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2.
Perfusion ; 38(1_suppl): 40-43, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318599

ABSTRACT

Patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support do frequently receive broad-spectrum antibiotics, due to the high frequency of infection by multidrug resistant microorganisms. The extracorporeal circuit can alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of administered drugs, and in the case of antibiotics this may lead to treatment failure. Cefiderocol is a new cephalosporin that exhibits excellent in vitro activity against many multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms, but there is no published data about the modifications of its PK in patients with ECMO support. Herein we report the results of a pharmacokinetic investigation of cefiderocol in a critically ill patient receiving extracorporeal respiratory support.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Monobactams
3.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 29(e1): e52-e56, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the appropriateness of ceftazidime-avibactam (C-A), ceftolozane-tazobactam (C-T) and ceftaroline prescriptions according to European Medicines Agency (EMA)/Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS) approved indications, financed indications in the Spanish health system and hospital Infection Commission (IC) recommendations in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and retrospective study of inpatients aged ≥18 years, who were prescribed the above-mentioned antimicrobials during the period January-December 2020. Variables obtained were demographic (sex and age), pharmacological (antibiotic, use - empiric or targeted, indication) and microbiological (sensitivity testing and antibiotic tested) data. RESULTS: A total of 79 patients were included. C-A (n=40): 67.5% of patients were male, with a mean age of 61 (range 22-87) years. Empiric treatment was applied in 30% of the cases (n=12). De-escalation in 33.33% of individuals. Sensitivity testing was done in 92.86% of patients, including C-A in 57.69% of them. C-T (n=19): 89.47% of patients were male, with a mean age of 65 (range 18-82) years. An empiric approach was followed in 5.26% of subjects; de-escalation was performed in all cases due to culture with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sensitivity testing was carried out in 100% of patients, including C-T in 26.32% of them. Ceftaroline (n=20): 70% of patients were male, with a mean age of 55.5 (range 23-79) years. Empiric treatment was applied to 30% of cases. In 50% of these subjects de-escalation was done. Sensitivity testing was done in 92.85% of them, but in none with ceftaroline. Regarding the percentage of appropriateness: approved EMA/AEMPS indications: C-A: 100%; C-T: 84.21%; ceftaroline: 75%; financed indications in the Spanish health system: C-A: 85%; C-T: 100%; ceftaroline: 15%; IC: C-A: 60%; C-T: 57.9%; ceftaroline: 15%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the importance of stewardship programmes in the decision-making process and in the follow-up of patients with infections caused by MDR microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Cephalosporins , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
4.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 164, 2022 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The overuse of antibiotics in primary healthcare settings (PHSs) has caused a serious public health problem in China. The outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic brought about dramatic changes in the supply of and demand for medical services in PHSs, possibly resulting in unprecedented changes in antibiotic use. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the immediate and long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the changes in antibiotic consumption in PHSs. METHOD: The data on antibiotic consumption were collected from selected township hospitals in Shandong, China from January 2019 to December 2021. Antibiotic consumption was quantified by using the defined daily doses (DDDs) and the WHO Access, Watch, Reserve category. A segmented regression model was established to analyze the immediate and long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on antibiotic use by using the interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: The overall antibiotic consumption in all PHSs decreased by 32.04% and 16.69% in 2020 and 2021 respectively compared to the corresponding period in 2019. Over the entire study period, the use of penicillins (J01C) and cephalosporins (J01D) accounted for more than 50% of the total antibiotic consumption. The average annual consumption of Watch category antibiotics decreased by 42.02% and 33.47% in 2020 and 2021 respectively compared to that in 2019. According to the interrupted time series analysis, the total antibiotic consumption decreased significantly immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak (coef. = - 2.712, p = 0.045), but it then increased significantly over a long-term (coef. = 0.205, p = 0.005). Additionally, the consumption of Access category antibiotics increased significantly in PHSs in the long-term (coef. = 0.136, p = 0.018). However, the consumption of Watch category antibiotics declined sharply immediately after the pandemic (coef. = - 1.222, p < 0.001), but then it increased slightly over a long-term (coef. = 0.073, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The extensive use of penicillin and cephalosporins should be of great concern. After the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, the total antibiotic consumption decreased generally and the use pattern was improved to some extent in the PHSs in Shandong, China. This provides an opportunity for improving the misuse of antibiotics in PHSs in China.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Drug Utilization , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Penicillins , China/epidemiology
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(11): 1679-1686, 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143906

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results in similar clinical characteristics as bacterial respiratory tract infections and can potentially lead to antibiotic overuse. This study aimed to determine the changes in hospital antimicrobial usage before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: We compared antimicrobial consumption data for 2019 and 2020. Inpatient antibiotic consumption was determined and expressed as a defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 occupied bed days, following the World Health Organization (WHO) methods. The WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification was used. RESULTS: The total antimicrobial consumption in 2020 increased by 16.3% compared to consumption in 2019. In 2020, there was a reduction in fourth-generation cephalosporins (-30%), third-generation cephalosporins (-29%), and combinations of penicillins (-23%). In contrast, antibiotics that were consumed more during 2020 compared with 2019 included linezolid (374%), vancomycin (66.6%), and carbapenem (7%). Linezolid is the only antibiotic from the Reserve group on the hospital's formulary. Antibiotic usage from the Access group was reduced by 17%, while antibiotic usage from the Watch group and the Reserve group was increased by 3% and 374%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show a significant shift in antibiotic usage from the Access group to the Watch and Reserve groups. The Watch and Reserve groups are known to be associated with increased resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, antimicrobial stewardship should be increased and maintained during the pandemic to ensure appropriate antibiotic use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pandemics , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Linezolid , Hospitals , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use
6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(8): 3136-3139, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055702

ABSTRACT

A 43-year-old male patient presented with acute blurring of vision in both eyes associated with photophobia, redness, and mild pain following coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) infection. Clinical examination revealed extensive pigment dusting in the corneal endothelium and the trabecular meshwork with de-pigmentation bands in the iris periphery. The patient was managed empirically with topical anti-glaucoma medications for high intra-ocular pressure. The patient was prescribed systemic antibiotics including cephalosporins and amoxicillin for respiratory symptoms. A rare condition called bilateral acute de-pigmentation of iris (BADI) was suspected after ruling out common entities, for example, viral kerato-uveitis, pigment dispersion syndrome, and Fuchs iridocyclitis. Covid-19 infection and systemic antibiotics including cephalosporins have shown to cause BADI in the literature. The patient responded well with good outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glaucoma , Ocular Hypertension , Pigmentation Disorders , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Humans , Iris , Male , Ocular Hypertension/diagnosis , Ocular Hypertension/drug therapy , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Pigmentation , Pigmentation Disorders/diagnosis
7.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267645, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess efficacy and safety of the combined treatment of antibiotics (3rd-generation cephalosporin and azithromycin) and antiviral agents (lopinavir/ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine) on moderate COVID-19 patients in South Korea. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of the 358 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients was conducted. 299 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. Propensity score matching (PSM) and Cox regression method were used to control and adjust for confounding factors. Mild to moderate COVID-19 patients were managed with either CA/LoP (cephalosporin, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir) (n = 57), CA/HQ (cephalosporin, azithromycin, and hydroxychloroquine) (n = 25) or standard supportive care (n = 217). We analyzed the association between treatment group and standard supportive group in terms of three endpoints: time to symptom resolution, time to viral clearance, and hospital stay duration. Using propensity-score matching analysis, three rounds of propensity-matching analysis were performed to balance baseline characteristics among three cohorts. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier curves fitted using propensity score-matched data revealed no significant differences on time to symptom resolution, time to viral clearance, hospital stay duration among the three treatment arms (CA/LoP vs Standard, log-rank p-value = 0.2, 0.58, and 0.74 respectively for the three endpoints) (CA/HQ vs Standard, log-rank p-value = 0.46, 0.99, and 0.75 respectively). Similarly, Cox regression analysis on matched cohorts of CA/LoP and standard supportive group showed that hazard ratios of time to symptom resolution (HR: 1.447 [95%-CI: 0.813-2.577]), time to viral clearance(HR: 0.861, [95%-CI: 0.485-1.527]), and hospital stay duration (HR: 0.902, [95%-CI: 0.510-1.595]) were not significant. For CA/HQ and standard supportive group, hazard ratios of the three endpoints all showed no statistical significance (HR: 1.331 [95%-CI:0.631-2.809], 1.005 [95%-CI:0.480-2.105], and 0.887, [95%-CI:0.422-1.862] respectively). No severe adverse event or death was observed in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatment of 3rd cephalosporin, azithromycin and either low-dose lopinavir/ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine was not associated with better clinical outcomes in terms of time to symptom resolution, time to viral clearance, and hospital stay duration compared to standard supportive treatment alone. Microbiological evidence should be closely monitored when treating SARS-CoV-2 patients with antibiotics to prevent indiscreet administration of empirical antimicrobial treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
Nursing ; 51(10): 18-29, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440656

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The second of a two-part series, this article describes eight recently approved drugs, including the first drug approved for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, a first-in-class HIV attachment inhibitor, and a new intravenous injection indicated for the treatment of acute pain in adults for whom other treatments are ineffective.


Subject(s)
Drug Approval , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amisulpride/therapeutic use , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Chlorophenols/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Fumarates/therapeutic use , Humans , Indans/therapeutic use , Organophosphates/therapeutic use , Oxadiazoles/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Spiro Compounds/therapeutic use , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Thiophenes/therapeutic use , Tromethamine/therapeutic use , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
11.
Rom J Intern Med ; 59(4): 409-415, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247777

