Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
2.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(3): 19, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an updated discussion on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and radiographic features, mechanisms, associations and epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Headache is common in PRES, though headache associated with PRES was not identified as a separate entity in the 2018 International Classification of Headache Disorders. Here, we review the relevant literature and suggest criteria for consideration of its inclusion. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has been identified as a potential risk factor for PRES, with a prevalence of 1-4% in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing neuroimaging, thus making a discussion of its identification and treatment particularly timely given the ongoing global pandemic at the time of this writing. PRES is a neuro-clinical syndrome with specific imaging findings. The clinical manifestations of PRES include headache, seizures, encephalopathy, visual disturbances, and focal neurologic deficits. Associations with PRES include renal failure, preeclampsia and eclampsia, autoimmune conditions, and immunosuppression. PRES is theorized to be a syndrome of disordered autoregulation and endothelial dysfunction resulting in preferential hyperperfusion of the posterior circulation. Treatment typically focuses on treating the underlying cause and removal of the offending agents.


Subject(s)
Endothelium/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Aminolevulinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Female , Homeostasis/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/epidemiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(5): 105642, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented strain on the health care system. An adaptive strategy for the handling of thrombectomy for patients with large vessel occlusion has evolved at our center to optimize patient care while also minimizing risk of virus transmission. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the new thrombectomy protocol by comparing thrombectomy times and patient outcomes during the pandemic and pre pandemic period. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients who underwent emergent thrombectomy from April 4th, 2020 to August 25th, 2020 (pandemic period) and between December 2nd, 2019 to April 3rd, 2020 (pre-pandemic period). The new protocol centered on a standardized approach to airway management in patients considered 'high-risk' for infection. An array of patient-specific factors and outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients were included in the study. There was no significant difference in door-to-recanalization or other time parameters between the two groups (138 minutes during the pandemic vs. 129 minutes pre-pandemic; p=0.37). However, outcomes measured as discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were worse for patients during the pandemic (mRS ≤ 2, 10/58; 17.2% during pandemic vs. 24/68; 35.3% pre-pandemic, p = 0.02). No neurointerventional providers have been found to contract COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our approach to mechanical thrombectomy during the COVID-19 era was associated with similar recanalization rates but worse clinical outcomes compared to pre pandemic period. Further studies are necessary to identify factors contributing to worse outcomes during this ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/surgery , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Pandemics , Stroke/surgery , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Airway Management , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Clinical Protocols , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
5.
Stroke ; 52(1): 260-270, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with an increased rate of cerebrovascular events including ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. The mechanisms underlying cerebral endothelial susceptibility and response to SARS-CoV-2 are unknown yet critical to understanding the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with cerebrovascular events. METHODS: Endothelial cells were isolated from human brain and analyzed by RNA sequencing. Human umbilical vein and human brain microvascular cells were used in both monolayer culture and endothelialized within a 3-dimensional printed vascular model of the middle cerebral artery. Gene expression levels were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and direct RNA hybridization. Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S protein and S protein-containing liposomes were used to measure endothelial binding by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme-2) mRNA levels were low in human brain and monolayer endothelial cell culture. Within the 3-dimensional printed vascular model, ACE2 gene expression and protein levels were progressively increased by vessel size and flow rates. SARS-CoV-2 S protein-containing liposomes were detected in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human brain microvascular endothelial cells in 3-dimensional middle cerebral artery models but not in monolayer culture consistent with flow dependency of ACE2 expression. Binding of SARS-CoV-2 S protein triggered 83 unique genes in human brain endothelial cells including upregulation of complement component C3. CONCLUSIONS: Brain endothelial cells are susceptible to direct SARS-CoV-2 infection through flow-dependent expression of ACE2. Viral S protein binding triggers a unique gene expression profile in brain endothelia that may explain the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with cerebrovascular events.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transcriptome , Brain/metabolism , Brain/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Models, Anatomic , Stress, Mechanical
6.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(2): 435-439, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836298

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus 2019 disease (Covid-19) was first seen in December 2019 and afterwards it became pandemic. Several systemic involvements have been reported in Covid-19 patients. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with Covid-19. Materials and methods: The sample of this study included 20 patients hospitalized in our clinic diagnosed with Covid-19 via PCR modality and 20 healthy volunteers of similar age and sex. Bilateral middle cerebral arteries were investigated with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Basal cerebral blood flow velocities and vasomotor reactivity rates were determined and statistically compared. Results: When patient and control groups were compared, the mean blood flow velocity was found to be higher in Covid-19 patients than in the healthy volunteers and it was statistically significant (P = 0.00). The mean vasomotor reactivity rates values were found to be lower in the Covid-19 group than the healthy group and was also statistically significant (P = 0.00). Conclusion: An increase in basal cerebral blood velocity and a decrease in vasomotor reactivity rates in patients with Covid-19 can be considered as an indicator of dysfunction of cerebral hemodynamics in the central nervous system and this can be evaluated as a result of endothelial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Middle Cerebral Artery/physiopathology , Vasomotor System/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial , Vasomotor System/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
7.
J Neurol Sci ; 417: 117078, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented increased usage of Personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare-workers. PPE usage causes headache in majority of users. We evaluated changes in cerebral hemodynamics among healthcare-workers using PPE. METHODS: Frontline healthcare-workers donning PPE at our tertiary center were included. Demographics, co-morbidities and blood-pressure were recorded. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring of middle cerebral artery was performed with 2-MHz probe. Mean flow velocity (MFV) and pulsatility index (PI) were recorded at baseline, after donning N95 respirator-mask, and after donning powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), when indicated. End-tidal carbon-dioxide (ET-CO2) pressure was recorded for participants donning PAPR in addition to the N95 respirator-mask. RESULTS: A total of 154 healthcare-workers (mean age 29 ± 12 years, 67% women) were included. Migraine was the commonest co-morbidity in 38 (25%) individuals while 123 (80%) developed de-novo headache due to N95 mask. Donning of N95 respirator-mask resulted in significant increase in MFV (4.4 ± 10.4 cm/s, p < 0.001) and decrease in PI (0.13 ± 0.12; p < 0.001) while ET-CO2 increased by 3.1 ± 1.2 mmHg (p < 0.001). TCD monitoring in 24 (16%) participants donning PAPR and N95 respirator mask together showed normalization of PI, accompanied by normalization of ET-CO2 values within 5-min. Combined use of N95 respirator-mask and PAPR was more comfortable as compared to N95 respirator-mask alone. CONCLUSION: Use of N95 respirator-mask results in significant alterations in cerebral hemodynamics. However, these effects are mitigated by the use of additional PAPR. We recommend the use of PAPR together with the N95 mask for healthcare-workers doing longer duties in the hospital wards.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Health Personnel , Masks/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , Respiratory Protective Devices , Adult , Blood Flow Velocity , COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/etiology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery/physiopathology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pulsatile Flow , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial , Young Adult
8.
Neuroradiol J ; 33(5): 368-373, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646969

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increasingly been recognised in the literature, and possible mechanisms of neuroinvasion, neurotropism and neurovirulence have been described. Neurological signs have been described in 84% of COVID-19 intensive care unit patients, and haemostatic abnormalities in such patients may play an important role, with a broad spectrum of neuroimaging findings. This report describes the magnetic resonance imaging neurovascular findings in an acutely ill patient with COVID-19, including perfusion abnormalities depicted in the arterial spin labelling technique.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain/blood supply , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Corpus Callosum , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , Parietal Lobe , Perfusion Imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spin Labels , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Thalamus
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL