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Front Immunol ; 12: 752557, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789371


Objective: To analyze and compare different clinical, laboratory, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics between pediatric and adult patients with first-attack myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) and to explore predictive factors for severity at disease onset. Methods: Patients diagnosed with MOGAD at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2013 to August 2021 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Age at disease onset, sex, comorbidities, laboratory tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were collected and analyzed. The association between risk factors and initial EDSS scores at disease onset was analyzed using logistic regression models and Spearman correlation analyses. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive ability of the uric acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels for the severity of neurological dysfunction at the onset of MOGAD. Results: Sixty-seven patients (female, n=34; male, n=33) with first-attack MOGAD were included in this study. The mean age at onset was 26.43 ± 18.22 years (range: 3-79 years). Among patients <18 years of age, the most common presenting symptoms were loss of vision (36.0%), and nausea and vomiting (24.0%), and the most common disease spectrum was acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (40.0%). Among patients aged ≥18 years, the most common presenting symptoms were loss of vision (35.7%), paresthesia (33.3%), and paralysis (26.2%), and the most common disease spectrum was optic neuritis (35.7%). The most common lesions were cortical gray matter/paracortical white matter lesions in both pediatric and adult patients. Uric acid [odds ratio (OR)=1.014; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.006-1.022; P=0.000] and serum Hcy (OR=1.125; 95% CI=1.017-1.246; P=0.023) levels were significantly associated with the severity of neurological dysfunction at disease onset. Uric acid levels (r=0.2583; P=0.035) and Hcy levels (r=0.3971; P=0.0009) were positively correlated with initial EDSS scores. The areas under the ROC curve were 0.7775 (95% CI= 0.6617‒0.8933; P<0.001) and 0.6767 (95% CI=0.5433‒0.8102, P=0.014) for uric acid and Hcy levels, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical phenotype of MOGAD varies in patients of different ages. The most common disease spectrum was ADEM in patients aged<18 years, while optic neuritis was commonly found in patients aged ≥18 years. The uric acid and Hcy levels are risk factors for the severity of neurological dysfunction at disease onset in patients with first-attack MOGAD.

Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/epidemiology , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/metabolism , Biomarkers , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Blind Method , Uric Acid/blood , Young Adult
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7169, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160544


In current international classification systems (ICD-10, DSM5), the diagnostic criteria for psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder) are based on symptomatic descriptions since no unambiguous biomarkers are known to date. However, when underlying causes of psychotic symptoms, like inflammation, ischemia, or tumor affecting the neural tissue can be identified, a different classification is used ("psychotic disorder with delusions due to known physiological condition" (ICD-10: F06.2) or psychosis caused by medical factors (DSM5)). While CSF analysis still is considered optional in current diagnostic guidelines for psychotic disorders, CSF biomarkers could help to identify known physiological conditions. In this retrospective, partly descriptive analysis of 144 patients with psychotic symptoms and available CSF data, we analyzed CSF examinations' significance to differentiate patients with specific etiological factors (F06.2) from patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal, delusional, and other non-mood psychotic disorders (F2). In 40.3% of all patients, at least one CSF parameter was out of the reference range. Abnormal CSF-findings were found significantly more often in patients diagnosed with F06.2 (88.2%) as compared to patients diagnosed with F2 (23.8%, p < 0.00001). A total of 17 cases were identified as probably caused by specific etiological factors (F06.2), of which ten cases fulfilled the criteria for a probable autoimmune psychosis linked to the following autoantibodies: amphiphysin, CASPR2, CV2, LGl1, NMDA, zic4, and titin. Two cases presented with anti-thyroid tissue autoantibodies. In four cases, further probable causal factors were identified: COVID-19, a frontal intracranial tumor, multiple sclerosis (n = 2), and neurosyphilis. Twenty-one cases remained with "no reliable diagnostic classification". Age at onset of psychotic symptoms differed between patients diagnosed with F2 and F06.2 (p = 0.014), with the latter group being older (median: 44 vs. 28 years). Various CSF parameters were analyzed in an exploratory analysis, identifying pleocytosis and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) as discriminators (F06.2 vs. F2) with a high specificity of > 96% each. No group differences were found for gender, characteristics of psychotic symptoms, substance dependency, or family history. This study emphasizes the great importance of a detailed diagnostic workup in diagnosing psychotic disorders, including CSF analysis, to detect possible underlying pathologies and improve treatment decisions.

Psychotic Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/cerebrospinal fluid , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/psychology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Middle Aged , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Schizophrenia/cerebrospinal fluid , Young Adult
Cancer Cell ; 39(2): 276-283.e3, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033385


SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a wide spectrum of neurologic dysfunction that emerges weeks after the acute respiratory infection. To better understand this pathology, we prospectively analyzed of a cohort of cancer patients with neurologic manifestations of COVID-19, including a targeted proteomics analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid. We find that cancer patients with neurologic sequelae of COVID-19 harbor leptomeningeal inflammatory cytokines in the absence of viral neuroinvasion. The majority of these inflammatory mediators are driven by type II interferon and are known to induce neuronal injury in other disease states. In these patients, levels of matrix metalloproteinase-10 within the spinal fluid correlate with the degree of neurologic dysfunction. Furthermore, this neuroinflammatory process persists weeks after convalescence from acute respiratory infection. These prolonged neurologic sequelae following systemic cytokine release syndrome lead to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction. Our findings suggest a role for anti-inflammatory treatment(s) in the management of neurologic complications of COVID-19 infection.

Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation Mediators/cerebrospinal fluid , Neoplasms/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins/analysis , Comorbidity , Cytokines/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neuroimaging