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2.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526806

ABSTRACT

Aging affects all tissues and organs. Aging of the immune system results in the severe disruption of its functions, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections, an increase in autoimmune disorders and cancer incidence, and a decreased response to vaccines. Lymph nodes are precisely organized structures of the peripheral lymphoid organs and are the key sites coordinating innate and long-term adaptive immune responses to external antigens and vaccines. They are also involved in immune tolerance. The aging of lymph nodes results in decreased cell transport to and within the nodes, a disturbance in the structure and organization of nodal zones, incorrect location of individual immune cell types and impaired intercellular interactions, as well as changes in the production of adequate amounts of chemokines and cytokines necessary for immune cell proliferation, survival and function, impaired naïve T- and B-cell homeostasis, and a diminished long-term humoral response. Understanding the causes of these stromal and lymphoid microenvironment changes in the lymph nodes that cause the aging-related dysfunction of the immune system can help to improve long-term immune responses and the effectiveness of vaccines in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aging/pathology , Immunosenescence , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/physiopathology , Animals , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Models, Biological , Neutrophils/pathology
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 372, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493075

ABSTRACT

Varying differentiation of myeloid cells is common in tumors, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic diseases. The release of cytokines from myeloid cells is an important driving factor that leads to severe COVID-19 cases and subsequent death. This review briefly summarizes the results of single-cell sequencing of peripheral blood, lung tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid of COVID-19 patients and describes the differentiation trajectory of myeloid cells in patients. Moreover, we describe the function and mechanism of abnormal differentiation of myeloid cells to promote disease progression. Targeting myeloid cell-derived cytokines or checkpoints is essential in developing a combined therapeutic strategy for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Myeloid Cells/virology , Single-Cell Analysis
4.
Immunology ; 163(3): 239-249, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434725

ABSTRACT

Communication between stromal and immune cells is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis, mount an effective immune response and promote tissue repair. This 'crosstalk' occurs in both the steady state and following a variety of insults, for example, in response to local injury, at sites of infection or cancer. What do we mean by crosstalk between cells? Reciprocal activation and/or regulation occurs between immune and stromal cells, by direct cell contact and indirect mechanisms, including the release of soluble cytokines. Moving beyond cell-to-cell contact, this review investigates the complexity of 'cross-space' cellular communication. We highlight different examples of cellular communication by a variety of lung stromal and immune cells following tissue insults. This review examines how the 'geography of the lung microenvironment' is altered in various disease states; more specifically, we investigate how this influences lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts via their communication with immune cells and each other.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Fibroblasts/immunology , Lung/pathology , Stromal Cells/immunology , Animals , Cell Communication , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Immunity, Cellular
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 328, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392810

ABSTRACT

Understanding the pathological features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in an animal model is crucial for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we compared immunopathological changes in young and old rhesus macaques (RMs) before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection at the tissue level. Quantitative analysis of multiplex immunofluorescence staining images of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection specifically induced elevated levels of apoptosis, autophagy, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)+ cells, and increased interferon α (IFN-α)- and interleukin 6 (IL-6)-secreting cells and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3)+ cells in lung tissue of old RMs. This pathological pattern, which may be related to the age-related pro-inflammatory microenvironment in both lungs and spleens, was significantly correlated with the systemic accumulation of CXCR3+ cells in lungs, spleens, and peripheral blood. Furthermore, the ratio of CXCR3+ to T-box protein expression in T cell (T-bet)+ (CXCR3+/T-bet+ ratio) in CD8+ cells may be used as a predictor of severe COVID-19. These findings uncovered the impact of aging on the immunopathology of early SARS-CoV-2 infection and demonstrated the potential application of CXCR3+ cells in predicting severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Lung/immunology , Receptors, CXCR3/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 624703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354863

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence suggests that the breakdown of immune tolerance plays an important role in the development of myocarditis triggered by cardiotropic microbial infections. Genetic deletion of immune checkpoint molecules that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance causes spontaneous myocarditis in mice, and cancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors can induce myocarditis in humans. These results suggest that the loss of immune tolerance results in myocarditis. The tissue microenvironment influences the local immune dysregulation in autoimmunity. Recently, tenascin-C (TN-C) has been found to play a role as a local regulator of inflammation through various molecular mechanisms. TN-C is a nonstructural extracellular matrix glycoprotein expressed in the heart during early embryonic development, as well as during tissue injury or active tissue remodeling, in a spatiotemporally restricted manner. In a mouse model of autoimmune myocarditis, TN-C was detectable before inflammatory cell infiltration and myocytolysis became histologically evident; it was strongly expressed during active inflammation and disappeared with healing. TN-C activates dendritic cells to generate pathogenic autoreactive T cells and forms an important link between innate and acquired immunity.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Autoimmunity , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Tenascin/metabolism , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Self Tolerance , Signal Transduction
7.
J Immunol ; 206(7): 1409-1417, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314814

