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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17423, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077097

ABSTRACT

Acute brain injuries such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic stroke have been reported in critically ill COVID-19 patients as well as in patients treated with veno-venous (VV)-ECMO independently of their COVID-19 status. The purpose of this study was to compare critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without VV-ECMO treatment with regard to acute neurological symptoms, pathological neuroimaging findings (PNIF) and long-term deficits. The single center study was conducted in critically ill COVID-19 patients between February 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were extracted from the hospital's databases. Retrospective imaging modalities included head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Follow-up MRI and neurological examinations were performed on survivors > 6 months after the primary occurrence. Of the 440 patients, 67 patients received VV-ECMO treatment (15%). Sixty-four patients (24 with VV-ECMO) developed acute neurological symptoms (pathological levels of arousal/brain stem function/motor responses) during their ICU stay and underwent neuroimaging with brain CT as the primary modality. Critically ill COVID-19 patients who received VV-ECMO treatment had a significantly lower survival during their hospital stay compared to those without (p < 0.001). Among patients treated with VV-ECMO, 10% showed acute PNIF in one of the imaging modalities during their ICU stay (vs. 4% of patients in the overall COVID-19 ICU cohort). Furthermore, 9% showed primary or secondary ICH of any severity (vs. 3% overall), 6% exhibited severe ICH (vs. 1% overall) and 1.5% were found to have non-hemorrhagic cerebral infarctions (vs. < 1% overall). There was a weak, positive correlation between patients treated with VV-ECMO and the development of acute neurological symptoms. However, the association between the VV-ECMO treatment and acute PNIF was negligible. Two survivors (one with VV-ECMO-treatment/one without) showed innumerable microhemorrhages, predominantly involving the juxtacortical white matter. None of the survivors exhibited diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Every seventh COVID-19 patient developed acute neurological symptoms during their ICU stay, but only every twenty-fifth patient had PNIF which were mostly ICH. VV-ECMO was found to be a weak risk factor for neurological complications (resulting in a higher imaging rate), but not for PNIF. Although logistically complex, repeated neuroimaging should, thus, be considered in all critically ill COVID-19 patients since ICH may have an impact on the treatment decisions and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Neuroimaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology
2.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 72, 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064807

ABSTRACT

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a complex neurovascular disorder being recognized during the past two decades. It is characterized by multiple abrupt severe headaches and widespread cerebral vasoconstrictions, with potential complications such as ischemic stroke, convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The clinical features, imaging findings, and dynamic disease course have been delineated. However, the pathophysiology of RCVS remains elusive. Recent studies have had substantial progress in elucidating its pathogenesis. It is now believed that dysfunction of cerebral vascular tone and impairment of blood-brain barrier may play key roles in the pathophysiology of RCVS, which explains some of the clinical and radiological manifestations of RCVS. Some other potentially important elements include genetic predisposition, sympathetic overactivity, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, although the detailed molecular mechanisms are yet to be identified. In this review, we will summarize what have been revealed in the literature and elaborate how these factors could contribute to the pathophysiology of RCVS.


Subject(s)
Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Vasospasm, Intracranial , Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Humans , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/complications
3.
Rev Neurol ; 75(7): 199-202, 2022 10 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2057053

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on health, society and economics worldwide. Therefore, vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have recently emerged as an important measure to fight the pandemic. ChAdOx1-S (Oxford-AstraZeneca) is an adenovirus-vectored vaccine that expresses the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. It shows an acceptable safety profile. Nevertheless, several cases of unusual thrombosis and thrombocytopenia have been reported after initial vaccination with ChAdOx1-S mimicking autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. This condition has been called thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and complications such as intracerebral haemorrhage have been described. CASE REPORT: We present a case of intracerebral haemorrhage after ChAdOx1-S vaccination. Middle-aged patient with no prior medical history was seen in the emergency room 16 days after the first dose of ChAdOx1-S vaccine with sudden onset left hemiplegia and severe holocranial oppressive headache. She did not receive heparin treatment in the previous 100 days. Blood test showed moderate thrombocytopenia and a right frontal lobar haemorrhage was seen on computed tomography scan, computed tomography venography was negative for thrombosis. The presence of antibodies against platelet factor 4 was confirmed. The patient's neurological condition progressively worsened. She developed a treatment resistant intracranial hypertension syndrome and she died three weeks later. CONCLUSIONS: TTS is a rare adverse effect of ChAdOx1-S vaccine, defined by the presence of thrombosis in uncommon locations. In our case we report an spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage probable due to the thrombocytopenia related to probable TTS. It represents a rare clinical presentation of TTS.


