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1.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(3): 279-284, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Apart from respiratory complications, acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in some patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we described the clinical characteristics, laboratory features, treatment and outcomes of CVD complicating SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments and clinical outcomes were collected and analysed. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of patients with COVID-19 with or without new-onset CVD were compared. RESULTS: Of 219 patients with COVID-19, 10 (4.6%) developed acute ischaemic stroke and 1 (0.5%) had intracerebral haemorrhage. COVID-19 with new onset of CVD were significantly older (75.7±10.8 years vs 52.1±15.3 years, p<0.001), more likely to present with severe COVID-19 (81.8% vs 39.9%, p<0.01) and were more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes and medical history of CVD (all p<0.05). In addition, they were more likely to have increased inflammatory response and hypercoagulable state as reflected in C reactive protein (51.1 (1.3-127.9) vs 12.1 (0.1-212.0) mg/L, p<0.05) and D-dimer (6.9 (0.3-20.0) vs 0.5 (0.1-20.0) mg/L, p<0.001). Of 10 patients with ischemic stroke; 6 received antiplatelet treatment with aspirin or clopidogrel; and 3 of them died. The other four patients received anticoagulant treatment with enoxaparin and 2 of them died. As of 24 March 2020, six patients with CVD died (54.5%). CONCLUSION: Acute CVD is not uncommon in COVID-19. Our findings suggest that older patients with risk factors are more likely to develop CVD. The development of CVD is an important negative prognostic factor which requires further study to identify optimal management strategy to combat the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/drug therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105454, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 disproportionately affects older adults and individuals with cardiovascular co-morbidities. This report presents fifteen patients who had COVID-19 respiratory illness followed by cerebrovascular events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A call by the Iranian Neurological Association gathered cases across the country who developed neurological symptoms attributed to hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke after a definite or probable Covid-19 respiratory illness. Definite cases were those with a typical respiratory illness, positive nasopharyngeal Covid-19 PCR test, and chest CT consistent with Covid-19 infection. Probable cases were defined by a typical respiratory illness, history of contacts with a Covid-19 case, and chest CT characteristic for Covid-19 infection. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (12 men and 3 women) with an age range of 38 to 93 years old (median: 65 years old) were included. Fourteen patients had a first-ever acute ischemic stroke and one patient had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eleven patients (73%) had previous cardiovascular comorbidities. The median time between respiratory symptoms and neurological symptoms was seven days (range 1-16 days). Stroke severity in two patients was mild (NIHSS ≤ 6), in six patients moderate (NIHSS: 7-12), and in seven patients severe (NIHSS ≥13). One patient received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator ( IV-tPA) with improved neurological symptoms. Six out of 15 patients (40%) died. All but one of those who survived had significant disability assessed by a modified ranking scale >2. The majority of patients in this case series had vascular risk factors and their stroke was associated with severe disability and death. CONCLUSION: This report highlights the need for further investigation of the links between Covid-19 and cerebrovascular events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105427, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899242

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been shown to cause multisystemic damage. We undertook a systematic literature review and comprehensive analysis of a total of 55 articles on arterial and venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 and articles on previous pandemics with respect to thromboembolism and compared the similarities and differences between them. The presence of thrombosis in multiple organ systems points to thromboembolism being an integral component in the pathogenesis of this disease. Thromboembolism is likely to be the main player in the morbidity and mortality of COVID -19 in which the pulmonary system is most severely affected. We also hypothesize that D-dimer values could be used as an early marker for prognostication of disease as it has been seen to be raised even in the pre-symptomatic stage. This further strengthens the notion that thromboembolism prevention is necessary. We also examined literature on the neurovascular and cardiovascular systems, as the manifestation of thromboembolic phenomenon in these two systems varied, suggesting different pathophysiology of damage. Further research into the role of thromboembolism in COVID-19 is important to advance the understanding of the virus, its effects and to tailor treatment accordingly to prevent further casualties from this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/mortality , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/prevention & control , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
