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Front Immunol ; 12: 752557, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789371


Objective: To analyze and compare different clinical, laboratory, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics between pediatric and adult patients with first-attack myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) and to explore predictive factors for severity at disease onset. Methods: Patients diagnosed with MOGAD at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2013 to August 2021 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Age at disease onset, sex, comorbidities, laboratory tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were collected and analyzed. The association between risk factors and initial EDSS scores at disease onset was analyzed using logistic regression models and Spearman correlation analyses. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive ability of the uric acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels for the severity of neurological dysfunction at the onset of MOGAD. Results: Sixty-seven patients (female, n=34; male, n=33) with first-attack MOGAD were included in this study. The mean age at onset was 26.43 ± 18.22 years (range: 3-79 years). Among patients <18 years of age, the most common presenting symptoms were loss of vision (36.0%), and nausea and vomiting (24.0%), and the most common disease spectrum was acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (40.0%). Among patients aged ≥18 years, the most common presenting symptoms were loss of vision (35.7%), paresthesia (33.3%), and paralysis (26.2%), and the most common disease spectrum was optic neuritis (35.7%). The most common lesions were cortical gray matter/paracortical white matter lesions in both pediatric and adult patients. Uric acid [odds ratio (OR)=1.014; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.006-1.022; P=0.000] and serum Hcy (OR=1.125; 95% CI=1.017-1.246; P=0.023) levels were significantly associated with the severity of neurological dysfunction at disease onset. Uric acid levels (r=0.2583; P=0.035) and Hcy levels (r=0.3971; P=0.0009) were positively correlated with initial EDSS scores. The areas under the ROC curve were 0.7775 (95% CI= 0.6617‒0.8933; P<0.001) and 0.6767 (95% CI=0.5433‒0.8102, P=0.014) for uric acid and Hcy levels, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical phenotype of MOGAD varies in patients of different ages. The most common disease spectrum was ADEM in patients aged<18 years, while optic neuritis was commonly found in patients aged ≥18 years. The uric acid and Hcy levels are risk factors for the severity of neurological dysfunction at disease onset in patients with first-attack MOGAD.

Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/epidemiology , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/metabolism , Biomarkers , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Blind Method , Uric Acid/blood , Young Adult
Rev Neurol ; 72(11): 397-406, 2021 06 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248580


INTRODUCTION: For more than a decade, following the ECTRIMS Congress, the Post-ECTRIMS Meeting has been held in Spain, where neurologists with expertise in multiple sclerosis (MS) from all over the country meet to review the most relevant latest developments presented at the ECTRIMS congress (on this occasion held together with ACTRIMS). AIM: This article, published in two parts, summarises the presentations that took place at the Post-ECTRIMS Meeting, held online on 16 and 17 October 2020. DEVELOPMENT: This first part includes the latest results regarding the impact of the environment and lifestyle on risk of MS and its clinical course, and the role of epigenetics and genetic factors on these processes. Findings from preclinical and clinical research on the lymphocyte subtypes identified and the involvement of lymphoid follicles and meningeal involvement in the disease are discussed. Changes in brain structure are addressed at the microscopic and macroscopic levels, including results from high-resolution imaging techniques. The latest advances on biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of MS, and on the involvement of the microbiome in these patients are also reported. Finally, results from patient registries on the impact of COVID-19 in MS patients are outlined. CONCLUSIONS: There have been new data on MS risk factors, the impact of MS at the cellular and structural level, the role of the microbiome in the disease, biomarkers, and the relationship between COVID-19 and MS.

TITLE: XIII Reunión Post-ECTRIMS: revisión de las novedades presentadas en el Congreso ECTRIMS 2020 (I).Introducción. Desde hace más de una década, tras el congreso ECTRIMS, se celebra en España la reunión Post-ECTRIMS, donde neurólogos expertos en esclerosis múltiple (EM) de toda España se reúnen para revisar las principales novedades presentadas en el ECTRIMS (en esta ocasión, celebrado junto con el ACTRIMS). Objetivo. En el presente artículo, publicado en dos partes, se resumen las ponencias que tuvieron lugar en la reunión Post-ECTRIMS, celebrada los días 16 y 17 de octubre de 2020 de forma virtual. Desarrollo. En esta primera parte se incluyen los últimos resultados acerca del impacto del ambiente y el estilo de vida sobre el riesgo de EM y su curso clínico, y el papel de la epigenética y los factores genéticos sobre estos procesos. Se discuten los hallazgos en investigación preclínica y clínica sobre los subtipos de linfocitos identificados, y la implicación de los folículos linfoides y la afectación meníngea en la enfermedad. Los cambios en la estructura cerebral se abordan a nivel microscópico y macroscópico, incluyendo resultados de técnicas de imagen de alta resolución. También se presentan los últimos avances sobre biomarcadores para el diagnóstico y el pronóstico de la EM, y sobre la afectación del microbioma en estos pacientes. Por último, se esbozan los resultados de registros de pacientes sobre el impacto de la COVID-19 en los pacientes con EM. Conclusiones. Ha habido nuevos datos sobre factores de riesgo de la EM, impacto de la EM a nivel celular y estructural, papel del microbioma en la enfermedad, biomarcadores y la relación entre COVID-19 y EM.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis , Biomarkers , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Environmental Exposure , Epigenesis, Genetic , Europe , Gray Matter/pathology , Humans , Life Style , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Meninges/pathology , Microbiota , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/microbiology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neuroglia/pathology , Neurology/trends , Neurons/pathology , Remyelination
Antiviral Res ; 173: 104646, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829317


Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are important pathogens that cause upper respiratory tract infections and have neuroinvasive abilities; however, little is known about the dynamic infection process of CoVs in vivo, and there are currently no specific antiviral drugs to prevent or treat HCoV infection. Here, we verified the replication ability and pathogenicity of a reporter HCoV-OC43 strain expressing Renilla luciferase (Rluc; rOC43-ns2DelRluc) in mice with different genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6 and BALB/c). Additionally, we monitored the spatial and temporal progression of HCoV-OC43 through the central nervous system (CNS) of live BALB/c mice after intranasal or intracerebral inoculation with rOC43-ns2DelRluc. We found that rOC43-ns2DelRluc was fatal to suckling mice after intranasal inoculation, and that viral titers and Rluc expression were detected in the brains and spinal cords of mice infected with rOC43-ns2DelRluc. Moreover, viral replication was initially observed in the brain by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging before the infection spread to the spinal cord of BALB/c mice, consistent with its tropism in the CNS. Furthermore, the Rluc readout correlated with the HCoV replication ability and protein expression, which allowed quantification of antiviral activity in live mice. Additionally, we validated that chloroquine strongly inhibited rOC43-ns2DelRluc replication in vivo. These results provide new insights into the temporal and spatial dissemination of HCoV-OC43 in the CNS, and our methods provide an extremely sensitive platform for evaluating the efficacy of antiviral therapies to treat neuroinvasive HCoVs in live mice.

Central Nervous System/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/virology , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Luciferases, Renilla/genetics , Luciferases, Renilla/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Imaging , Virus Replication/drug effects