TITLE: Hemorragia intracerebral fatal asociada al síndrome de trombosis con trombocitopenia tras la vacuna ChAdOx1-S.Introducción. La pandemia por COVID-19 ha tenido un impacto devastador en la salud, la sociedad y la economía en el mundo. Por ello, las vacunas contra el coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) han surgido como medida importante para combatir la pandemia. ChAdOx1-S (Oxford-AstraZeneca) es una vacuna vectorizada por adenovirus que expresa la proteína de espiga del SARS-CoV-2. Se han notificado varios casos de trombosis y trombocitopenia inusuales tras la ChAdOx1-S que imitan la trombocitopenia autoinmune inducida por heparina. Esta situación se denomina síndrome de trombosis con trombocitopenia (STT), y se han descrito casos de hemorragia intracerebral secundaria. Caso clínico. Presentamos un caso de hemorragia intracerebral tras la vacunación con ChAdOx1-S. Una paciente de mediana edad sin antecedentes médicos de interés fue atendida en urgencias 16 días después de la primera dosis de ChAdOx1-S con una hemiplejía izquierda de inicio repentino y una cefalea opresiva holocraneal grave. No recibió heparina los 100 días anteriores. El análisis de sangre mostró trombocitopenia moderada y en la tomografía computarizada se observó una hemorragia lobar frontal derecha sin trombosis en la venografía por tomografía computarizada. Se confirmó la presencia de anticuerpos contra el factor 4 de las plaquetas en la sangre. La paciente presentó un síndrome de hipertensión intracraneal resistente al tratamiento y falleció tres semanas después. Conclusiones. El STT es un efecto adverso infrecuente de la vacuna ChAdOx1-S que se define por la presencia de trombosis en localizaciones infrecuentes. En nuestro caso, describimos una hemorragia intracerebral espontánea secundaria a la trombocitopenia desencadenada por el STT. Representa una presentación clínica poco frecuente del STT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Factor 4 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
4.
Stroke ; 53(10): 3206-3210, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a severe condition, with high in-hospital mortality rates. Here, we report clinical outcomes of patients with CVT-VITT after SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) vaccination who survived initial hospitalization. METHODS: We used data from an international registry of patients who developed CVT within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, collected until February 10, 2022. VITT diagnosis was classified based on the Pavord criteria. Outcomes were mortality, functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), VITT relapse, new thrombosis, and bleeding events (all after discharge from initial hospitalization). RESULTS: Of 107 CVT-VITT cases, 43 (40%) died during initial hospitalization. Of the remaining 64 patients, follow-up data were available for 60 (94%) patients (37 definite VITT, 9 probable VITT, and 14 possible VITT). Median age was 40 years and 45/60 (75%) patients were women. Median follow-up time was 150 days (interquartile range, 94-194). Two patients died during follow-up (3% [95% CI, 1%-11%). Functional independence was achieved by 53/60 (88% [95% CI, 78%-94%]) patients. No new venous or arterial thrombotic events were reported. One patient developed a major bleeding during follow-up (fatal intracerebral bleed). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the high mortality of CVT-VITT in the acute phase, mortality among patients who survived the initial hospitalization was low, new thrombotic events did not occur, and bleeding events were rare. Approximately 9 out of 10 CVT-VITT patients who survived the acute phase were functionally independent at follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 217, 2022 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurologic manifestations are increasingly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Yet, data on prevalence, predictors and relevance for outcome of neurological manifestations in patients requiring intensive care are scarce. We aimed to characterize prevalence, risk factors and impact on outcome of neurologic manifestations in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In the prospective, multicenter, observational registry study PANDEMIC (Pooled Analysis of Neurologic DisordErs Manifesting in Intensive care of COVID-19), we enrolled COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations admitted to 19 German intensive care units (ICU) between April 2020 and September 2021. We performed descriptive and explorative statistical analyses. Multivariable models were used to investigate factors associated with disorder categories and their underlying diagnoses as well as to identify predictors of outcome. RESULTS: Of the 392 patients included in the analysis, 70.7% (277/392) were male and the mean age was 65.3 (SD ± 3.1) years. During the study period, a total of 2681 patients with COVID-19 were treated at the ICUs of 15 participating centers. New neurologic disorders were identified in 350 patients, reported by these centers, suggesting a prevalence of COVID-19-associated neurologic disorders of 12.7% among COVID-19 ICU patients. Encephalopathy (46.2%; 181/392), cerebrovascular (41.0%; 161/392) and neuromuscular disorders (20.4%; 80/392) were the most frequent categories identified. Out of 35 cerebrospinal fluid analyses with reverse transcriptase PCR for SARS-COV-2, only 3 were positive. In-hospital mortality was 36.0% (140/389), and functional outcome (mRS 3 to 5) of surviving patients was poor at hospital discharge in 70.9% (161/227). Intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.5-14.9, p < 0.001) and acute ischemic stroke (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.9-8.2, p < 0.001) were the strongest predictors of poor outcome among the included patients. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this well-characterized COVID-19 ICU cohort, that comprised 12.7% of all severe ill COVID-19 patients, neurologic manifestations increase mortality and morbidity. Since no reliable evidence of direct viral affection of the nervous system by COVID-19 could be found, these neurologic manifestations may for a great part be indirect para- or postinfectious sequelae of the infection or severe critical illness. Neurologic ICU complications should be actively searched for and treated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Ischemic Stroke , Nervous System Diseases , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 1546019, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923336

