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1.
Br J Pharmacol ; 179(9): 1808-1824, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799274

ABSTRACT

Advancing age is accompanied by significant remodelling of the immune system, termed immune senescence, and increased systemic inflammation, termed inflammageing, both of which contribute towards an increased risk of developing chronic diseases in old age. Age-associated alterations in metabolic homeostasis have been linked with changes in a range of physiological functions, but their effects on immune senescence remains poorly understood. In this article, we review the recent literature to formulate hypotheses as to how an age-associated dysfunctional metabolism, driven by an accumulation of key host metabolites (saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, ceramides and lactate) and loss of other metabolites (glutamine, tryptophan and short-chain fatty acids), might play a role in driving immune senescence and inflammageing, ultimately leading to diseases of old age. We also highlight the potential use of metabolic immunotherapeutic strategies targeting these processes in counteracting immune senescence and restoring immune homeostasis in older adults. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on Inflammation, Repair and Ageing. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v179.9/issuetoc.


Subject(s)
Aging , Immune System , Aged , Cellular Senescence , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 845580, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798939

ABSTRACT

A growing body of epidemiological and research data has associated neurotropic viruses with accelerated brain aging and increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Many viruses replicate optimally in senescent cells, as they offer a hospitable microenvironment with persistently elevated cytosolic calcium, abundant intracellular iron, and low interferon type I. As cell-cell fusion is a major driver of cellular senescence, many viruses have developed the ability to promote this phenotype by forming syncytia. Cell-cell fusion is associated with immunosuppression mediated by phosphatidylserine externalization that enable viruses to evade host defenses. In hosts, virus-induced immune dysfunction and premature cellular senescence may predispose to neurodegenerative disorders. This concept is supported by novel studies that found postinfectious cognitive dysfunction in several viral illnesses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1, herpes simplex virus-1, and SARS-CoV-2. Virus-induced pathological syncytia may provide a unified framework for conceptualizing neuronal cell cycle reentry, aneuploidy, somatic mosaicism, viral spreading of pathological Tau and elimination of viable synapses and neurons by neurotoxic astrocytes and microglia. In this narrative review, we take a closer look at cell-cell fusion and vesicular merger in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. We present a "decentralized" information processing model that conceptualizes neurodegeneration as a systemic illness, triggered by cytoskeletal pathology. We also discuss strategies for reversing cell-cell fusion, including, TMEM16F inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, senolytics, and tubulin stabilizing agents. Finally, going beyond neurodegeneration, we examine the potential benefit of harnessing fusion as a therapeutic strategy in regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Viruses , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Humans , Membrane Fusion , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Theranostics ; 12(6): 2722-2740, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780236

ABSTRACT

Aging is a natural process, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, i.e., aging-related diseases, such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, Alzheimer disease, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, obesity and other metabolic abnormalities. Metformin, the most widely used antidiabetic drug, has been reported to delay aging and display protective effect on attenuating progression of various aging-related diseases by impacting key hallmark events of aging, including dysregulated nutrient sensing, loss of proteostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered intercellular communication, telomere attrition, genomic instability, epigenetic alterations, stem cell exhaustion and cellular senescence. In this review, we provide updated information and knowledge on applications of metformin in prevention and treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. We focus our discussions on the roles and underlying mechanisms of metformin in modulating aging and treating aging-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Metformin , Aging/pathology , Cellular Senescence , Genomic Instability , Humans , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Telomere
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753507

ABSTRACT

CD8+ T lymphocytes are a heterogeneous class of cells that play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens and cancer. During their lifetime, they acquire cytotoxic functions to ensure the clearance of infected or transformed cells and, in addition, they turn into memory lymphocytes, thus providing a long-term protection. During ageing, the thymic involution causes a reduction of circulating T cells and an enrichment of memory cells, partially explaining the lowering of the response towards novel antigens with implications in vaccine efficacy. Moreover, the persistent stimulation by several antigens throughout life favors the switching of CD8+ T cells towards a senescent phenotype contributing to a low-grade inflammation that is a major component of several ageing-related diseases. In genetically predisposed young people, an immunological stress caused by viral infections (e.g., HIV, CMV, SARS-CoV-2), autoimmune disorders or tumor microenvironment (TME) could mimic the ageing status with the consequent acceleration of T cell senescence. This, in turn, exacerbates the inflamed conditions with dramatic effects on the clinical progression of the disease. A better characterization of the phenotype as well as the functions of senescent CD8+ T cells can be pivotal to prevent age-related diseases, to improve vaccine strategies and, possibly, immunotherapies in autoimmune diseases and cancer.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Neoplasms , Virus Diseases , CD28 Antigens , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cellular Senescence , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Microenvironment
5.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731951

