Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 303
Filter
3.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(2): 166-168, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860989

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: A virtual partner services technical assistance (TA) project was piloted with the Minnesota Department of Health to address an ongoing syphilis outbreak. The TA reduced the health department's disease intervention specialist workload, achieved partner services outcomes comparable with in-person methods, and identified lessons learned to replicate with other jurisdictions.


Subject(s)
Syphilis , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Minnesota , Pilot Projects , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control , United States
4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(6): 1107-1115, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852928

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread through the United States in 2020, states began to set up alert systems to inform policy decisions and serve as risk communication tools for the general public. Many of these systems included indicators based on an assessment of trends in numbers of reported cases. However, when cases are indexed by date of disease onset, reporting delays complicate the interpretation of trends. Despite a foundation of statistical literature with which to address this problem, these methods have not been widely applied in practice. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian spatiotemporal nowcasting model for assessing trends in county-level COVID-19 cases in Ohio. We compare the performance of our model with the approach used in Ohio and the approach included in decision support materials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We demonstrate gains in performance while still retaining interpretability using our model. In addition, we are able to fully account for uncertainty in both the time series of cases and the reporting process. While we cannot eliminate all of the uncertainty in public health surveillance and subsequent decision-making, we must use approaches that embrace these challenges and deliver more accurate and honest assessments to policy-makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Public Health Surveillance , United States/epidemiology
5.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(2): 199-207, 2022 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841518