ABSTRACT

Objective: The goal of this study was to look at the clinical impact of the entire process of nursing care for patients with severe cerebral hemorrhage. Method: From January 2018 to December 2019, the clinical data of 160 patients with severe cerebral hemorrhage who were hospitalized to our hospital were reviewed retrospectively. They were separated into two groups based on their admission: routine and complete procedure. The routine group used routine emergency care, the whole process group was provided first aid care with whole process nursing. The diagnosis and treatment time, the success rate of emergency care, the incidence of adverse events, and the complaint rate were compared between the two groups. Results: The treatment time, emergency examination time, and preoperative rescue time of emergency patients in the whole process group were significantly shorter than those in the conventional group, with statistically significant differences (all P < 0.05). The rescue success rate of emergency patients in the whole process group was 95.00% (76/80), and the rescue success rate of emergency patients in the routine group was 83.75% (67/80); the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 = 4.378, P = 0.034). The complaint rate of emergency patients in the whole process group was 2.50% (2/80), while that in the routine group was 8.75% (7/80), with statistically significant difference (χ 2 = 4.732, P = 0.024). The incidence of total nursing adverse events was 6.25% (5/80) in the whole process group and 17.50% (14/80) in the routine group; the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 = 5.011, P = 0.027). Conclusion: The implementation of whole process nursing care for patients with severe intracranial hemorrhage can shorten the time-consuming first aid for patients with intracranial hemorrhage. And it also can improve the rescue success rate of patients and reduce the incidence of adverse events and complaints, which represents a significant clinical application effect.


Subject(s)
Hospitalization , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies
10.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 7(2): 158-165, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832554

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Haematoma growth is common early after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), and is a key determinant of outcome. Tranexamic acid, a widely available antifibrinolytic agent with an excellent safety profile, may reduce haematoma growth. METHODS AND DESIGN: Stopping intracerebral haemorrhage with tranexamic acid for hyperacute onset presentation including mobile stroke units (STOP-MSU) is a phase II double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre, international investigator-led clinical trial, conducted within the estimand statistical framework. HYPOTHESIS: In patients with spontaneous ICH, treatment with tranexamic acid within 2 hours of onset will reduce haematoma expansion compared with placebo. SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATES: A sample size of 180 patients (90 in each arm) would be required to detect an absolute difference in the primary outcome of 20% (placebo 39% vs treatment 19%) under a two-tailed significance level of 0.05. An adaptive sample size re-estimation based on the outcomes of 144 patients will allow a possible increase to a prespecified maximum of 326 patients. INTERVENTION: Participants will receive 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid over 10 min, followed by 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid over 8 hours; or matching placebo. PRIMARY EFFICACY MEASURE: The primary efficacy measure is the proportion of patients with haematoma growth by 24±6 hours, defined as either ≥33% relative increase or ≥6 mL absolute increase in haematoma volume between baseline and follow-up CT scan. DISCUSSION: We describe the rationale and protocol of STOP-MSU, a phase II trial of tranexamic acid in patients with ICH within 2 hours from onset, based in participating mobile stroke units and emergency departments.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage , Tranexamic Acid , Antifibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Hematoma/etiology , Hematoma/prevention & control , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Stroke/therapy , Time Factors , Tranexamic Acid/adverse effects , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use
11.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 128, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced lockdowns and declarations of states of emergency, resulting in marked changes to daily life such as dietary habits in many countries. Though serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids levels have been shown to be useful markers for recurrent vascular events or worse prognosis in cardiovascular diseases and ischemic stroke, the relationship between serum omega-3 PUFA levels and the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage has essentially been unknown. We explored the association of serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants comprised patients admitted to Juntendo University Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) with intracerebral hemorrhage between January 1, 2016 and April 30, 2020. Clinical characteristics including serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared between patients developing intracerebral hemorrhage during the period from January 1, 2016 to February 29, 2020, and the subsequent COVID-19 pandemic period (March 1 to April 30, 2020). Clinical characteristics independently related to intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed by comparing these two cohorts of intracerebral hemorrhage patients in different periods. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients (age, 67.0 ± 13.9 years; 67 males) with intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled. Intracerebral hemorrhage developed in 91 patients before and 12 patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Monthly averages of intracerebral hemorrhage patients admitted to our hospital during and before the COVID-19 pandemic were 6 and 1.82, respectively. Serum eicosapentaenoic acid levels were significantly lower in intracerebral hemorrhage patients during the COVID-19 pandemic than before (31.87 ± 12.93 µg/ml vs. 63.74 ± 43.29 µg/ml, p = 0.007). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic, dyslipidemia (odds ratio 0.163, 95% confidence interval 0.031-0.852; p = 0.032) and eicosapentaenoic acid levels (odds ratio 0.947, 95% confidence interval 0.901-0.994; p = 0.029) were associated with intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: From our preliminary results, low eicosapentaenoic acid levels were linked with intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic. Low levels of eicosapentaenoic acid might be an endogenous surrogate marker for intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
12.
Neurologist ; 27(3): 151-154, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752214