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary senescence is accelerated by unresolved DNA damage response, underpinning susceptibility to pulmonary fibrosis. Recently it was reported that the SARS-Cov-2 viral infection induces acute pulmonary epithelial senescence followed by fibrosis, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examine roles of alveolar epithelial stem cell senescence and senescence-associated differentiation disorders in pulmonary fibrosis, exploring the mechanisms mediating and preventing pulmonary fibrogenic crisis. Notably, the TGF-ß signalling pathway mediates alveolar epithelial stem cell senescence by mechanisms involving suppression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene in pulmonary fibrosis. Alternatively, telomere uncapping caused by stress-induced telomeric shelterin protein TPP1 degradation mediates DNA damage response, pulmonary senescence and fibrosis. However, targeted intervention of cellular senescence disrupts pulmonary remodelling and fibrosis by clearing senescent cells using senolytics or preventing senescence using telomere dysfunction inhibitor (TELODIN). Studies indicate that the development of senescence-associated differentiation disorders is reprogrammable and reversible by inhibiting stem cell replicative senescence in pulmonary fibrosis, providing a framework for targeted intervention of the molecular mechanisms of alveolar stem cell senescence and pulmonary fibrosis. Abbreviations: DPS, developmental programmed senescence; IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; OIS, oncogene-induced replicative senescence; SADD, senescence-associated differentiation disorder; SALI, senescence-associated low-grade inflammation; SIPS, stress-induced premature senescence; TERC, telomerase RNA component; TERT, telomerase reverse transcriptase; TIFs, telomere dysfunction-induced foci; TIS, therapy-induced senescence; VIS, virus-induced senescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Telomerase , Cellular Senescence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cells/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580694

ABSTRACT

Telomeres are localized at the end of chromosomes to provide genome stability; however, the telomere length tends to be shortened with each cell division inducing a progressive telomere shortening (TS). In addition to age, other factors, such as exposure to pollutants, diet, stress, and disruptions in the shelterin protein complex or genes associated with telomerase induce TS. This phenomenon favors cellular senescence and genotoxic stress, which increases the risk of the development and progression of lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and lung cancer. In an infectious environment, immune cells that exhibit TS are associated with severe lymphopenia and death, whereas in a noninfectious context, naïve T cells that exhibit TS are related to cancer progression and enhanced inflammatory processes. In this review, we discuss how TS modifies the function of the immune system cells, making them inefficient in maintaining homeostasis in the lung. Finally, we discuss the advances in drug and gene therapy for lung diseases where TS could be used as a target for future treatments.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/genetics , Lung Diseases/immunology , Telomere Shortening/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Diseases/drug therapy
7.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 37(11): 1062-1065, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545680

ABSTRACT

The elimination of some senescent cells by « senolytic ¼ compounds can greatly improve the health of aged mice and in some cases reverse the effects of aging. Using a microbial exposure system that closely models coronavirus infection, it is possible to largely protect old mice from the effects of viral infection. This immediately suggests clinical application of the approach, and is the aim of ongoing phase II clinical trials in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cellular Senescence , Aging/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542580

ABSTRACT

The skin, being the barrier organ of the body, is constitutively exposed to various stimuli impacting its morphology and function. Senescent cells have been found to accumulate with age and may contribute to age-related skin changes and pathologies. Natural polyphenols exert many health benefits, including ameliorative effects on skin aging. By affecting molecular pathways of senescence, polyphenols are able to prevent or delay the senescence formation and, consequently, avoid or ameliorate aging and age-associated pathologies of the skin. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge in skin aging and cellular senescence, and to summarize the recent in vitro studies related to the anti-senescent mechanisms of natural polyphenols carried out on keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. Aged skin in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic will be also discussed.


Subject(s)
Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Skin Aging/drug effects , Skin Aging/physiology , Aging/physiology , COVID-19 , Fibroblasts , Humans , Keratinocytes , Melanocytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/pathology , Skin Aging/pathology
9.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542429

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a global pandemic associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, with particular risk for severe disease and mortality in the elderly population. SARS-CoV-2 infection is driven by a pathological hyperinflammatory response which results in a dysregulated immune response. Current advancements in aging research indicates that aging pathways have fundamental roles in dictating healthspan in addition to lifespan. Our review discusses the aging immune system and highlights that senescence and aging together, play a central role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. In our review, we primarily focus on the immune system response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the interconnection between severe COVID-19, immunosenescence, aging, vaccination, and the emerging problem of Long-COVID. We hope to highlight the importance of identifying specific senescent endotypes (or "sendotypes"), which can used as determinants of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Indeed, identified sendotypes could be therapeutically exploited for therapeutic intervention. We highlight that senolytics, which eliminate senescent cells, can target aging-associated pathways and therefore are proving attractive as potential therapeutic options to alleviate symptoms, prevent severe infection, and reduce mortality burden in COVID-19 and thus ultimately enhance healthspan.


Subject(s)
Aging/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cellular Senescence , Humans
10.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470800

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary epithelial cells are widely considered to be the first line of defence in the lung and are responsible for coordinating the innate immune response to injury and subsequent repair. Consequently, epithelial cells communicate with multiple cell types including immune cells and fibroblasts to promote acute inflammation and normal wound healing in response to damage. However, aberrant epithelial cell death and damage are hallmarks of pulmonary disease, with necrotic cell death and cellular senescence contributing to disease pathogenesis in numerous respiratory diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. In this review, we summarise the literature that demonstrates that epithelial damage plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of the immune response leading to tissue destruction and abnormal remodelling in several chronic diseases. Specifically, we highlight the role of epithelial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and senescence in shaping the immune response and assess their contribution to inflammatory and fibrotic signalling pathways in the lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epithelium/immunology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Lung/immunology , Alarmins , Animals , Cellular Senescence , Coculture Techniques , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Immunity , Inflammation/metabolism , Ligands , Necroptosis , Necrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
12.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(620): eabj7790, 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467665

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is characterized by respiratory distress, multiorgan dysfunction, and, in some cases, death. The pathological mechanisms underlying COVID-19 respiratory distress and the interplay with aggravating risk factors have not been fully defined. Lung autopsy samples from 18 patients with fatal COVID-19, with symptom onset-to-death times ranging from 3 to 47 days, and antemortem plasma samples from 6 of these cases were evaluated using deep sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, multiplex plasma protein measurements, and pulmonary gene expression and imaging analyses. Prominent histopathological features in this case series included progressive diffuse alveolar damage with excessive thrombosis and late-onset pulmonary tissue and vascular remodeling. Acute damage at the alveolar-capillary barrier was characterized by the loss of surfactant protein expression with injury to alveolar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, respiratory epithelial basal cells, and defective tissue repair processes. Other key findings included impaired clot fibrinolysis with increased concentrations of plasma and lung plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and modulation of cellular senescence markers, including p21 and sirtuin-1, in both lung epithelial and endothelial cells. Together, these findings further define the molecular pathological features underlying the pulmonary response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide important insights into signaling pathways that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cellular Senescence , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 21838-21854, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417382

ABSTRACT

Senescent cells, which arise due to damage-associated signals, are apoptosis-resistant and can express a pro-inflammatory, tissue-destructive senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We recently reported that a component of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) surface protein, S1, can amplify the SASP of senescent cultured human cells and that a related mouse ß-coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), increases SASP factors and senescent cell burden in infected mice. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 induces senescence in human non-senescent cells and exacerbates the SASP in human senescent cells through Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3). TLR-3, which senses viral RNA, was increased in human senescent compared to non-senescent cells. Notably, genetically or pharmacologically inhibiting TLR-3 prevented senescence induction and SASP amplification by SARS-CoV-2 or Spike pseudotyped virus. While an artificial TLR-3 agonist alone was not sufficient to induce senescence, it amplified the SASP in senescent human cells. Consistent with these findings, lung p16INK4a+ senescent cell burden was higher in patients who died from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection than other causes. Our results suggest that induction of cellular senescence and SASP amplification through TLR-3 contribute to SARS-CoV-2 morbidity, indicating that clinical trials of senolytics and/or SASP/TLR-3 inhibitors for alleviating acute and long-term SARS-CoV-2 sequelae are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Aging , Animals , Apoptosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Phenotype , Viral Proteins
14.
Nature ; 599(7884): 283-289, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404888

