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1.
Am J Pathol ; 193(6): 680-689, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305845

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can trigger chronic lung disease that persists and even progresses after expected clearance of infectious virus. To gain an understanding of this process, the current study examined a series of consecutive fatal cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that came to autopsy at 27 to 51 days after hospital admission. In each patient, a stereotyped bronchiolar-alveolar pattern of lung remodeling was identified with basal epithelial cell hyperplasia, immune activation, and mucinous differentiation. Remodeling regions featured macrophage infiltration and apoptosis and a marked depletion of alveolar type 1 and 2 epithelial cells. This pattern closely resembled findings from an experimental model of post-viral lung disease that requires basal-epithelial stem cell growth, immune activation, and differentiation. Together, these results provide evidence of basal epithelial cell reprogramming in long-term COVID-19 and thereby yield a pathway for explaining and correcting lung dysfunction in this type of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cellular Reprogramming , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung , Epithelial Cells
2.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1506(1): 74-97, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612914

ABSTRACT

Single cell biology has the potential to elucidate many critical biological processes and diseases, from development and regeneration to cancer. Single cell analyses are uncovering the molecular diversity of cells, revealing a clearer picture of the variation among and between different cell types. New techniques are beginning to unravel how differences in cell state-transcriptional, epigenetic, and other characteristics-can lead to different cell fates among genetically identical cells, which underlies complex processes such as embryonic development, drug resistance, response to injury, and cellular reprogramming. Single cell technologies also pose significant challenges relating to processing and analyzing vast amounts of data collected. To realize the potential of single cell technologies, new computational approaches are needed. On March 17-19, 2021, experts in single cell biology met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium "Single Cell Biology" to discuss advances both in single cell applications and technologies.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cellular Reprogramming/physiology , Congresses as Topic/trends , Embryonic Development/physiology , Research Report , Single-Cell Analysis/trends , Animals , Cell Lineage/physiology , Humans , Macrophages/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
3.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480600

ABSTRACT

Virus-related mortality and morbidity are due to cell/tissue damage caused by replicative pressure and resource exhaustion, e.g., HBV or HIV; exaggerated immune responses, e.g., SARS-CoV-2; and cancer, e.g., EBV or HPV. In this context, oncogenic and other types of viruses drive genetic and epigenetic changes that expand the tumorigenic program, including modifications to the ability of cancer cells to migrate. The best-characterized group of changes is collectively known as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, or EMT. This is a complex phenomenon classically described using biochemistry, cell biology and genetics. However, these methods require enormous, often slow, efforts to identify and validate novel therapeutic targets. Systems biology can complement and accelerate discoveries in this field. One example of such an approach is Boolean networks, which make complex biological problems tractable by modeling data ("nodes") connected by logical operators. Here, we focus on virus-induced cellular plasticity and cell reprogramming in mammals, and how Boolean networks could provide novel insights into the ability of some viruses to trigger uncontrolled cell proliferation and EMT, two key hallmarks of cancer.


Subject(s)
Cell Plasticity/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Virus Diseases/pathology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Animals , Cellular Reprogramming/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Systems Biology , Virus Diseases/genetics , Viruses/classification
4.
Mol Ther ; 29(10): 3042-3058, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331299

ABSTRACT

Reprogramming non-cardiomyocytes (non-CMs) into cardiomyocyte (CM)-like cells is a promising strategy for cardiac regeneration in conditions such as ischemic heart disease. Here, we used a modified mRNA (modRNA) gene delivery platform to deliver a cocktail, termed 7G-modRNA, of four cardiac-reprogramming genes-Gata4 (G), Mef2c (M), Tbx5 (T), and Hand2 (H)-together with three reprogramming-helper genes-dominant-negative (DN)-TGFß, DN-Wnt8a, and acid ceramidase (AC)-to induce CM-like cells. We showed that 7G-modRNA reprogrammed 57% of CM-like cells in vitro. Through a lineage-tracing model, we determined that delivering the 7G-modRNA cocktail at the time of myocardial infarction reprogrammed ∼25% of CM-like cells in the scar area and significantly improved cardiac function, scar size, long-term survival, and capillary density. Mechanistically, we determined that while 7G-modRNA cannot create de novo beating CMs in vitro or in vivo, it can significantly upregulate pro-angiogenic mesenchymal stromal cells markers and transcription factors. We also demonstrated that our 7G-modRNA cocktail leads to neovascularization in ischemic-limb injury, indicating CM-like cells importance in other organs besides the heart. modRNA is currently being used around the globe for vaccination against COVID-19, and this study proves this is a safe, highly efficient gene delivery approach with therapeutic potential to treat ischemic diseases.


