and the resultant lung scarring is irreversible even after recovery. This has prompted researchers across the globe to focus on developing new therapeutics and vaccines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as an efficient drug screening platform and MSC-derived organoids has found applications in disease modeling and drug discovery. Perinatal tissue derived MSC based cell therapies have been explored in the treatment of various disease conditions including ARDS because of their enhanced regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. The multi-utility properties of MSCs have been described in this review wherein we discuss the potential use of MSC-derived lung organoids in screening of novel therapeutic compounds for COVID-19 and also in disease modeling to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease. This article also summarizes the rationale behind the development of MSC-based cell- and cell-free therapies and vaccines for COVID-19 with a focus on the current progress in this area. With the pandemic raging, an important necessity is to develop novel treatment strategies which will not only alleviate the disease symptoms but also avoid any off-target effects which could further increase post infection sequelae. Naturally occurring mesenchymal stem cells could be the magic bullet which fulfil these criteria.


Subject(s)
Amnion/cytology , COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Placenta/cytology , SARS-CoV-2 , Umbilical Cord/cytology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Female , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/ultrastructure , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Wharton Jelly/cytology
12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(1): 228-234, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532813

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has become a serious public health emergency. The virus targets cells by binding the ACE2 receptor. After infection, the virus triggers in some humans an immune storm containing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines followed by multiple organ failure. Several vaccines are enrolled, but an effective treatment is still missing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown to secrete immunomodulatory factors that suppress this cytokine storm. Therefore, MSCs have been suggested as a potential treatment option for COVID-19. We report here that the ACE2 expression is minimal or nonexistent in MSC derived from three different human tissue sources (adipose tissue, umbilical cord Wharton`s jelly and bone marrow). In contrast, TMPRSS2 that is implicated in SARS-CoV-2 entry has been detected in all MSC samples. These results are of particular importance for future MSC-based cell therapies to treat severe cases after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Umbilical Cord/metabolism
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108226, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517293

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic taking the lives of millions. The virus itself not only invades and destroys the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-expressing cells of the lungs, kidneys, liver, etc. but also elicits a hyperinflammatory immune response, further damaging the tissue leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. Although vaccines, as a prime example of active immunotherapy, have clearly disrupted the transmission of virus and reduced mortality, hospitalization, and burden of disease, other avenues of immunotherapy are also being explored. One such approach would be to adoptively transfer modified/unmodified immune cells to the critically ill. Here, we compiled and summarized the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the recent preclinical and clinical data on the potential of cell-based therapies in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512380

ABSTRACT

Heparin and its derivatives are saving thousands of human lives annually, by successfully preventing and treating thromboembolic events. Although the mode of action during anticoagulation is well studied, their influence on cell behavior is not fully understood as is the risk of bleeding and other side effects. New applications in regenerative medicine have evolved supporting production of cell-based therapeutics or as a substrate for creating functionalized matrices in biotechnology. The currently resurgent interest in heparins is related to the expected combined anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-viral action against COVID-19. Based on a concise summary of key biochemical and clinical data, this review summarizes the impact for manufacturing and application of cell therapeutics and highlights the need for discriminating the different heparins.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/chemistry , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Heparin/analogs & derivatives , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Cell Adhesion , Hemorrhage/etiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Regenerative Medicine , Thromboembolism/drug therapy
15.
Cytotherapy ; 24(3): 344-355, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AIMS: The novelty of cell and gene therapies (CGTs) has introduced unique supply chain challenges and considerations not seen by chemically synthesized (small-molecule) drugs. These complexities increase during the clinical phases, where drug safety and efficacy milestones are still underdeveloped. For example, for autologous therapies such as chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies, in which the treatment is developed from the patient's own cells, supply chain management plays an integral role in chemistry, manufacturing and control processes. Supply chain management requires proactive planning because of the strict cold chain requirements and time sensitivity of CGTs. This research examines strategies and responses to challenges experienced by industry stakeholders (e.g., sponsors and manufacturers) during the implementation phases of clinical supply chain management. This research further evaluates the adequacy of the current regulatory framework for distribution and supply chain management of CGTs in the US. METHODS: A survey methodology was used to query subject matter experts from the biopharmaceutical industry who were familiar with the clinical supply management of CGTs in the US. The survey instrument was developed using an implementation framework and disseminated electronically to mid- and senior-level subject matter experts who had experience with clinical trials, supply chain management and CGTs. RESULTS: A total of 128 respondents accessed the survey, and 105 respondents answered at least one question. Seventy-five respondents completed the survey. Results showed that a lack of harmonization in regulations across the supply chain, limited resources, challenges with vendor management, high costs and complexities in the supply chain due to product specificity and customization proved to be impediments for the industry. In addition, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic had a significant impact on supply chain implementation. The results revealed that less than half of the respondents had business continuity plans in place. These challenges increased for smaller and mid-size organizations. Thirty percent of small and mid-size organizations were less prepared to scale up than larger companies. CONCLUSIONS: Suggestions from industry stakeholders were to adopt and enforce Good Distribution Practices in the US (81%), pre-plan distribution strategies with internal and external stakeholders along the supply chain and develop agile systems and robust processes end to end. Hurdles in scaling up and scaling out from the clinical to commercial phases for time- and temperature-sensitive CGT products make it difficult to predict the supply chain's long-term feasibility. Although there are initiatives to improve these impediments, such as improving industry partnerships and creating global CGT transportation standards, there are still regulatory knowledge gaps present for CGTs. Therefore, it is essential to establish a baseline and foundation for CGT supply chains extending beyond the loading dock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Genetic Therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495513