ABSTRACT

Derailed cytokine and immune cell networks account for the organ damage and the clinical severity of COVID-19 (refs. 1-4). Here we show that SARS-CoV-2, like other viruses, evokes cellular senescence as a primary stress response in infected cells. Virus-induced senescence (VIS) is indistinguishable from other forms of cellular senescence and is accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which comprises pro-inflammatory cytokines, extracellular-matrix-active factors and pro-coagulatory mediators5-7. Patients with COVID-19 displayed markers of senescence in their airway mucosa in situ and increased serum levels of SASP factors. In vitro assays demonstrated macrophage activation with SASP-reminiscent secretion, complement lysis and SASP-amplifying secondary senescence of endothelial cells, which mirrored hallmark features of COVID-19 such as macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, endothelial damage and widespread thrombosis in affected lung tissue1,8,9. Moreover, supernatant from VIS cells, including SARS-CoV-2-induced senescence, induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and activation of platelets and the clotting cascade. Senolytics such as navitoclax and a combination of dasatinib plus quercetin selectively eliminated VIS cells, mitigated COVID-19-reminiscent lung disease and reduced inflammation in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters and mice. Our findings mark VIS as a pathogenic trigger of COVID-19-related cytokine escalation and organ damage, and suggest that senolytic targeting of virus-infected cells is a treatment option against SARS-CoV-2 and perhaps other viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Aniline Compounds/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/metabolism
15.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 18(5): 661-673, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a great challenge for the treatment of cancer patients. It presents as a severe respiratory infection in aged individuals, including some lung cancer patients. COVID-19 may be linked to the progression of aggressive lung cancer. In addition, the side effects of chemotherapy, such as chemotherapy resistance and the acceleration of cellular senescence, can worsen COVID-19. Given this situation, we investigated the role of paclitaxel (a chemotherapy drug) in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cellular senescence of gefitinib-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells (PC9-MET) to clarify the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC9-MET cells were treated with paclitaxel for 72 h and then evaluated by a cell viability assay, DAPI staining, Giemsa staining, apoptosis assay, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, SA-ß-Gal staining, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and Western blotting. RESULTS: Paclitaxel significantly reduced the viability of PC9-MET cells and induced morphological signs of apoptosis. The apoptotic effects of paclitaxel were observed by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 (Asp 175), cleaved caspase-9 (Asp 330) and cleaved PARP (Asp 214). In addition, paclitaxel increased ROS production, leading to DNA damage. Inhibition of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine attenuates paclitaxel-induced DNA damage. Importantly, paclitaxel eliminated cellular senescence, as observed by SA-ß-Gal staining. Cellular senescence elimination was associated with p53/p21 and p16/pRb signaling inactivation. CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel may be a promising anticancer drug and offer a new therapeutic strategy for managing gefitinib-resistant NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Gefitinib/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects
16.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374305

ABSTRACT

According to the neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is known that the nervous system is influenced by the virus. We used pediatric human cerebral cortical cell line HCN-2 as a neuronal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and, through transcriptomic analysis, our aim was to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in this type of cells. Transcriptome analyses revealed impairment in TXN gene, resulting in deregulation of its antioxidant functions, as well as a decrease in the DNA-repairing mechanism, as indicated by the decrease in KAT5. Western blot analyses of SOD1 and iNOS confirmed the impairment of reduction mechanisms and an increase in oxidative stress. Upregulation of CDKN2A and a decrease in CDK4 and CDK6 point to the blocking of the cell cycle that, according to the deregulation of repairing mechanism, has apoptosis as the outcome. A high level of proapoptotic gene PMAIP1 is indeed coherent with neuronal death, as also supported by increased levels of caspase 3. The upregulation of cell-cycle-blocking genes and apoptosis suggests a sufferance state of neurons after SARS-CoV-2 infection, followed by their inevitable death, which can explain the neurological symptoms reported. Further analyses are required to deeply explain the mechanisms and find potential treatments to protect neurons from oxidative stress and prevent their death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Neurons/pathology , Oxidative Stress/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Humans , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(11): 3023-3033, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367342

ABSTRACT

The burden of senescent cells (SnCs), which do not divide but are metabolically active and resistant to death by apoptosis, is increased in older adults and those with chronic diseases. These individuals are also at the greatest risk for morbidity and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 complications include cytokine storm and multiorgan failure mediated by the same factors as often produced by SnCs through their senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP can be amplified by infection-related pathogen-associated molecular profile factors. Senolytic agents, such as Fisetin, selectively eliminate SnCs and delay, prevent, or alleviate multiple disorders in aged experimental animals and animal models of human chronic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and respiratory diseases. Senolytics are now in clinical trials for multiple conditions linked to SnCs, including frailty; obesity/diabetes; osteoporosis; and cardiovascular, kidney, and lung diseases, which are also risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality. A clinical trial is underway to test if senolytics decrease SARS-CoV-2 progression and morbidity in hospitalized older adults. We describe here a National Institutes of Health-funded, multicenter, placebo-controlled clinical trial of Fisetin for older adult skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents who have been, or become, SARS-CoV-2 rtPCR-positive, including the rationale for targeting fundamental aging mechanisms in such patients. We consider logistic challenges of conducting trials in long-term care settings in the SARS-CoV-2 era, including restricted access, consent procedures, methods for obtaining biospecimens and clinical data, staffing, investigational product administration issues, and potential solutions for these challenges. We propose developing a national network of SNFs engaged in interventional clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Flavonols/therapeutic use , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Monitoring , Humans
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(15): 19920-19941, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355316