Subject(s)
Cellular Reprogramming/genetics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Ischemia/therapy , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Neovascularization, Physiologic/genetics , Regeneration/genetics , Transfection/methods , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout, ApoE , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673692, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325525

ABSTRACT

In a perspective entitled 'From plant survival under severe stress to anti-viral human defense' we raised and justified the hypothesis that transcript level profiles of justified target genes established from in vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) induction in plants as a reference compared to virus-induced profiles can identify differential virus signatures that link to harmful reprogramming. A standard profile of selected genes named 'ReprogVirus' was proposed for in vitro-scanning of early virus-induced reprogramming in critical primary infected cells/tissues as target trait. For data collection, the 'ReprogVirus platform' was initiated. This initiative aims to identify in a common effort across scientific boundaries critical virus footprints from diverse virus origins and variants as a basis for anti-viral strategy design. This approach is open for validation and extension. In the present study, we initiated validation by experimental transcriptome data available in public domain combined with advancing plant wet lab research. We compared plant-adapted transcriptomes according to 'RegroVirus' complemented by alternative oxidase (AOX) genes during de novo programming under SE-inducing conditions with in vitro corona virus-induced transcriptome profiles. This approach enabled identifying a major complex trait for early de novo programming during SARS-CoV-2 infection, called 'CoV-MAC-TED'. It consists of unbalanced ROS/RNS levels, which are connected to increased aerobic fermentation that links to alpha-tubulin-based cell restructuration and progression of cell cycle. We conclude that anti-viral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies need to rigorously target 'CoV-MAC-TED' in primary infected nose and mouth cells through prophylactic and very early therapeutic strategies. We also discuss potential strategies in the view of the beneficial role of AOX for resilient behavior in plants. Furthermore, following the general observation that ROS/RNS equilibration/redox homeostasis is of utmost importance at the very beginning of viral infection, we highlight that 'de-stressing' disease and social handling should be seen as essential part of anti-viral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies.


Subject(s)
Cellular Reprogramming/genetics , Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase/genetics , Arabidopsis/genetics , Arabidopsis/growth & development , Cell Cycle/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Daucus carota/genetics , Daucus carota/growth & development , Fermentation , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tubulin/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
6.
Cell ; 184(15): 3915-3935.e21, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283262

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates a fundamental role for the epigenome in immunity. Here, we mapped the epigenomic and transcriptional landscape of immunity to influenza vaccination in humans at the single-cell level. Vaccination against seasonal influenza induced persistently diminished H3K27ac in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), which was associated with impaired cytokine responses to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Single-cell ATAC-seq analysis revealed an epigenomically distinct subcluster of monocytes with reduced chromatin accessibility at AP-1-targeted loci after vaccination. Similar effects were observed in response to vaccination with the AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine. However, this vaccine also stimulated persistently increased chromatin accessibility at interferon response factor (IRF) loci in monocytes and mDCs. This was associated with elevated expression of antiviral genes and heightened resistance to the unrelated Zika and Dengue viruses. These results demonstrate that vaccination stimulates persistent epigenomic remodeling of the innate immune system and reveal AS03's potential as an epigenetic adjuvant.


Subject(s)
Epigenomics , Immunity/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription, Genetic , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antigens, CD34/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cellular Reprogramming , Chromatin/metabolism , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Drug Combinations , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Male , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Polysorbates/pharmacology , Squalene/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Young Adult , alpha-Tocopherol/pharmacology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186964

ABSTRACT

Recent technological advances have revolutionized the study of tissue biology and garnered a greater appreciation for tissue complexity. In order to understand cardiac development, heart tissue homeostasis, and the effects of stress and injury on the cardiovascular system, it is essential to characterize the heart at high cellular resolution. Single-cell profiling provides a more precise definition of tissue composition, cell differentiation trajectories, and intercellular communication, compared to classical bulk approaches. Here, we aim to review how recent single-cell multi-omic studies have changed our understanding of cell dynamics during cardiac development, and in the healthy and diseased adult myocardium.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System/cytology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Cellular Reprogramming/genetics , Embryonic Development/genetics , Humans
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 179, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142427

ABSTRACT

Microglia, the resident brain immune cells, play a critical role in normal brain development, and are impacted by the intrauterine environment, including maternal immune activation and inflammatory exposures. The COVID-19 pandemic presents a potential developmental immune challenge to the fetal brain, in the setting of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection with its attendant potential for cytokine production and, in severe cases, cytokine storming. There is currently no biomarker or model for in utero microglial priming and function that might aid in identifying the neonates and children most vulnerable to neurodevelopmental morbidity, as microglia remain inaccessible in fetal life and after birth. This study aimed to generate patient-derived microglial-like cell models unique to each neonate from reprogrammed umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, adapting and extending a novel methodology previously validated for adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We demonstrate that umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells can be used to create microglial-like cell models morphologically and functionally similar to microglia observed in vivo. We illustrate the application of this approach by generating microglia from cells exposed and unexposed to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our ability to create personalized neonatal models of fetal brain immune programming enables non-invasive insights into fetal brain development and potential childhood neurodevelopmental vulnerabilities for a range of maternal exposures, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/growth & development , Brain/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cellular Reprogramming , Fetal Blood/immunology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Microglia/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
9.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 25, 2020 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617410

ABSTRACT

Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system represent two instruments of basic and translational research, which both allow to acquire deep insight about the molecular bases of many diseases but also to develop pharmacological research.This review is focused to draw up the latest technique of gene editing applied on hiPSCs, exploiting some of the genetic manipulation directed to the discovery of innovative therapeutic strategies. There are many expediencies provided by the use of hiPSCs, which can represent a disease model clinically relevant and predictive, with a great potential if associated to CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a gene editing tool powered by ease and precision never seen before.Here, we describe the possible applications of CRISPR/Cas9 to hiPSCs: from drug development to drug screening and from gene therapy to the induction of the immunological response to specific virus infection, such as HIV and SARS-Cov-2.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Drug Discovery , Gene Editing , Genetic Therapy , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Virus Diseases/therapy , Animals , Cellular Reprogramming , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation , Virus Diseases/genetics
10.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2440-2452, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457293

ABSTRACT

Conventional cancer and transformed cell lines are widely used in cancer biology and other fields within biology. These cells usually have abnormalities from the original tumor itself, but may also develop abnormalities due to genetic manipulation, or genetic and epigenetic changes during long-term passages. Primary cultures may maintain lineage functions as the original tissue types, yet they have a very limited life span or population doubling time because of the nature of cellular senescence. Primary cultures usually have very low yields, and the high variability from any original tissue specimens, largely limiting their applications in research. Animal models are often used for studies of virus infections, disease modeling, development of antiviral drugs, and vaccines. Human viruses often need a series of passages in vivo to adapt to the host environment because of variable receptors on the cell surface and may have intracellular restrictions from the cell types or host species. Here, we describe a long-term cell culture system, conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs), and its applications in modeling human viral diseases and drug discovery. Using feeder layer coculture in presence of Y-27632 (conditional reprogramming, CR), CRCs can be obtained and rapidly propagated from surgical specimens, core or needle biopsies, and other minimally invasive or noninvasive specimens, for example, nasal cavity brushing. CRCs preserve their lineage functions and provide biologically relevant and physiological conditions, which are suitable for studies of viral entry and replication, innate immune responses of host cells, and discovery of antiviral drugs. In this review, we summarize the applications of CR technology in modeling host-virus interactions and human viral diseases including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 and coronavirus disease-2019, and antiviral discovery.


Subject(s)
Cellular Reprogramming , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Amides , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coculture Techniques , Drug Discovery , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Pyridines , Virus Internalization , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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