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerging evidence of a relationship to intracranial hemorrhage. The hemorrhages described to date often affect patients on anticoagulation, of advanced age, of nonwhite race, and requiring mechanical ventilation. Unusual or rare hemorrhage patterns have not as yet been described in the literature as being associated with COVID-19. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old Hispanic male with no significant past medical history presented with isolated tectal intraparenchymal hemorrhage with intraventricular hemorrhage in the setting of no identifiable risk factors other than COVID-19. His management required temporizing with external ventricular drainage and subsequent endoscopic third ventriculostomy for ongoing obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct following the hemorrhage. He was discharged and did clinically well. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intraparenchymal hematoma of the brain isolated to the midbrain tectum with only COVID-19 as a risk factor. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 may predispose patients to rare types of intraparenchymal hematomas which remain amenable to standard management algorithms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Male , Ventriculostomy/adverse effects
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(6): e28756, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684895

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The new vaccines are emergently authorized and currently approved for use to protect against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and serious adverse events are uncommon. Moyamoya disease (MMD) with autoimmune disease is a rare entity and usually presents with intracranial hemorrhage in adults. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a 40-year-old female patient with Sjogren disease and autoimmune thyroiditis, who had received the second dose of Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccination. Three days later, she presented with left intraventricular and intracerebral hemorrhage as a complication. DIAGNOSIS: After a series of diagnostic workups, left intracranial hemorrhage was associated with MMD. INTERVENTIONS: Emergent external ventricular drainage and subsequent stereotactic evacuation of hematoma with insertion of intracranial pressure monitoring were performed. OUTCOMES: Under the care of the neurocritical care team, her physical condition improved gradually. The neurological sequelae was noted by defects of cognitive function, apraxia, agnosia, and impaired executive function. She was discharged after eight weeks with a follow-up in the vascular neurology clinic planning for performing revascularization. LESSONS: To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported before, and this is the first case of MMD complicated with intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage after mRNA-1273 vaccination. It is noticeable to assess the vaccine safety surveillance and raise the alertness about moyamoya in patients with autoimmune diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies for risk evaluation of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with autoimmune diseases might be required in the future.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cerebral Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Moyamoya Disease/complications , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/complications , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , Adult , Female , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sjogren's Syndrome
15.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(2): 140-143, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643738

ABSTRACT

This study aims to make a comparative evaluation of the change in the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage [intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)] cases that attended our hospital in the Covid-19 pandemic period with that of the same term one year ago. This study included 80 patients diagnosed with ICH and/or SAH in the period that started with the pandemic in 2020. It was determined that 51 patients had been diagnosed with ICH and/or SAH during the same period of 2019. A total of 131 ICH and SAH patients (2019; n=51, 39%; and 2020; n=80, 61 %) having an average age of 64.52±7.33 including 66 women (50.4 %) were included in the study in the nine -month follow-up periods covering the period of March-November of 2019 and 2020, respectively. It was determined that the number of patients diagnosed with ICH and SAH during the pandemic was higher than the number of those who attended our clinic in 2019 (80 vs 51) and that they were older (65.76±6.56 years vs 62.57±8.09 years) (p=0.014 and p=0.026, respectively). The incidence and distribution of ICH and SAH among the patients were similar (p >0.05). It was determined that in 1 patient, ICH and SAH co-existed. In the study, it was determined that among the patients treated for intracranial hemorrhage in 2020, 32.5 % were diagnosed with COVID-19 as validated by positive nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR. The evaluation of the patients in 2020 revealed that the average age and ICH and SAH incidence in COVID-19 (+) and COVID-19 (-) patients were similar. Although increased incidence of acute intracranial hemorrhage has been observed during COVID-19 pandemic a athophysiological correlation between the two clinical presentations could not be clearly demonstrated. When rapidly progressing neurological deterioration findings are present in COVID-19 patients, existence of intracranial hemorrhage should always be considered (Tab. 2, Ref. 21). Keywords: subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology
16.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 199, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634344