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the psychological status of staff at the centers for disease control and prevention(CDC) in Sichuan during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and explore the influencing factors. Methods The staff at Sichuan provincial,municipal,and county(district)-level CDC were selected by convenience sampling.Their basic information,work status,training status,work difficulties,and support from the work group were collected from the self-filled questionnaires online.The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and the 9-question Patient Health Questionnaire were respectively employed to measure the anxiety and depression of the staff.The stepwise Logistic regression was carried out to analyze the influencing factors of anxiety and depression in CDC staff. Results Among the 653 staff,58.35% and 50.06% presented anxiety and depression,respectively.The regression results showed that age(OR=0.95,95%CI=0.92-0.97) and mental support from the work group(OR=0.61,95%CI=0.45-0.82) were the protective factors while physical fatigue(OR=1.82,95%CI=1.20-2.74),work pressure(OR=1.61,95%CI=1.21-2.12),and insufficient protective equipment(OR=1.92,95%CI=1.06-3.49) were the risk factors for depression of CDC staff.Age(OR=0.97,95%CI=0.94-0.99),length of sleep per day(OR=0.74,95%CI=0.56-0.96),and participation in technical training(OR=0.33,95%CI=0.12-0.95) were the protective factors while mental fatigue(OR=1.68,95%CI=1.18-2.41),work pressure(OR=2.94,95%CI=2.08-4.17),and unclear incentive system for overtime(OR=1.99,95%CI=1.23-3.23) were the risk factors for the anxiety of CDC staff. Conclusion The anxiety and depression status of CDC staff during the COVID-19 outbreak were worrying,which were mainly affected by age,sleep,supply of protective equipment,incentive system,fatigue,and work pressure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 404, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention contracted with laboratories to sequence the SARS-CoV-2 genome from positive samples across the United States to enable public health officials to investigate the impact of variants on disease severity as well as the effectiveness of vaccines and treatment. Herein we present the initial results correlating RT-PCR quality control metrics with sample collection and sequencing methods from full SARS-CoV-2 viral genomic sequencing of 24,441 positive patient samples between April and June 2021. METHODS: RT-PCR confirmed (N Gene Ct value < 30) positive patient samples, with nucleic acid extracted from saliva, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were selected for viral whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequencing. Sequencing was performed using Illumina COVIDSeq™ protocol on either the NextSeq550 or NovaSeq6000 systems. Informatic variant calling, and lineage analysis were performed using DRAGEN COVID Lineage applications on Illumina's Basespace cloud analytical system. All sequence data and variant calls were uploaded to NCBI and GISAID. RESULTS: An association was observed between higher sequencing coverage, quality, and samples with a lower Ct value, with < 27 being optimal, across both sequencing platforms and sample collection methods. Both nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva samples were found to be optimal samples of choice for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance sequencing studies, both in terms of strain identification and sequencing depth of coverage, with NovaSeq 6000 providing higher coverage than the NextSeq 550. The most frequent variants identified were the B.1.617.2 Delta (India) and P.1 Gamma (Brazil) variants in the samples sequenced between April 2021 and June 2021. At the time of submission, the most common variant > 99% of positives sequenced was Omicron. CONCLUSION: These initial analyses highlight the importance of sequencing platform, sample collection methods, and RT-PCR Ct values in guiding surveillance efforts. These surveillance studies evaluating genetic changes of SARS-CoV-2 have been identified as critical by the CDC that can affect many aspects of public health including transmission, disease severity, diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e058762, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the status quo and the influencing factors of fatigue and professional identity among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) workers in China during the pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design. SETTING: CDC workers employed by the Liaoning CDC system were enrolled (administrative staffs were excluded). PARTICIPANTS: 1020 CDC workers. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue scores and professional identity scores. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Postcompetency scores, respect scores, occupational stress scores, resilience scores and self-efficacy scores. RESULTS: The average scores of fatigue and professional identity were 8.23, 38.88, respectively. Factors including perceived public respect (ß=-0.129, p<0.01), resilience (ß=-0.104, p<0.05) and self-efficacy (ß=-0.22, p<0.01) were negatively associated with fatigue. Educational background (bachelor vs junior college or below) (ß=0.105, p<0.01), (master or above vs junior college or below) (ß=0.092, p<0.05), workplace (county vs district) (ß=0.067, p<0.05), (city vs district) (ß=0.085, p<0.05), fighting the COVID-19 on the front line (ß=0.059, p<0.05) and occupational stress (ß=0.166, p<0.01) were positively correlated with fatigue. Educational background (bachelor vs junior college or below) (ß=-0.097, p<0.01), (master or above vs junior college or below) (ß=-0.114, p<0.01), workplace (city vs district) (ß=-0.114, p<0.01), fighting the COVID-19 on the front line (ß=-0.047, p<0.05) and occupational stress (ß=-0.105, p<0.01) were negatively associated with professional identity. Factors including postcompetency (ß=0.362, p<0.01), perceived public respect (general vs low) (ß=0.219, p<0.01), (high vs low) (ß=0.288, p<0.01), resilience (ß=0.097, p<0.05) and self-efficacy (ß=0.113, p<0.01) were positively connected with professional identity. CONCLUSION: The fatigue among the CDC workers was at a higher level. The level of professional identity was high, and administrators should take measures to alleviate fatigue and maintain professional identity. In addition, methods aiming to attenuate occupational stress, and improve resilience and self-efficacy should be immediately put into action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
11.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(4): e61-e63, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752215

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted sexually transmitted disease (STD) services. Of 59 US-funded STD programs, 91% reported a great deal to moderate impact from staff reassignment in April 2020, with 28% of respondents reporting permanent reassignment of disease intervention specialist staff. Telemedicine was implemented in 47%. Decreases in STD case reports were reported by most jurisdictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(11): 416-421, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744554

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding the stabilized prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. During December 2020, the vaccine was granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation for use among persons aged ≥18 years (1), which was adopted by CDC. During December 19, 2020-January 30, 2022, approximately 204 million doses of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine were administered in the United States (2) as a primary series of 2 intramuscular doses (100 µg [0.5 mL] each) 4 weeks apart. On January 31, 2022, FDA approved a Biologics License Application (BLA) for use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine (Spikevax, ModernaTX, Inc.) in persons aged ≥18 years (3). On February 4, 2022, the ACIP COVID-19 Vaccines Work Group conclusions regarding recommendations for the use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine were presented to ACIP at a public meeting. The Work Group's deliberations were based on the Evidence to Recommendation (EtR) Framework,* which incorporates the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach† to rank evidence quality. In addition to initial clinical trial data, ACIP considered new information gathered in the 12 months since issuance of the interim recommendations, including additional follow-up time in the clinical trial, real-world vaccine effectiveness studies, and postauthorization vaccine safety monitoring. ACIP also considered comparisons of mRNA vaccine effectiveness and safety in real-world settings when first doses were administered 8 weeks apart instead of the original intervals used in clinical trials (3 weeks for BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] COVID-19 vaccine and 4 weeks for Moderna COVID-19 vaccine). Based on this evidence, CDC has provided guidance that an 8-week interval might be optimal for some adolescents and adults. The additional information gathered since the issuance of the interim recommendations increased certainty that the benefits of preventing symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death outweigh vaccine-associated risks of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. On February 4, 2022, ACIP modified its interim recommendation to a standard recommendation§ for use of the fully licensed Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Advisory Committees , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Health Planning Guidelines , Immunization Schedule , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , United States
13.
Science ; 374(6570): 913, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741544

ABSTRACT

Earlier this month, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended Pfizer's COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine for children between 5 and 11 years of age-that's 28 million children. Yet surveys show that 42 to 66% of parents of these children are reluctant or opposed to seeking this protection. Without vaccination, it is likely that almost everyone-including young children-will be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at some point in their lives. So, the question for parents and caregivers is: Which is worse, vaccination or natural infection?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , Parents , United States , Vaccination Refusal
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 913-917, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708595

ABSTRACT

Modeling complements surveillance data to inform coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) public health decision making and policy development. This includes the use of modeling to improve situational awareness, assess epidemiological characteristics, and inform the evidence base for prevention strategies. To enhance modeling utility in future public health emergencies, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the Infectious Disease Modeling and Analytics Initiative. The initiative objectives are to: (1) strengthen leadership in infectious disease modeling, epidemic forecasting, and advanced analytic work; (2) build and cultivate a community of skilled modeling and analytics practitioners and consumers across CDC; (3) strengthen and support internal and external applied modeling and analytic work; and (4) working with partners, coordinate government-wide advanced data modeling and analytics for infectious diseases. These efforts are critical to help prepare the CDC, the country, and the world to respond effectively to present and future infectious disease threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(6): 206-211, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687588

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance is a critical tool for tracking emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), which can exhibit characteristics that potentially affect public health and clinical interventions, including increased transmissibility, illness severity, and capacity for immune escape. During June 2021-January 2022, CDC expanded genomic surveillance data sources to incorporate sequence data from public repositories to produce weighted estimates of variant proportions at the jurisdiction level and refined analytic methods to enhance the timeliness and accuracy of national and regional variant proportion estimates. These changes also allowed for more comprehensive variant proportion estimation at the jurisdictional level (i.e., U.S. state, district, territory, and freely associated state). The data in this report are a summary of findings of recent proportions of circulating variants that are updated weekly on CDC's COVID Data Tracker website to enable timely public health action.† The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2 and AY sublineages) variant rose from 1% to >50% of viral lineages circulating nationally during 8 weeks, from May 1-June 26, 2021. Delta-associated infections remained predominant until being rapidly overtaken by infections associated with the Omicron (B.1.1.529 and BA sublineages) variant in December 2021, when Omicron increased from 1% to >50% of circulating viral lineages during a 2-week period. As of the week ending January 22, 2022, Omicron was estimated to account for 99.2% (95% CI = 99.0%-99.5%) of SARS-CoV-2 infections nationwide, and Delta for 0.7% (95% CI = 0.5%-1.0%). The dynamic landscape of SARS-CoV-2 variants in 2021, including Delta- and Omicron-driven resurgences of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across the United States, underscores the importance of robust genomic surveillance efforts to inform public health planning and practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Genomics , Humans , Prevalence , Public Health Surveillance/methods , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(12): 1673-1680, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665857

ABSTRACT

This report provides historical context and rationale for coordinated, systematic, and evidence-based public health emergency preparedness and response (EPR) activities to address the needs of women of reproductive age. Needs of pregnant and postpartum women, and infants-before, during, and after public health emergencies-are highlighted. Four focus areas and related activities are described: (1) public health science; (2) clinical guidance; (3) partnerships, communication, and outreach; and (4) workforce development. Finally, the report summarizes major activities of the Division of Reproductive Health's EPR Team at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Disaster Planning , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Communication , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Public Health , Reproductive Health , United States
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL