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1.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 199, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581995

ABSTRACT

Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4) has been shown to associate with increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality in some previous genetic studies, but information on the role of APOE4 on the underlying pathology and parallel clinical manifestations is scarce. Here we studied the genetic association between APOE and COVID-19 in Finnish biobank, autopsy and prospective clinical cohort datasets. In line with previous work, our data on 2611 cases showed that APOE4 carriership associates with severe COVID-19 in intensive care patients compared with non-infected population controls after matching for age, sex and cardiovascular disease status. Histopathological examination of brain autopsy material of 21 COVID-19 cases provided evidence that perivascular microhaemorrhages are more prevalent in APOE4 carriers. Finally, our analysis of post-COVID fatigue in a prospective clinical cohort of 156 subjects revealed that APOE4 carriership independently associates with higher mental fatigue compared to non-carriers at six months after initial illness. In conclusion, the present data on Finns suggests that APOE4 is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 and post-COVID mental fatigue and provides the first indication that some of this effect could be mediated via increased cerebrovascular damage. Further studies in larger cohorts and animal models are warranted.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cerebral Hemorrhage/genetics , Mental Fatigue/genetics , Patient Acuity , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Genetic Association Studies/methods , Heterozygote , Humans , Male , Mental Fatigue/diagnosis , Mental Fatigue/epidemiology , Microvessels/pathology , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
2.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(10): 911-917, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438409

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the emergency medical care system worldwide. We analyzed the changes in the management of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and compared the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 eras. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March to October of the COVID-19 era (2020), 83 consecutive patients with ICH were admitted to four comprehensive stroke centers. We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients and compared the treatment workflow metrics, treatment modalities, and clinical outcomes with the patients admitted during the same period of pre-COVID-19 era (2017-2019). RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-eight patients (83 in COVID-19 era and 255 in pre-COVID-19 era) were included in this study. Symptom onset/detection-to-door time [COVID-19; 56.0 min (34.0-106.0), pre-COVID-19; 40.0 min (27.0-98.0), p=0.016] and median door to-intensive treatment time differed between the two groups [COVID-19; 349.0 min (177.0-560.0), pre-COVID-19; 184.0 min (134.0-271.0), p<0.001]. Hematoma expansion was detected more significantly in the COVID-19 era (39.8% vs. 22.1%, p=0.002). At 3-month follow-up, clinical outcomes of patients were worse in the COVID-19 era (Good modified Rankin Scale; 33.7% in COVID19, 46.7% in pre-COVID-19, p=0.039). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 era, delays in management of ICH was associated with hematoma expansion and worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Hematoma/epidemiology , Hematoma/therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Neurol ; 90(4): 627-639, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the incidence of cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis (CVT) within 1 month from first dose administration and the frequency of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) as the underlying mechanism after vaccination with BNT162b2, ChAdOx1, and mRNA-1273, in Germany. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was e-mailed to all departments of neurology. We requested a report of cases of CVT occurring within 1 month of a COVID-19 vaccination. Other cerebral events could also be reported. Incidence rates of CVT were calculated by using official statistics of 9 German states. RESULTS: A total of 45 CVT cases were reported. In addition, 9 primary ischemic strokes, 4 primary intracerebral hemorrhages, and 4 other neurological events were recorded. Of the CVT patients, 35 (77.8%) were female, and 36 (80.0%) were younger than 60 years. Fifty-three events were observed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 (85.5%), 9 after BNT162b2 (14.5%) vaccination, and none after mRNA-1273 vaccination. After 7,126,434 first vaccine doses, the incidence rate of CVT within 1 month from first dose administration was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.78) per 100,000 person-months (which corresponds to a risk of CVT within the first 31 days of 0.55 per 100,000 individuals) for all vaccines and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.00-2.21) for ChAdOx1 (after 2,320,535 ChAdOx1 first doses). The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 9.68 (95% CI = 3.46-34.98) for ChAdOx1 compared to mRNA-based vaccines and 3.14 (95% CI = 1.22-10.65) for females compared to non-females. In 26 of 45 patients with CVT (57.8%), VITT was graded highly probable. INTERPRETATION: Given an incidence of 0.02 to 0.15 per 100,000 person-months for CVT in the general population, these findings point toward a higher risk for CVT after ChAdOx1 vaccination, especially for women. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:627-639.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Clin Neurosci ; 89: 271-278, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic affects the worldwide healthcare system and our understanding of this disease grows rapidly. Although COVID-19 is a mainly respiratory disease, neurological manifestations are not uncommon. The aim of this review is to report on the etiology, clinical profile, location, and outcome of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and COVID-19. This review includes 36 studies examining ICH in the clinical presentation of COVID-19. Overall, 217 cases with intracranial hemorrhage, of which 188 ICHs, were reported. Generally, a low incidence of both primary and secondary ICH was found in 8 studies [106 (0.25%) out of 43,137 hospitalized patients with COVID-19]. Available data showed a median age of 58 years (range: 52-68) and male sex 64%, regarding 36 and 102 patients respectively. Furthermore, 75% of the patients were on prior anticoagulation treatment, 52% had a history of arterial hypertension, and 61% were admitted in intensive care unit. Location of ICH in deep structures/basal ganglia was ascertained in only 7 cases making arterial hypertension an improbable etiopathogenetic mechanism. Mortality was calculated at 52.7%. Disease related pathophysiologic mechanisms support the hypothesis that SARS-CoV2 can cause ICH, however typical ICH risk factors such as anticoagulation treatment, or admission to ICU should also be considered as probable causes. Physicians should strongly suspect the possibility of ICH in individuals with severe COVID-19 admitted to ICU and treated with anticoagulants. It is not clear whether ICH is related directly to COVID-19 or reflects expected comorbidity and/or complications observed in severely ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Neurol Sci ; 426: 117479, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213385

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence has been published as to the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) on cerebrovascular events over the last few months, with considerable attention paid to ischemic strokes. Conversely, little is known about the clinical course of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD: The Italian Society of Hospital Neurosciences (SNO) promoted a multicentre, retrospective, observational study (SNO-COVID-19), involving 20 Neurological Departments in Northern Italy. Clinical data on patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases, admitted from March 1st to April 30th, 2020, were collected. A comparison was made of the demographical and clinical features of both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients with ICH. RESULTS: 949 patients were enrolled (average age 73.4 years; 52.7% males); 135 patients had haemorrhagic stroke and 127 (13.4%) had a primary ICH. Only 16 patients with ICH (12.6%) had laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, both symptomatic and asymptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia or respiratory distress (OR 5.4), lobar location (OR 5.0) and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment (OR 2.9) were the only factors significantly associated with increased mortality in ICH. SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of respiratory involvement, led to a non-significantly increased risk of in-hospital death (37.5% vs 23.4%, p = 0.2). DISCUSSION: ICH patients with COVID-19 did not experience an increase in mortality as striking as ischemic stroke. The inflammatory response and respiratory complications could justify the slight increase of death in ICH. Bleeding sites and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment were the only other predictors of a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
7.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248728, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcomes of adult patients with spontaneous intracranial and subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosed with comorbid COVID-19 infection in a large, geographically diverse cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the Vizient Clinical Data Base. We separately compared two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 admitted April 1-October 31, 2020-patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and those with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-with control patients with ICH or SAH who did not have COVID-19 admitted at the same hospitals in 2019. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Favorable discharge and length of hospital and intensive-care stay were the secondary outcomes. We fit multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression models to our outcomes. RESULTS: There were 559 ICH-COVID patients and 23,378 ICH controls from 194 hospitals. In the ICH-COVID cohort versus controls, there was a significantly higher proportion of Hispanic patients (24.5% vs. 8.9%), Black patients (23.3% vs. 20.9%), nonsmokers (11.5% vs. 3.2%), obesity (31.3% vs. 13.5%), and diabetes (43.4% vs. 28.5%), and patients had a longer hospital stay (21.6 vs. 10.5 days), a longer intensive-care stay (16.5 vs. 6.0 days), and a higher in-hospital death rate (46.5% vs. 18.0%). Patients with ICH-COVID had an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.43 [1.96-3.00] for the outcome of death and an aOR of 0.55 [0.44-0.68] for favorable discharge. There were 212 SAH-COVID patients and 5,029 controls from 119 hospitals. The hospital (26.9 vs. 13.4 days) and intensive-care (21.9 vs. 9.6 days) length of stays and in-hospital death rate (42.9% vs. 14.8%) were higher in the SAH-COVID cohort compared with controls. Patients with SAH-COVID had an aOR of 1.81 [1.26-2.59] for an outcome of death and an aOR of 0.54 [0.37-0.78] for favorable discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with spontaneous ICH or SAH and comorbid COVID infection were more likely to be a racial or ethnic minority, diabetic, and obese and to have higher rates of death and longer hospital length of stay when compared with controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
9.
Neurocrit Care ; 34(3): 739-747, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism necessitating systemic anticoagulation. Case reports of intracerebral hemorrhages in ventilated COVID-19 patients warrant precaution. It is unclear, however, if COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with or without veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (VV-ECMO) have more intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) compared to other ARDS patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational single-center study enrolling all patients with ARDS from 01/2018 to 05/2020. PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 patients with ARDS were allocated to the COVID-19 group. Propensity score matching was performed for age, VV-ECMO, and bleeding risk. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients with moderate or severe ARDS were identified, 47 (28.8%) in the COVID-19 group, and 116 (71.2%) in the non-COVID-19 group. In 63/163 cases (38.7%), VV-ECMO therapy was required. The ICU survival was 52.8%. COVID-19 patients were older, more often male, and exhibited a lower SOFA score, but the groups showed similar rates of VV-ECMO therapy. Treatments with antiplatelet agents (p = 0.043) and therapeutic anticoagulation (p = 0.028) were significantly more frequent in the COVID-19 patients. ICH was detected in 22 patients (13.5%) with no statistical difference between the groups (11.2 vs. 19.1% without and with SARS-CoV-2, respectively, p = 0.21). Propensity score matching confirmed similar rates of ICH in both groups (12.8 vs. 19.1% without and with SARS-CoV-2, respectively, p = 0.57), thus leveling out possible confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Intracerebral hemorrhage was detected in every tenth patient with ARDS. Despite statistically higher rates of antiplatelet therapy and therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients, we found a similar rate of ICH in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 compared to other causes of ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Critical Care , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Germany , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Registries , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Young Adult
10.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 83, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The respiratory system involvement is the most common presentation of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, other organs including the central nervous system (CNS) could be affected by the virus. Strokes, seizures, change in mental status, and encephalitis have been reported as the neurological manifestation of the disease. We hypothesized that COVID-19 could predispose younger patients to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The present study aimed to investigate whether COVID-19 has any relationship with the occurrence of spontaneous ICH in young or not. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all the patients with spontaneous ICH who were referred to our center between 20 Feb and 1 Sep 2020. The demographic, clinical, radiological, and laboratory test data were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups. The COVID-19 positive patients and COVID-19 negative ones. All the variables including age, sex, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hematoma volume and location, the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus on admission, the length of hospital stay, the lab test results and the clinical outcome at last visit or discharge as Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were 22 COVID-19 positive patients (20.8%) and 84 COVID-19 negative ones (79.2%). The mean age of the patients in the case group (54.27 ± 4.67) was significantly lower than that in the control group (69.88 ± 4.47) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, our results showed a significant difference between the two groups based on the presence of chronic arterial hypertension (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups based on gender, diabetes mellitus, smoking, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hematoma volume, need for surgery, the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus on admission, White Blood Cell (WBC) count, platelet count, Prothrombin Time (PT), and Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that COVID positive patients with ICH are younger and with less predisposing factors than COVID negative subjects with ICH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hematoma/epidemiology , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hematoma/surgery , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
11.
Brain ; 143(10): 3089-3103, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066270

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic has emerged affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although the main clinical manifestations are respiratory, an increase in neurological conditions, specifically acute cerebrovascular disease, has been detected. We present cerebrovascular disease case incidence in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients were confirmed by microbiological/serological testing, or on chest CT semiology. Available data on co-morbidity, laboratory parameters, treatment administered, neuroimaging, neuropathological studies and clinical evolution during hospitalization, measured by the modified Rankin scale, were analysed. A bivariate study was also designed to identify differences between ischaemic and haemorrhagic subtypes. A statistical model of binary logistic regression and sensitivity analysis was designed to study the influence of independent variables over prognosis. In our centre, there were 1683 admissions of patients with COVID-19 over 50 days, of which 23 (1.4%) developed cerebrovascular disease. Within this group of patients, cerebral and chest CT scans were performed in all cases, and MRI in six (26.1%). Histological samples were obtained in 6/23 cases (two brain biopsies, and four arterial thrombi). Seventeen patients were classified as cerebral ischaemia (73.9%, with two arterial dissections), five as intracerebral haemorrhage (21.7%), and one leukoencephalopathy of posterior reversible encephalopathy type. Haemorrhagic patients had higher ferritin levels at the time of stroke (1554.3 versus 519.2, P = 0.004). Ischaemic strokes were unexpectedly frequent in the vertebrobasilar territory (6/17, 35.3%). In the haemorrhagic group, a characteristic radiological pattern was identified showing subarachnoid haemorrhage, parieto-occipital leukoencephalopathy, microbleeds and single or multiple focal haematomas. Brain biopsies performed showed signs of thrombotic microangiopathy and endothelial injury, with no evidence of vasculitis or necrotizing encephalitis. The functional prognosis during the hospital period was unfavourable in 73.9% (17/23 modified Rankin scale 4-6), and age was the main predictive variable (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.012-2.225; P = 0.043). Our series shows cerebrovascular disease incidence of 1.4% in patients with COVID-19 with high morbidity and mortality. We describe pathological and radiological data consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy caused by endotheliopathy with a haemorrhagic predisposition.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Leukoencephalopathies/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/blood , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalopathies/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Stroke ; 52(3): 905-912, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke may occur in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but risk factors, in-hospital events, and outcomes are not well studied in large cohorts. We identified risk factors, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 with or without acute ischemic stroke and compared with patients without COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed the data from 54 health care facilities using the Cerner deidentified COVID-19 dataset. The dataset included patients with an emergency department or inpatient encounter with discharge diagnoses codes that could be associated to suspicion of or exposure to COVID-19 or confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 103 (1.3%) patients developed acute ischemic stroke among 8163 patients with COVID-19. Among all patients with COVID-19, the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure was significantly higher among those with acute ischemic stroke. Acute ischemic stroke was associated with discharge to destination other than home or death (relative risk, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.6-2.4]; P<0.0001) after adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 199 (1.0%) patients developed acute ischemic stroke among 19 513 patients without COVID-19. Among all ischemic stroke patients, COVID-19 was associated with discharge to destination other than home or death (relative risk, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.3]; P=0.03) after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Acute ischemic stroke was infrequent in patients with COVID-19 and usually occurs in the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. The risk of discharge to destination other than home or death increased 2-fold with occurrence of acute ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adult , African Americans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Edema/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals, Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/ethnology , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 202: 106503, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease due to vascular malformations represents an emergency for neurosurgery and neuro-interventional departments. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a dramatic reduction in the number of hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction or stroke and a larger time interval from symptom onset to first medical contact have been reported. This study aims to verify the hypothesis that there would also have been a reduction of admissions for hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease during the Italian lockdown. MATERIAL AND METHOD: s A multicenter, observational survey was conducted to collect data on hospital admissions for hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease due to vascular malformations throughout two-months (March 15th to May 15th); the years 2020 (COVID-19 Italian lockdown), 2019 and 2018 were compared. Cases were identified by ICD-9 codes 430, 431, 432.1, 432.9, 747.81 of each hospital database. The statistical significance of the difference between the event rate of one year versus the others was evaluated using Poisson Means test, assuming a constant population. RESULTS: During the 2020 lockdown, the total number of admissions for hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease was 92 compared with 116 in 2019 and 95 in 2018. This difference was not significant. GCS upon admission was 3-8 in 44 % of cases in 2020 (41 patients), 39.7 % in 2019 (46 patients) and 28 % in 2018 (27 patients). CONCLUSION: Reduction of admissions for hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease due to vascular malformations during the COVID-19 lockdown was not confirmed. Nevertheless, some patients reached the emergency rooms only several days after symptoms onset, resulting in a worse clinical condition at admission.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Quarantine/trends , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations/diagnosis , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Vascular Malformations/diagnosis , Vascular Malformations/epidemiology
14.