ABSTRACT

Recipients of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cell therapies for B cell malignancies have profound and prolonged immunodeficiencies and are at risk for serious infections, including respiratory virus infections. Vaccination may be important for infection prevention, but there are limited data on vaccine immunogenicity in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of the humoral immunogenicity of commercially available 2019-2020 inactivated influenza vaccines in adults immediately prior to or while in durable remission after CD19-, CD20-, or B cell maturation antigen-targeted CAR-T-cell therapy, as well as controls. We tested for antibodies to all four vaccine strains using neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays. Antibody responses were defined as at least fourfold titer increases from baseline. Seroprotection was defined as a HAI titer ≥40. Enrolled CAR-T-cell recipients were vaccinated 14-29 days prior to (n=5) or 13-57 months following therapy (n=13), and the majority had hypogammaglobulinemia and cellular immunodeficiencies prevaccination. Eight non-immunocompromised adults served as controls. Antibody responses to ≥1 vaccine strain occurred in 2 (40%) individuals before CAR-T-cell therapy and in 4 (31%) individuals vaccinated after CAR-T-cell therapy. An additional 1 (20%) and 6 (46%) individuals had at least twofold increases, respectively. One individual vaccinated prior to CAR-T-cell therapy maintained a response for >3 months following therapy. Across all tested vaccine strains, seroprotection was less frequent in CAR-T-cell recipients than in controls. There was evidence of immunogenicity even among individuals with low immunoglobulin, CD19+ B cell, and CD4+ T-cell counts. These data support consideration for vaccination before and after CAR-T-cell therapy for influenza and other relevant pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, irrespective of hypogammaglobulinemia or B cell aplasia. However, relatively impaired humoral vaccine immunogenicity indicates the need for additional infection-prevention strategies. Larger studies are needed to refine our understanding of potential correlates of vaccine immunogenicity, and durability of immune responses, in CAR-T-cell therapy recipients.


Subject(s)
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
17.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(12): 973-987, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492350

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy has shown unprecedented response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) hematologic malignancies. Although CAR-T therapy gives hope to heavily pretreated patients, the rapid commercialization and cumulative immunosuppression of this therapy predispose patients to infections for a prolonged period. CAR-T therapy poses distinctive short- and long-term toxicities and infection risks among patients who receive CAR T-cells after multiple prior treatments, often including hematopoietic cell transplantation. The acute toxicities include cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome. The long-term B cell depletion, hypogammaglobulinemia, and cytopenia further predispose patients to severe infections and abrogate the remission success achieved by the living drug. These on-target-off-tumor toxicities deplete B-cells across the entire lineage and further diminish immune responses to vaccines. Early observational data suggest that patients with hematologic malignancies may not mount adequate humoral and cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this review, we summarize the immune compromising factors indigenous to CAR-T recipients. We discuss the immunogenic potential of different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for CAR-T recipients based on the differences in vaccine manufacturing platforms. Given the lack of data related to the safety and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in this distinctively immunosuppressed cohort, we summarize the infection risks associated with Food and Drug Administration-approved CAR-T constructs and the potential determinants of vaccine responses. The review further highlights the potential need for booster vaccine dosing and the promise for heterologous prime-boosting and other novel vaccine strategies in CAR-T recipients. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738697, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477824

ABSTRACT

The severe respiratory consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have prompted the urgent need for novel therapies. Cell-based therapies, primarily using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), have demonstrated safety and potential efficacy in the treatment of critical illness, particularly sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there are limited preclinical data for MSCs in COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that MSCs could decrease inflammation, improve lung permeability, enhance microbe and alveolar fluid clearance, and promote lung epithelial and endothelial repair. In addition, MSC-based therapy has shown promising effects in preclinical studies and phase 1 clinical trials in sepsis and ARDS. Here, we review recent advances related to MSC-based therapy in the context of sepsis and ARDS and evaluate the potential value of MSCs as a therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/therapy
20.
Hum Gene Ther ; 32(19-20): 986, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475735
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