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1.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 37(2): 531-543, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To elaborate on possible cognitive sequelae related to COVID-19, associated cerebrovascular injuries as well as the general consequences from intensive care. COVID-19 is known to have several, serious CNS-related consequences, but neuropsychological studies of severe COVID-19 are still rare. METHODS: M., a 45-year-old man, who survived a severe COVID-19 disease course including Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), cerebral microbleeds, and 35 days of mechanical ventilation, is described. We elaborate on M's recovery and rehabilitation process from onset to the 8-month follow-up. The cognitive functions were evaluated with a comprehensive screening battery at 4 weeks after extubation and at the 8-month follow-up. RESULTS: Following extubation, M. was delirious, reported visual hallucinations, and had severe sleeping difficulties. At about 3 months after COVID-19 onset, M. showed mild to moderate deficits on tests measuring processing speed, working memory, and attention. At assessments at 8 months, M. performed better, with results above average on tests measuring learning, memory, word fluency, and visuospatial functions. Minor deficits were still found regarding logical reasoning, attention, executive functioning, and processing speed. There were no lingering psychiatric symptoms. While M. had returned to a part-time job, he was not able to resume previous work-tasks. CONCLUSION: This case-study demonstrates possible cognitive deficits after severe COVID-19 and emphasizes the need of a neuropsychological follow-up, with tests sensitive to minor deficits. The main findings of this report provide some support that the long-term prognosis for cognition in severe COVID-19 may be hopeful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cognition , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Neurol Sci ; 426: 117479, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213385

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence has been published as to the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) on cerebrovascular events over the last few months, with considerable attention paid to ischemic strokes. Conversely, little is known about the clinical course of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD: The Italian Society of Hospital Neurosciences (SNO) promoted a multicentre, retrospective, observational study (SNO-COVID-19), involving 20 Neurological Departments in Northern Italy. Clinical data on patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases, admitted from March 1st to April 30th, 2020, were collected. A comparison was made of the demographical and clinical features of both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients with ICH. RESULTS: 949 patients were enrolled (average age 73.4 years; 52.7% males); 135 patients had haemorrhagic stroke and 127 (13.4%) had a primary ICH. Only 16 patients with ICH (12.6%) had laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, both symptomatic and asymptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia or respiratory distress (OR 5.4), lobar location (OR 5.0) and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment (OR 2.9) were the only factors significantly associated with increased mortality in ICH. SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of respiratory involvement, led to a non-significantly increased risk of in-hospital death (37.5% vs 23.4%, p = 0.2). DISCUSSION: ICH patients with COVID-19 did not experience an increase in mortality as striking as ischemic stroke. The inflammatory response and respiratory complications could justify the slight increase of death in ICH. Bleeding sites and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment were the only other predictors of a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Neurol ; 268(9): 3105-3115, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are very few studies of the characteristics and causes of ICH in COVID-19, yet such data are essential to guide clinicians in clinical management, including challenging anticoagulation decisions. We aimed to describe the characteristics of spontaneous symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) associated with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Database for data from patients with SARS-CoV-2 detected prior to or within 7 days after symptomatic ICH. We did a pooled analysis of individual patient data, then combined data from this pooled analysis with aggregate-level data. RESULTS: We included data from 139 patients (98 with individual data and 41 with aggregate-level data). In our pooled individual data analysis, the median age (IQR) was 60 (53-67) years and 64% (95% CI 54-73.7%) were male; 79% (95% CI 70.0-86.9%) had critically severe COVID-19. The pooled prevalence of lobar ICH was 67% (95% CI 56.3-76.0%), and of multifocal ICH was 36% (95% CI 26.4-47.0%). 71% (95% CI 61.0-80.4%) of patients were treated with anticoagulation (58% (95% CI 48-67.8%) therapeutic). The median NIHSS was 28 (IQR 15-28); mortality was 54% (95% CI 43.7-64.2%). Our combined analysis of individual and aggregate data showed similar findings. The pooled incidence of ICH across 12 cohort studies of inpatients with COVID-19 (n = 63,390) was 0.38% (95% CI 0.22-0.58%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that ICH associated with COVID-19 has different characteristics compared to ICH not associated with COVID-19, including frequent lobar location and multifocality, a high rate of anticoagulation, and high mortality. These observations suggest different underlying mechanisms of ICH in COVID-19 with potential implications for clinical treatment and trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Neurol ; 268(8): 2676-2684, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the presence of extensive white matter microhemorrhages was detected by brain MRIs. The goal of this study was to investigate the origin of this atypical hemorrhagic complication. METHODS: Between March 17 and May 18, 2020, 80 patients with severe COVID-19 infections were admitted for acute respiratory distress syndrome to intensive care units at the University Hospitals of Strasbourg for whom a brain MRI for neurologic manifestations was performed. 19 patients (24%) with diffuse microhemorrhages were compared to 18 control patients with COVID-19 and normal brain MRI. RESULTS: The first hypothesis was hypoxemia. The latter seemed very likely since respiratory failure was longer and more pronounced in patients with microhemorrhages (prolonged endotracheal intubation (p = 0.0002), higher FiO2 (p = 0.03), increased use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (p = 0.04)). A relevant hypothesis, the role of microangiopathy, was also considered, since patients with microhemorrhages presented a higher increase of the D-Dimers (p = 0.01) and a tendency to more frequent thrombotic events (p = 0.12). Another hypothesis tested was the role of kidney failure, which was more severe in the group with diffuse microhemorrhages (higher creatinine level [median of 293 µmol/L versus 112 µmol/L, p = 0.04] and more dialysis were introduced in this group during ICU stay [12 versus 5 patients, p = 0.04]). CONCLUSIONS: Blood-brain barrier dysfunction secondary to hypoxemia and high concentration of uremic toxins seems to be the main mechanism leading to critical illness-associated cerebral microbleeds, and this complication remains to be frequently described in severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Neuroradiol J ; 33(5): 374-376, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696870

ABSTRACT

We are reporting the imaging findings of the rare entity of critical illness-associated cerebral microbleeds in a COVID-19-positive 66-year-old woman with hypoxic respiratory failure, who was eventually intubated and ventilated. Multiple scattered cerebral microhaemorrhages diffusely distributed in the juxtacortical white matter and internal capsule region, sparing the deep and periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, thalami and cortex were seen, which is a unique imaging finding in critically ill patients with respiratory failure and hypoxemia requiring mechanical ventilation. The mechanism underlying these microhaemorrhages relates to the endpoint of critical illness, rather than a specific underlying disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain Edema/complications , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2649-2655, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We conducted this study to investigate the prevalence and distribution of cerebral microbleeds and leukoencephalopathy in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and correlate with clinical, laboratory, and functional outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 4131 COVID-19 positive adult patients who were admitted to 3 tertiary care hospitals of an academic medical center at the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City from March 1, 2020, to May 10, 2020, to identify patients who had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. We evaluated the MRIs in detail, and identified a subset of patients with leukoencephalopathy and/or cerebral microbleeds. We compared clinical, laboratory, and functional outcomes for these patients to patients who had a brain MRI that did not show these findings. RESULTS: Of 115 patients who had an MRI of the brain performed, 35 (30.4%) patients had leukoencephalopathy and/or cerebral microbleeds. Patients with leukoencephalopathy and/or cerebral microbleeds had neuroimaging performed later during the hospitalization course (27 versus 10.6 days; P<0.001), were clinically sicker at the time of brain MRI (median GCS 6 versus 14; P<0.001), and had higher peak D-dimer levels (8018±6677 versus 3183±3482; P<0.001), lower nadir platelet count (116.9±62.2 versus 158.3±76.2; P=0.03), higher peak international normalized ratio (2.2 versus 1.57; P<0.001) values when compared with patients who had a brain MRI that did not show these findings. They required longer ventilator support (34.6 versus 9.1 days; P<0.001) and were more likely to have moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome score (88.6% versus 23.8%, P<0.001). These patients had longer hospitalizations (42.1 versus 20.9 days; P<0.001), overall worse functional status on discharge (mRS 5 versus 4; P=0.001), and higher mortality (20% versus 9%; P=0.144). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of leukoencephalopathy and/or cerebral microbleeds is associated with a critical illness, increased mortality, and worse functional outcome in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Leukoencephalopathies/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Length of Stay , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalopathies/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 940-944, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625544
10.
Emerg Radiol ; 27(3): 229-232, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46016

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel strain of coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has quickly spread around the globe. Health care facilities in the USA currently do not have an adequate supply of COVID-19 tests to meet the growing demand. Imaging findings for COVID-19 are non-specific but include pulmonary parenchymal ground-glass opacities in a predominantly basal and peripheral distribution. METHODS: Three patients were imaged for non-respiratory-related symptoms with a portion of the lungs in the imaged field. RESULTS: Each patient had suspicious imaging findings for COVID-19, prompting the interpreting radiologist to suggest testing for COVID-19. All 3 patients turned out to be infected with COVID-19, and one patient is the first reported case of the coincident presentation of COVID-19 and an intraparenchymal hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Using imaging characteristics of COVID-19 on abdominal or neck CT when a portion of the lungs is included, patients not initially suspected of COVID-19 infection can be quarantined earlier to limit exposure to others.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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