5.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(10): e543-e550, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, research on the indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of the population and the health-care system is scarce. We aimed to investigate the indirect effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on general practice health-care usage, and the subsequent diagnoses of common physical and mental health conditions in a deprived UK population. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected primary care data that was recorded in the Salford Integrated Record between Jan 1, 2010, and May 31, 2020. We extracted the weekly number of clinical codes entered into patient records overall, and for six high-level categories: symptoms and observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, operations and procedures, laboratory tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Negative binomial regression models were applied to monthly counts of first diagnoses of common conditions (common mental health problems, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer), and corresponding first prescriptions of medications indicative of these conditions. We used these models to predict the expected numbers of first diagnoses and first prescriptions between March 1 and May 31, 2020, which were then compared with the observed numbers for the same time period. FINDINGS: Between March 1 and May 31, 2020, 1073 first diagnoses of common mental health problems were reported compared with 2147 expected cases (95% CI 1821 to 2489) based on preceding years, representing a 50·0% reduction (95% CI 41·1 to 56·9). Compared with expected numbers, 456 fewer diagnoses of circulatory system diseases (43·3% reduction, 95% CI 29·6 to 53·5), and 135 fewer type 2 diabetes diagnoses (49·0% reduction, 23·8 to 63·1) were observed. The number of first prescriptions of associated medications was also lower than expected for the same time period. However, the gap between observed and expected cancer diagnoses (31 fewer; 16·0% reduction, -18·1 to 36·6) during this time period was not statistically significant. INTERPRETATION: In this deprived urban population, diagnoses of common conditions decreased substantially between March and May 2020, suggesting a large number of patients have undiagnosed conditions. A rebound in future workload could be imminent as COVID-19 restrictions ease and patients with undiagnosed conditions or delayed diagnosis present to primary and secondary health-care services. Such services should prioritise the diagnosis and treatment of these patients to mitigate potential indirect harms to protect public health. FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Female , General Practice/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105283, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733727

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to address the association between cerebrovascular disease and adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients by using a quantitative meta-analysis based on adjusted effect estimates. METHOD: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE up to August 10th, 2020. The adjusted effect estimates were extracted and pooled to evaluate the risk of the unfavorable outcomes in COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular disease. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were also carried out. RESULTS: There were 12 studies with 10,304 patients included in our meta-analysis. A significant trend was observed when evaluating the association between cerebrovascular disease and adverse outcomes (pooled effect = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-3.16). In addition, the pooled effects showed that patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease had more likelihood to progress fatal outcomes than patients without a history of cerebrovascular disease (pooled effect = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.04-3.07). CONCLUSION: This study for the first time indicated that cerebrovascular disease was an independent risk factor for predicting the adverse outcomes, particularly fatal outcomes, in COVID-19 patients on the basis of adjusted effect estimates. Well-designed studies with larger sample size are needed for further verification.