ABSTRACT

Immunosenescence is a multi-faceted phenomenon at the root of age-associated immune dysfunction. It can lead to an array of pathological conditions, including but not limited to a decreased capability to surveil and clear senescent cells (SnCs) and cancerous cells, an increased autoimmune responses leading to tissue damage, a reduced ability to tackle pathogens, and a decreased competence to illicit a robust response to vaccination. Cellular senescence is a phenomenon by which oncogene-activated, stressed or damaged cells undergo a stable cell cycle arrest. Failure to efficiently clear SnCs results in their accumulation in an organism as it ages. SnCs actively secrete a myriad of molecules, collectively called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which are factors that cause dysfunction in the neighboring tissue. Though both cellular senescence and immunosenescence have been studied extensively and implicated in various pathologies, their relationship has not been greatly explored. In the wake of an ongoing pandemic (COVID-19) that disproportionately affects the elderly, immunosenescence as a function of age has become a topic of great importance. The goal of this review is to explore the role of cellular senescence in age-associated lymphoid organ dysfunction and immunosenescence, and provide a framework to explore therapies to rejuvenate the aged immune system.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Cellular Senescence/immunology , Immunosenescence , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans
19.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355052

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic characterized by an exaggerated immune response and respiratory illness. Age (>60 years) is a significant risk factor for developing severe COVID-19. To better understand the host response of the aged airway epithelium to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we performed an in vitro study using primary human bronchial epithelial cells from donors >67 years of age differentiated on an air-liquid interface culture. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to early induction of a proinflammatory response and a delayed interferon response. In addition, we observed changes in the genes and pathways associated with cell death and senescence throughout infection. In summary, our study provides new and important insights into the temporal kinetics of the airway epithelial innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in older individuals.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/immunology , Bronchi/virology , Immunity, Innate , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aging/immunology , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Death/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons/biosynthesis , Interferons/genetics , Male , RNA-Seq , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics
20.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0079421, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350003

ABSTRACT

Increased mortality in COVID-19 cases is often associated with microvascular complications. We have recently shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein promotes an inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6)/IL-6R-induced trans signaling response and alarmin secretion. Virus-infected or spike-transfected human epithelial cells exhibited an increase in senescence, with a release of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)-related inflammatory molecules. Introduction of the bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitor AZD5153 to senescent epithelial cells reversed this effect and reduced SASP-related inflammatory molecule release in TMNK-1 or EAhy926 (representative human endothelial cell lines), when cells were exposed to cell culture medium (CM) derived from A549 cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Cells also exhibited a senescence phenotype with enhanced p16, p21, and senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) expression and triggered SASP pathways. Inhibition of IL-6 trans signaling by tocilizumab and inhibition of inflammatory receptor signaling by the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor zanubrutinib, prior to exposure of CM to endothelial cells, inhibited p21 and p16 induction. We also observed an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A549 spike-transfected and endothelial cells exposed to spike-transfected CM. ROS generation in endothelial cell lines was reduced after treatment with tocilizumab and zanubrutinib. Cellular senescence was associated with an increased level of the endothelial adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which have in vitro leukocyte attachment potential. Inhibition of senescence or SASP function prevented VCAM-1/ICAM-1 expression and leukocyte attachment. Taken together, we identified that human endothelial cells exposed to cell culture supernatant derived from SARS-CoV-2 spike protein expression displayed cellular senescence markers, leading to enhanced leukocyte adhesion. IMPORTANCE The present study was aimed at examining the underlying mechanism of extrapulmonary manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-associated pathogenesis, with the notion that infection of the pulmonary epithelium can lead to mediators that drive endothelial dysfunction. We utilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein expression in cultured human hepatocytes (Huh7.5) and pneumocytes (A549) to generate conditioned culture medium (CM). Endothelial cell lines (TMNK-1 or EAhy926) treated with CM exhibited an increase in cellular senescence markers by a paracrine mode and led to leukocyte adhesion. Overall, the link between these responses in endothelial cell senescence and a potential contribution to microvascular complication in productively SARS-CoV-2-infected humans is implicated. Furthermore, the use of inhibitors (BTK, IL-6, and BRD4) showed a reverse effect in the senescent cells. These results may support the selection of potential adjunct therapeutic modalities to impede SARS-CoV-2-associated pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Cellular Senescence , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Leukocytes/metabolism , Paracrine Communication , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Adhesion , Cell Cycle Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring/pharmacology , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Leukocytes/pathology , Leukocytes/virology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles , Pyridazines , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
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