J Neurol ; 268(9): 3105-3115, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are very few studies of the characteristics and causes of ICH in COVID-19, yet such data are essential to guide clinicians in clinical management, including challenging anticoagulation decisions. We aimed to describe the characteristics of spontaneous symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) associated with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Database for data from patients with SARS-CoV-2 detected prior to or within 7 days after symptomatic ICH. We did a pooled analysis of individual patient data, then combined data from this pooled analysis with aggregate-level data. RESULTS: We included data from 139 patients (98 with individual data and 41 with aggregate-level data). In our pooled individual data analysis, the median age (IQR) was 60 (53-67) years and 64% (95% CI 54-73.7%) were male; 79% (95% CI 70.0-86.9%) had critically severe COVID-19. The pooled prevalence of lobar ICH was 67% (95% CI 56.3-76.0%), and of multifocal ICH was 36% (95% CI 26.4-47.0%). 71% (95% CI 61.0-80.4%) of patients were treated with anticoagulation (58% (95% CI 48-67.8%) therapeutic). The median NIHSS was 28 (IQR 15-28); mortality was 54% (95% CI 43.7-64.2%). Our combined analysis of individual and aggregate data showed similar findings. The pooled incidence of ICH across 12 cohort studies of inpatients with COVID-19 (n = 63,390) was 0.38% (95% CI 0.22-0.58%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that ICH associated with COVID-19 has different characteristics compared to ICH not associated with COVID-19, including frequent lobar location and multifocality, a high rate of anticoagulation, and high mortality. These observations suggest different underlying mechanisms of ICH in COVID-19 with potential implications for clinical treatment and trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3746-3750, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the rate of hospital admissions for cerebrovascular events and of revascularization treatments for acute ischemic stroke in Italy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: The Italian Stroke Organization performed a multicenter study involving 93 Italian Stroke Units. We collected information on hospital admissions for cerebrovascular events from March 1 to March 31, 2020 (study period), and from March 1 to March 31, 2019 (control period). RESULTS: Ischemic strokes decreased from 2399 in 2019 to 1810 in 2020, with a corresponding hospitalization rate ratio (RR) of 0.75 ([95% CI, 0.71-0.80] P<0.001); intracerebral hemorrhages decreased from 400 to 322 (hospitalization RR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.69-0.93]; P=0.004), and transient ischemic attacks decreased from 322 to 196 (hospitalization RR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.51-0.73]; P<0.001). Hospitalizations decreased in Northern, Central, and Southern Italy. Intravenous thrombolyses decreased from 531 (22.1%) in 2019 to 345 in 2020 (19.1%; RR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.75-0.99]; P=0.032), while primary endovascular procedures increased in Northern Italy (RR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.13-2.32]; P=0.008). We found no correlation (P=0.517) between the hospitalization RRs for all strokes or transient ischemic attack and COVID-19 incidence in the different areas. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations for stroke or transient ischemic attacks across Italy were reduced during the worst period of the COVID-19 outbreak. Intravenous thrombolytic treatments also decreased, while endovascular treatments remained unchanged and even increased in the area of maximum expression of the outbreak. Limited hospitalization of the less severe patients and delays in hospital admission, due to overcharge of the emergency system by COVID-19 patients, may explain these data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endovascular Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
16.
J Neurol ; 268(8): 2676-2684, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the presence of extensive white matter microhemorrhages was detected by brain MRIs. The goal of this study was to investigate the origin of this atypical hemorrhagic complication. METHODS: Between March 17 and May 18, 2020, 80 patients with severe COVID-19 infections were admitted for acute respiratory distress syndrome to intensive care units at the University Hospitals of Strasbourg for whom a brain MRI for neurologic manifestations was performed. 19 patients (24%) with diffuse microhemorrhages were compared to 18 control patients with COVID-19 and normal brain MRI. RESULTS: The first hypothesis was hypoxemia. The latter seemed very likely since respiratory failure was longer and more pronounced in patients with microhemorrhages (prolonged endotracheal intubation (p = 0.0002), higher FiO2 (p = 0.03), increased use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (p = 0.04)). A relevant hypothesis, the role of microangiopathy, was also considered, since patients with microhemorrhages presented a higher increase of the D-Dimers (p = 0.01) and a tendency to more frequent thrombotic events (p = 0.12). Another hypothesis tested was the role of kidney failure, which was more severe in the group with diffuse microhemorrhages (higher creatinine level [median of 293 µmol/L versus 112 µmol/L, p = 0.04] and more dialysis were introduced in this group during ICU stay [12 versus 5 patients, p = 0.04]). CONCLUSIONS: Blood-brain barrier dysfunction secondary to hypoxemia and high concentration of uremic toxins seems to be the main mechanism leading to critical illness-associated cerebral microbleeds, and this complication remains to be frequently described in severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(4): 323-330, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and physical distancing guidelines have compelled stroke practices worldwide to reshape their delivery of care significantly. We aimed to illustrate how the stroke services were interrupted during the pandemic in China. METHODS: A 61-item questionnaire designed on Wenjuanxing Form was completed by doctors or nurses who were involved in treating patients with stroke from 1 February to 31 March 