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1.
Neurosci Lett ; 772: 136484, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654975

ABSTRACT

Occupational burnout has become a pervasive problem, especially among medical professionals who are highly vulnerable to burnout. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical professionals have faced greater levels of stress. It is critical to increase our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of burnout among medical professionals for the benefit of healthcare systems. Therefore, in this study, we investigated structural brain correlates of burnout severity in medical professionals using a voxel-based morphometric technique. Nurses in active service underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Two core dimensions of burnout, namely, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, were assessed using self-reported psychological questionnaires. Levels of emotional exhaustion were found to be negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volumes in the bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and left insula. Moreover, levels of depersonalization were negatively correlated with GM volumes in the left vmPFC and left thalamus. Altogether, these findings contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms of burnout and may provide helpful insights for developing effective interventions for medical professionals.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Burnout, Professional/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19 , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Depersonalization , Emotions , Female , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Nurses , Pandemics , Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
2.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 106956, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525730

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis is a rare entity in adults that can lead to severe neurological sequelae and even death. The clinical presentation can be quite diverse. This absence of a typical presentation along with the difficulty detecting the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid represents a diagnostic challenge. We present the case of a 79-year-old male with sudden onset of decreased consciousness and signs of right hemisphere damage. The presence of influenza A (H3N2) virus in respiratory sample along with compatible findings in cranial magnetic resonance led to the diagnosis. The patient died without responding to treatment with antivirals and immunomodulators and the anatomopathological study did not detect infectious agent. Early diagnostic suspicion is essential to establish adequate treatment and improve the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male
3.
Brain ; 144(4): 1263-1276, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313840

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, neurological symptoms increasingly moved into the focus of interest. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed neurological and cognitive symptoms in hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients and aimed to determine their neuronal correlates. Patients with reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection who required inpatient treatment primarily because of non-neurological complications were screened between 20 April 2020 and 12 May 2020. Patients (age > 18 years) were included in our cohort when presenting with at least one new neurological symptom (defined as impaired gustation and/or olfaction, performance < 26 points on a Montreal Cognitive Assessment and/or pathological findings on clinical neurological examination). Patients with ≥2 new symptoms were eligible for further diagnostics using comprehensive neuropsychological tests, cerebral MRI and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET as soon as infectivity was no longer present. Exclusion criteria were: premorbid diagnosis of cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative diseases or intensive care unit treatment. Of 41 COVID-19 inpatients screened, 29 patients (65.2 ± 14.4 years; 38% female) in the subacute stage of disease were included in the register. Most frequently, gustation and olfaction were disturbed in 29/29 and 25/29 patients, respectively. Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance was impaired in 18/26 patients (mean score 21.8/30) with emphasis on frontoparietal cognitive functions. This was confirmed by detailed neuropsychological testing in 15 patients. 18FDG PET revealed pathological results in 10/15 patients with predominant frontoparietal hypometabolism. This pattern was confirmed by comparison with a control sample using voxel-wise principal components analysis, which showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.62) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. Post-mortem examination of one patient revealed white matter microglia activation but no signs of neuroinflammation. Neocortical dysfunction accompanied by cognitive decline was detected in a relevant fraction of patients with subacute COVID-19 initially requiring inpatient treatment. This is of major rehabilitative and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
4.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(7): 1190-1195, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurologic events have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, a model-based evaluation of the spatial distribution of these events is lacking. PURPOSE: Our aim was to quantitatively evaluate whether a network diffusion model can explain the spread of small neurologic events. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and LitCovid data bases were searched from January 1, 2020, to July 19, 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Thirty-five case series and case studies reported 317 small neurologic events in 123 unique patients with COVID-19. DATA ANALYSIS: Neurologic events were localized to gray or white matter regions of the Illinois Institute of Technology (gray-matter and white matter) Human Brain Atlas using radiologic images and descriptions. The total proportion of events was calculated for each region. A network diffusion model was implemented, and any brain regions showing a significant association (P < .05, family-wise error-corrected) between predicted and measured events were considered epicenters. DATA SYNTHESIS: Within gray matter, neurologic events were widely distributed, with the largest number of events (∼10%) observed in the bilateral superior temporal, precentral, and lateral occipital cortices, respectively. Network diffusion modeling showed a significant association between predicted and measured gray matter events when the spread of pathology was seeded from the bilateral cerebellum (r = 0.51, P < .001, corrected) and putamen (r = 0.4, P = .02, corrected). In white matter, most events (∼26%) were observed within the bilateral corticospinal tracts. LIMITATIONS: The risk of bias was not considered because all studies were either case series or case studies. CONCLUSIONS: Transconnectome diffusion of pathology via the structural network of the brain may contribute to the spread of neurologic events in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
5.
Brain ; 144(4): 1263-1276, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169654

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, neurological symptoms increasingly moved into the focus of interest. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed neurological and cognitive symptoms in hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients and aimed to determine their neuronal correlates. Patients with reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection who required inpatient treatment primarily because of non-neurological complications were screened between 20 April 2020 and 12 May 2020. Patients (age > 18 years) were included in our cohort when presenting with at least one new neurological symptom (defined as impaired gustation and/or olfaction, performance < 26 points on a Montreal Cognitive Assessment and/or pathological findings on clinical neurological examination). Patients with ≥2 new symptoms were eligible for further diagnostics using comprehensive neuropsychological tests, cerebral MRI and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET as soon as infectivity was no longer present. Exclusion criteria were: premorbid diagnosis of cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative diseases or intensive care unit treatment. Of 41 COVID-19 inpatients screened, 29 patients (65.2 ± 14.4 years; 38% female) in the subacute stage of disease were included in the register. Most frequently, gustation and olfaction were disturbed in 29/29 and 25/29 patients, respectively. Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance was impaired in 18/26 patients (mean score 21.8/30) with emphasis on frontoparietal cognitive functions. This was confirmed by detailed neuropsychological testing in 15 patients. 18FDG PET revealed pathological results in 10/15 patients with predominant frontoparietal hypometabolism. This pattern was confirmed by comparison with a control sample using voxel-wise principal components analysis, which showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.62) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. Post-mortem examination of one patient revealed white matter microglia activation but no signs of neuroinflammation. Neocortical dysfunction accompanied by cognitive decline was detected in a relevant fraction of patients with subacute COVID-19 initially requiring inpatient treatment. This is of major rehabilitative and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
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