ABSTRACT

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a set of effectors that mediate the expulsion of helminthic parasites but also drive allergic lung inflammation. As innate agents, they do not recognize Ag, instead, they are sensitive to alarmin engagement, upon which they produce type 2 cytokines that amplify adaptive immunity. Their lymphoid identity appoints them as an intriguing group of unconventional cells; however, increasing evidence is unraveling a series of unprecedented functions that <5 years ago were unthinkable for ILC2s, such as acquiring a proinflammatory identity that enables them to support TH1 immune responses. Their plastic nature has allowed the characterization of ILC2s in more detail than ever; however, the novelty of ILC2 biology requires constant updates and recapitulations. This review provides an overview of ILC2s and describes memory ILC2, regulatory ILC2, inflammatory ILC2, and type 1 ILC2 subsets based on activation status, tissue environments, and function.


Subject(s)
Lymphocytes/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Animals , Cellular Microenvironment , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
8.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(10): 2161-2174, 2021 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266111

ABSTRACT

We review some of the important discoveries and advances made in basic and translational cardiac research in 2020. For example, in the field of myocardial infarction (MI), new aspects of autophagy and the importance of eosinophils were described. Novel approaches, such as a glycocalyx mimetic, were used to improve cardiac recovery following MI. The strategy of 3D bio-printing was shown to allow the fabrication of a chambered cardiac organoid. The benefit of combining tissue engineering with paracrine therapy to heal injured myocardium is discussed. We highlight the importance of cell-to-cell communication, in particular, the relevance of extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, which transport proteins, lipids, non-coding RNAs, and mRNAs and actively contribute to angiogenesis and myocardial regeneration. In this rapidly growing field, new strategies were developed to stimulate the release of reparative exosomes in ischaemic myocardium. Single-cell sequencing technology is causing a revolution in the study of transcriptional expression at cellular resolution, revealing unanticipated heterogeneity within cardiomyocytes, pericytes and fibroblasts, and revealing a unique subpopulation of cardiac fibroblasts. Several studies demonstrated that exosome- and non-coding RNA-mediated approaches can enhance human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) viability and differentiation into mature cardiomyocytes. Important details of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter and its relevance were elucidated. Novel aspects of cancer therapeutic-induced cardiotoxicity were described, such as the novel circular RNA circITCH, which may lead to novel treatments. Finally, we provide some insights into the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the heart.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Cardiology , Cell Proliferation , Heart Failure/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Regeneration , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Communication , Cellular Microenvironment , Exosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/pathology , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Mitochondria, Heart/metabolism , Mitochondria, Heart/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Phenotype , RNA, Untranslated/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1554, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194588

ABSTRACT

The RNase T2 family consists of evolutionarily conserved endonucleases that express in many different species, including animals, plants, protozoans, bacteria, and viruses. The main biological roles of these ribonucleases are cleaving or degrading RNA substrates. They preferentially cleave single-stranded RNA molecules between purine and uridine residues to generate two nucleotide fragments with 2'3'-cyclic phosphate adenosine/guanosine terminus and uridine residue, respectively. Accumulating studies have revealed that RNase T2 is critical for the pathophysiology of inflammation and cancer. In this review, we introduce the distribution, structure, and functions of RNase T2, its differential roles in inflammation and cancer, and the perspective for its research and related applications in medicine.


Subject(s)
Disease Susceptibility , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Animals , Biomarkers , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Endoribonucleases/chemistry , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immunomodulation , Inflammation/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , Structure-Activity Relationship
10.
J Clin Invest ; 131(4)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172781

ABSTRACT

Alveolar macrophages orchestrate the response to viral infections. Age-related changes in these cells may underlie the differential severity of pneumonia in older patients. We performed an integrated analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data that revealed homogenous age-related changes in the alveolar macrophage transcriptome in humans and mice. Using genetic lineage tracing with sequential injury, heterochronic adoptive transfer, and parabiosis, we found that the lung microenvironment drove an age-related resistance of alveolar macrophages to proliferation that persisted during influenza A viral infection. Ligand-receptor pair analysis localized these changes to the extracellular matrix, where hyaluronan was increased in aged animals and altered the proliferative response of bone marrow-derived macrophages to granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Our findings suggest that strategies targeting the aging lung microenvironment will be necessary to restore alveolar macrophage function in aging.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Lung/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Aging/pathology , Animals , Humans , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , RNA-Seq
11.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(6): 4485-4491, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979150