2020. RESULTS: A total of 415 respondents completed the online survey after informed consent was obtained. Of the respondents, 37.8%, 35.2% and 27.0% were from mild, moderate and severe epidemic areas, respectively. Overall, the proportion of severe impact (reduction >50%) on the admission of transient ischaemic stroke, acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) was 45.0%, 32.0% and 27.5%, respectively. Those numbers were 36.9%, 27.9% and 22.3%; 36.5%, 22.1% and 22.6%; and 66.4%, 47.5% and 41.1% in mild, moderate and severe epidemic areas, respectively (all p<0.0001). For AIS, thrombolysis was moderate (20%-50% reduction) or severely impacted (>50%), as reported by 54.4% of the respondents, while thrombectomy was 39.3%. These were 44.4%, 26.3%; 44.2%, 39.4%; and 78.2%, 56.5%, in mild, moderate and severe epidemic areas, respectively (all p<0.0001). For patients with acute ICH, 39.8% reported the impact was severe or moderate for those eligible for surgery who had surgery. Those numbers were 27.4%, 39.0% and 58.1% in mild, moderate and severe epidemic areas, respectively. For staff resources, about 20% (overall) to 55% (severe epidemic) of the respondents reported moderate or severe impact on the on-duty doctors and nurses. CONCLUSION: We found a significant reduction of admission for all types of patients with stroke during the pandemic. Patients were less likely to receive appropriate care, for example, thrombolysis/thrombectomy, after being admitted to the hospital. Stroke service in severe COVID-19 epidemic areas, for example, Wuhan, was much more severely impacted compared with other regions in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care Management , Stroke/surgery , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
18.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 35(9): 621-627, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We analysed the neurological complications of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection who required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational, descriptive study of consecutive patients admitted to the ICU due to severe respiratory symptoms secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1 April and 1 June 2020. RESULTS: We included 30 patients with neurological symptoms; 21 were men (72.40%), and mean age (standard deviation [SD]) was 57.41 years (11.61). The mean duration of ICU stay was 18.83 days (14.33). The neurological conditions recorded were acute confusional syndrome in 28 patients (93.33%), neuromuscular disease in 15 (50%), headache in 5 (16.66%), cerebrovascular disease in 4 (13.33%), and encephalopathies/encephalitis in 4 (13.33%). CSF analysis results were normal in 6 patients (20%). Brain MRI or head CT showed alterations in 20 patients (66.6%). EEG was performed in all patients (100%), with 8 (26.66%) showing abnormal findings. In 5 of the 15 patients with clinical myopathy, diagnosis was confirmed with electroneuromyography. We found a correlation between older age and duration of ICU stay (P=.002; 95%CI: 4.032-6.022; OR: 3,594). CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 mainly affects men, as observed in other series. Half of our patients presented acute myopathy, and almost all patients left the ICU with acute confusional syndrome, which fully resolved; no correlation was found with EEG or neuroimaging findings. Older age is associated with longer ICU stay.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Illness , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Confusion/epidemiology , Confusion/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Neuroimaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
19.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2649-2655, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We conducted this study to investigate the prevalence and distribution of cerebral microbleeds and leukoencephalopathy in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and correlate with clinical, laboratory, and functional outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 4131 COVID-19 positive adult patients who were admitted to 3 tertiary care hospitals of an academic medical center at the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City from March 1, 2020, to May 10, 2020, to identify patients who had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. We evaluated the MRIs in detail, and identified a subset of patients with leukoencephalopathy and/or cerebral microbleeds. We compared clinical, laboratory, and functional outcomes for these patients to patients who had a brain MRI that did not show these findings. RESULTS: Of 115 patients who had an MRI of the brain performed, 35 (30.4%) patients had leukoencephalopathy and/or cerebral microbleeds. Patients with leukoencephalopathy and/or cerebral microbleeds had neuroimaging performed later during the hospitalization course (27 versus 10.6 days; P<0.001), were clinically sicker at the time of brain MRI (median GCS 6 versus 14; P<0.001), and had higher peak D-dimer levels (8018±6677 versus 3183±3482; P<0.001), lower nadir platelet count (116.9±62.2 versus 158.3±76.2; P=0.03), higher peak international normalized ratio (2.2 versus 1.57; P<0.001) values when compared with patients who had a brain MRI that did not show these findings. They required longer ventilator support (34.6 versus 9.1 days; P<0.001) and were more likely to have moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome score (88.6% versus 23.8%, P<0.001). These patients had longer hospitalizations (42.1 versus 20.9 days; P<0.001), overall worse functional status on discharge (mRS 5 versus 4; P=0.001), and higher mortality (20% versus 9%; P=0.144). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of leukoencephalopathy and/or cerebral microbleeds is associated with a critical illness, increased mortality, and worse functional outcome in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Leukoencephalopathies/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Length of Stay , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalopathies/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 940-944, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625544
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