Subject(s)
Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
7.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1540-1548, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694641

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The first reports of declining hospital admissions for major cardiovascular emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic attracted public attention. However, systematic evidence on this subject is sparse. We aimed to investigate the rate of emergent hospital admissions, subsequent invasive treatments and comorbidities during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data from the second largest insurance fund in Germany, BARMER. Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction, acute limb ischemia, aortic rupture, stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) between January 1, 2019, and May 31, 2020, were included. Admission rates per 100,000 insured, invasive treatments and comorbidities were compared from January-May 2019 (pre-COVID) to January-May 2020 (COVID). A total of 115,720 hospitalizations were included in the current analysis (51.3% females, mean age 72.9 years). Monthly admission rates declined from 78.6/100,000 insured (pre-COVID) to 70.6/100,000 (COVID). The lowest admission rate was observed in April 2020 (61.6/100,000). Administration rates for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (7.3-6.6), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (16.8-14.6), acute limb ischemia (5.1-4.6), stroke (35.0-32.5) and TIA (13.7-11.9) decreased from pre-COVID to COVID. Baseline comorbidities and the percentage of these patients treated with interventional or open-surgical procedures remained similar over time across all entities. In-hospital mortality in hospitalizations for stroke increased from pre-COVID to COVID (8.5-9.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Admission rates for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular emergencies declined during the pandemic in Germany, while patients' comorbidities and treatment allocations remained unchanged. Further investigation is warranted to identify underlying reasons and potential implications on patients' outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology Service, Hospital/trends , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Administrative Claims, Healthcare , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1500-1506, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the guidance from authorities for social distancing and media reporting lead to significant uncertainty in Germany. Concerns have been expressed regarding the underdiagnosing of harmful diseases. We explored the rates of emergency presentations for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and acute cerebrovascular events (ACVE) before and after spread of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We analyzed all-cause visits at a tertiary university emergency department and admissions for ACS and ACVE before (calendar weeks 1-9, 2020) and after (calendar weeks 10-16, 2020) the first coronavirus disease (COVID-19) case in the region of the Saarland, Germany. The data were compared with the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: In 2020 an average of 346 patients per week presented at the emergency department whereas in 2019 an average of 400 patients presented up to calendar week 16 (p = 0.018; whole year 2019 = 395 patients per week). After the first COVID-19 diagnosis in the region, emergency department visit volume decreased by 30% compared with the same period in 2019 (p = 0.0012). Admissions due to ACS decreased by 41% (p = 0.0023 for all; Δ - 71% (p = 0.007) for unstable angina, Δ - 25% (p = 0.42) for myocardial infarction with ST-elevation and Δ - 17% (p = 0.28) without ST-elevation) compared with the same period in 2019 and decreased from 142 patients in calendar weeks 1-9 to 62 patients in calendar weeks 10-16. ACVE decreased numerically by 20% [p = 0.25 for all; transient ischemic attack: Δ - 32% (p = 0.18), ischemic stroke: Δ - 23% (p = 0.48), intracerebral haemorrhage: Δ + 57% (p = 0.4)]. There was no significant change in ACVE per week (p = 0.7) comparing calendar weeks 1-9 (213 patients) and weeks 10-16 (147 patients). Testing of 3756 samples was performed to detect 58 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (prevalence 1,54%, thereof one patient with myocardial and two with cerebral ischemia) up to calendar week 16 in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a significant decrease in all-cause admission and admissions due to cardiovascular events in the emergency department. Regarding acute cerebrovascular events there was a numerical decrease but no significant difference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology Service, Hospital/trends , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Heart Diseases/therapy , Patient Admission/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Prevalence , Time Factors
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104949, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the latest evidence on the association between cerebrovascular, and cardiovascular diseases and poor outcome in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS, EuropePMC, and Cochrane Central Database. The outcome of interest was composite poor outcome that comprised of mortality and severe COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 4448 patients were obtained from 16 studies. Cerebrovascular disease was associated with an increased composite poor outcome (RR 2.04 [1.43,2.91], p<0.001; I2: 77%). Subgroup analysis revealed that cerebrovascular disease was associated with mortality (RR 2.38 [1.92,2.96], p<0.001; I2: 0%) and showed borderline significance for severe COVID-19 (RR 1.88 [1.00,3.51], p = 0.05; I2: 87%). Cardiovascular disease was associated with increased composite poor outcome (RR 2.23 [1.71,2.91], p<0.001; I2: 60%), mortality (RR 2.25 [1.53,3.29], p<0.001; I2: 33%) and severe COVID-19 (RR 2.25 [1.51,3.36], p<0.001; I2: 76%). Meta-regression demonstrate that the association was not influenced by gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, and respiratory comorbidities. Furthermore, the association between cerebrovascular disease and poor outcome was not affected by cardiovascular diseases and vice versa. CONCLUSION: Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases were associated with an increased risk for poor outcome in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Health Status , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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