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an emergence of pneumonia was detected in patients infected with a novel coronavirus (CoV) in Wuhan (Hubei, China). The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses named the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome­CoV­2 and the disease CoV disease­19 (COVID­19). Patients with COVID­19 present with symptoms associated with respiratory system dysfunction and hematological changes, including lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, the pathogenesis of COVID­19 remains unclear. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the hematological changes that manifest during COVID­19 may aid in the development of treatments and may improve patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Complex/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Cellular Microenvironment , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Hematologic Tests , Hematopoiesis/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/pathology , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/etiology , Liver/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/physiopathology , Thrombophilia/etiology
12.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951267

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to highlight how, in a syngeneic system, human mononuclear phagocytes respond to environments containing human adenovirus (HAdV) and soluble extracellular proteins that influence their innate immune response. Soluble extracellular proteins, including immunoglobulins, blood clotting factors, proteins of the complement system, and/or antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can exert direct effects by binding to a virus capsid that modifies interactions with pattern recognition receptors and downstream signaling. In addition, the presence, generation, or secretion of extracellular proteins can indirectly influence the response to HAdVs via the activation and recruitment of cells at the site of infection.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Phagocytes/immunology , Phagocytes/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Dendritic Cells , Extracellular Space/metabolism , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5608382, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886830

ABSTRACT

Lung injury and inflammation are complex pathological processes. The influence and crosstalk between various cells form a characteristic microenvironment. Extracellular vesicles from different cell sources in the microenvironment carry multiple cargo molecules, which affect the pathological process through different pathways. Here, we mainly discussed the mechanism of crosstalk between alveolar epithelial cells and different immune cells through extracellular vesicles in lung inflammation and reviewed the mechanism of extracellular vesicles released by blood and airways on lung inflammation. Finally, the role of extracellular vesicles in viral infection of the lung was also described.


Subject(s)
Cellular Microenvironment , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Lung Injury/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Animals , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/virology , Lung Injury/complications , Lung Injury/virology , Models, Biological
14.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 143: 145-158, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831617

ABSTRACT

Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), the inhibitory-unit, and cardiac troponin T (cTnT), the tropomyosin-binding unit together with the Ca-binding unit (cTnC) of the hetero-trimeric troponin complex signal activation of the sarcomeres of the adult cardiac myocyte. The unique structure and heart myocyte restricted expression of cTnI and cTnT led to their worldwide use as biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) beginning more than 30 years ago. Over these years, high sensitivity antibodies (hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT) have been developed. Together with careful determination of history, physical examination, and EKG, determination of serum levels using hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT permits risk stratification of patients presenting in the Emergency Department (ED) with chest pain. With the ability to determine serum levels of these troponins with high sensitivity came the question of whether such measurements may be of diagnostic and prognostic value in conditions beyond AMI. Moreover, the finding of elevated serum troponins in physiological states such as exercise and pathological states where cardiac myocytes may be affected requires understanding of how troponins may be released into the blood and whether such release may be benign. We consider these questions by relating membrane stability to the complex biology of troponin with emphasis on its sensitivity to the chemo-mechanical and micro-environment of the cardiac myocyte. We also consider the role determinations of serum troponins play in the precise phenotyping in personalized and precision medicine approaches to promote cardiac health.


Subject(s)
Cellular Microenvironment , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Sarcomeres/metabolism , Troponin/metabolism , Aged , Animals , Biomarkers/blood , Cytoskeleton , Disease Susceptibility , Epitopes , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/pathology , Humans , Precision Medicine/methods , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Proteolysis , Sarcomeres/genetics , Stress, Physiological , Troponin/blood
15.
Biotechniques ; 69(3): 206-210, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768989

ABSTRACT

We explore the design of a smart inhaler with electrostatic sterilizer and propose the utilization of cationic amphiphilic peptides, independently or in conjunction with a bronchodilator, for COVID-19 patients to quickly improve wellbeing while maintaining a strategic distance to protect healthcare personnel from virus-containing aerosol or droplets during the process of inhalation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Static Electricity , Administration, Inhalation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cellular Microenvironment/drug effects , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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