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Information on healthcare-associated C.difficile infection (HA-CDI) in COVID-19 patients is limited. We aimed to assess the characteristics of HA-CDI acquired during and before the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital, in which since March 2020 exclusively COVID-19 patients are hospitalized. We compared HA-CDI adult patients hospitalized in March 2020-February 2021 with those hospitalized during the same period in 2017-2018. Results. We found 51 cases during 2020-2021 (COVID-19 group), incidence 5.6/1000 adult discharge and 99 cases during 2017-2018 (pre-COVID-19 group), incidence 6.1/1000 adult discharge (p=0.6). The patients in COVID-19 group compared to pre-COVID-19 group were older (median age 66 vs 62 years), with similar rate of comorbidities, but with higher rate of cardiovascular diseases (62.7% vs 42.4%) and less immunosuppression (21.6% vs 55.6%), they had a higher proton pump inhibitors use (94.1% vs 32.3%), and a longer hospitalization (median 19 vs 14 days). Eighty-five (85.9%) patients in pre-COVID-19 group versus 44 (86.3%) patients in COVID-19 group received antimicrobial treatment - mainly cephalosporins (34,1%), quinolones (22,3%) and glycopeptides (21,1%) in pre-COVID-19 group and mainly cephalosporins and macrolides (63,6% each) in COVID-19 group. We found four HA-CDI-related deaths in pre-COVID-19 group and none in the COVID-19 group. Conclusions. The HA-CDI incidence in COVID-19 group did not change versus the same period of time during 2017-2018. The antibiotic use was the most important factor associated with HA-CDI. We identified a high use of broad-spectrum antibiotics despite the lack of empirical antimicrobial recommendations in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Comput Biol Med ; 130: 104186, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987395

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused over 1.4 million deaths worldwide. Repurposing existing drugs offers the fastest opportunity to identify new indications for existing drugs as a stable solution against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is a critical target for designing potent antiviral agents against COVID-19. In this study, we identify potential inhibitors against COVID-19, using an amalgam of virtual screening, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and binding-free energy approaches from the Korea Chemical Bank drug repurposing (KCB-DR) database. The database screening of KCB-DR resulted in 149 binders. The dynamics of protein-drug complex formation for the seven top scoring drugs were investigated through MD simulations. Six drugs showed stable binding with active site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro indicated by steady RMSD of protein backbone atoms and potential energy profiles. Furthermore, binding free energy calculations suggested the community-acquired bacterial pneumonia drug ceftaroline fosamil and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor telaprevir are potent inhibitors against Mpro. Molecular dynamics and interaction analysis revealed that ceftaroline fosamil and telaprevir form hydrogen bonds with important active site residues such as Thr24, Thr25, His41, Thr45, Gly143, Ser144, Cys145, and Glu166 that is supported by crystallographic information of known inhibitors. Telaprevir has potential side effects, but its derivatives have good pharmacokinetic properties and are suggested to bind Mpro. We suggest the telaprevir derivatives and ceftaroline fosamil bind tightly with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and should be validated through preclinical testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/enzymology , Cephalosporins/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Drug Repositioning , Hepacivirus/enzymology , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Oligopeptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Hepatitis C/enzymology , Humans , Oligopeptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1635-1639, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727472

ABSTRACT

RETRACTED ARTICLE: The COVID-19 pandemic is showing an exponential growth, mandating an urgent need to develop an effective treatment. Indeed, to date, a well-established therapy is still lacking. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) added to standard care in patients with COVID-19. This was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial conducted at three major university hospitals in Egypt. One hundred ninety-four patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study after signing informed consent. They were equally randomized into two arms: 97 patients administrated HCQ plus standard care (HCQ group) and 97 patients administered only standard care as a control arm (control group). The primary endpoints were recovery within 28 days, need for mechanical ventilation, or death. The two groups were matched for age and gender. There was no significant difference between them regarding any of the baseline characteristics or laboratory parameters. Four patients (4.1%) in the HCQ group and 5 (5.2%) patients in the control group needed mechanical ventilation (P = 0.75). The overall mortality did not differ between the two groups, as six patients (6.2%) died in the HCQ group and 5 (5.2%) died in the control group (P = 0.77). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that HCQ treatment was not significantly associated with decreased mortality in COVID-19 patients. So, adding HCQ to standard care did not add significant benefit, did not decrease the need for ventilation, and did not reduce mortality rates in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19 , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Repositioning , Egypt , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(8): 331-335, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436123

ABSTRACT

The risk of COVID-19 among people living with HIV (PLWH) is largely unknown and there have been very few reported cases in the literature. We report a case series of five PLWH with COVID-19. We identified all patients with a diagnosis of HIV who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at University of Chicago Medicine between March 1, 2020, and April 7, 2020. We retrospectively collected data regarding demographics, comorbidities, medications, laboratory test results, radiology results, and outcomes associated with COVID-19. All five PLWH with COVID-19 were African American; 80% (4/5) were cisgender females. The mean age of patients was 48 years old (range 38-53). The majority of patients presented with cough, fever, and shortness of breath. Three patients had diarrhea. One patient presented with predominantly cardiac symptoms. All were taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) with CD4 count >200 cells/mm3 and suppressed HIV viral loads at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. All five patients were hospitalized, two required supplemental oxygen, and none required mechanical ventilation. Four patients were treated with azithromycin and a cephalosporin and two were also treated with hydroxychloroquine. The median length of stay was 3 days (range 2-7). All patients recovered. More research is needed to understand the risks of COVID-19 among PLWH and the impact of ART on outcomes for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19 , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Chicago , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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