ABSTRACT

Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4) has been shown to associate with increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality in some previous genetic studies, but information on the role of APOE4 on the underlying pathology and parallel clinical manifestations is scarce. Here we studied the genetic association between APOE and COVID-19 in Finnish biobank, autopsy and prospective clinical cohort datasets. In line with previous work, our data on 2611 cases showed that APOE4 carriership associates with severe COVID-19 in intensive care patients compared with non-infected population controls after matching for age, sex and cardiovascular disease status. Histopathological examination of brain autopsy material of 21 COVID-19 cases provided evidence that perivascular microhaemorrhages are more prevalent in APOE4 carriers. Finally, our analysis of post-COVID fatigue in a prospective clinical cohort of 156 subjects revealed that APOE4 carriership independently associates with higher mental fatigue compared to non-carriers at six months after initial illness. In conclusion, the present data on Finns suggests that APOE4 is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 and post-COVID mental fatigue and provides the first indication that some of this effect could be mediated via increased cerebrovascular damage. Further studies in larger cohorts and animal models are warranted.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cerebral Hemorrhage/genetics , Mental Fatigue/genetics , Patient Acuity , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Genetic Association Studies/methods , Heterozygote , Humans , Male , Mental Fatigue/diagnosis , Mental Fatigue/epidemiology , Microvessels/pathology , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
17.
Neuroradiology ; 64(7): 1367-1372, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an uncommon but deadly event in patients with COVID-19 and its imaging features remain poorly characterized. We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of COVID-19-associated ICH. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, case-control analysis comparing ICH in COVID-19 patients (COV19 +) versus controls without COVID-19 (COV19 -). Clinical presentation, laboratory markers, and severity of COVID-19 disease were recorded. Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) markers (intrahematoma hypodensity, heterogeneous density, blend sign, irregular shape fluid level), ICH location, and hematoma volume (ABC/2 method) were analyzed. The outcome of interest was ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) (defined as NCCT baseline ICH volume/onset-to-imaging time), whose predictors were explored with multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 33 COV19 + patients and 321 COV19 - controls with ICH were included. Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors were similar in the two groups. Multifocal ICH and NCCT markers were significantly more common in the COV19 + population. uHG was significantly higher among COV19 + patients (median 6.2 mL/h vs 3.1 mL/h, p = 0.027), and this finding remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (systolic blood pressure, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy), in linear regression (B(SE) = 0.31 (0.11), p = 0.005). This association remained consistent also after the exclusion of patients under anticoagulant treatment (B(SE) = 0.29 (0.13), p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: ICH in COV19 + patients has distinct NCCT imaging features and a higher speed of bleeding. This association is not mediated by antithrombotic therapy and deserves further research to characterize the underlying biological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Retrospective Studies
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 14, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is predominately known as a respiratory disease associated with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. However, extra-pulmonary complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are increasingly being recognized. In this regard, some studies implied the hemostatic and vascular involvements in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) in a pregnant patient with COVID-19 and history of cesarean section a week before the occurrence of ICH. The patient underwent emergent craniotomy with acceptable outcome. Hemorrhagic events, including ICH, may happen during COVID-19 infection with several possible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients, especially high-risk groups, are at a risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Therefore, close follow-up must be maintained and hemorrhagic events must be kept in mind in these cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/surgery , Craniotomy , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/surgery , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Treatment Outcome
20.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 164(2): 543-547, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516861

ABSTRACT

Several vaccines have been approved worldwide for the prevention of morbidity and mortality against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the development of these vaccines has raised concerns regarding their adverse effects. Herein, we report the first case of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) due to vasculitis after the first dose of mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioN-Tech). Although this case cannot demonstrate a direct relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and vasculitis, the clinical and histological features of this patient are highly consistent with the adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vasculitis , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , Vasculitis/etiology , mRNA Vaccines
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