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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(11): s1-s8, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of long-COVID in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease, to identify the risk factors for the development of this condition and to analyze effectiveness and tolerability of Vinpocetine and Aertal in treatment of this disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 97 patients (64.5±5.2 years), among which 42 were diagnosed with long-COVID. The effectiveness of treatment was analyzed with NRS-P, Post-COVID-19 Functional Status (PCFS), Global Rating of Change Scale (GROC). RESULTS: Predictors of long-COVID was female gender (p=0.022), severe COVID-19 (p=0.035), comorbidities: cardiovascular diseases (p=0.032), endocrinopathies (p=0.041), affective disorders (p=0.021). Significant changes in the functional status of patients were recorded after 20 days of treatment (PCFS), in pain after 10 days (NRS-P). The most pronounced clinical effect (PCFS) was obtained after 1 mth of therapy with vinpocetine and 20 days with aceclofenac (NRS-P). After 30 days 25/59.5% of patients noted a «pronounced¼ improvement in their own well-being (GROC) without the development of significant side effects. CONCLUSIONS: 43.3% of patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease and certain predictors develop long-COVID. Aceclofenac and vinpocetine are effective in relieving a number of symptoms of long-COVID, which requires further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Vinca Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/drug therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Diclofenac/analogs & derivatives , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
2.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(11): 81-87, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599964

ABSTRACT

Present two clinical cases of cerebral circulation disorders in COVID-19. Cerebrovascular disorders in patients have been associated with COVID-19. Despite the similarity of symptoms, the pathogenesis of neurological damage in these patients was different due to damage to the arterial system in the first case and the venous system in the second case. It is concluded that during the COVID-19 pandemic, doctors need to be alert to all patients with new-onset neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(27): e197, 2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308264

ABSTRACT

We used the nationwide claims database to calculate the incidence of thrombotic events and predict their overall 2-week incidence. From 2006 to 2020, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) tended to increase. Unlike intracranial venous thrombosis (ICVT) and intracranial thrombophlebitis (ICTP), which showed no age difference, other venous embolism, and thrombosis (OVET), DIC, DVT, and PE were significantly more common in over 65 years. The overall 2-week incidence of ICVT was 0.21/1,000,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.32). ICTP, OVET, DIC, DVT and PE were expected to occur in 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.14), 7.66 (95% CI, 6.08-9.23), 5.95 (95% CI, 4.88-7.03), 13.28 (95% CI, 11.92-14.64), 14.09 (95% CI, 12.80-15.37) per 1,000,000, respectively. To date, of 8,548,231 patients vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in Korea, two had confirmed thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome within 2 weeks. The observed incidence of ICVT after vaccination was 0.23/1,000,000.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/chemically induced , Pulmonary Embolism/chemically induced , Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Aged , Causality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
4.
Eur Neurol ; 84(5): 307-324, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been shown that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has caused a pandemic since December 2019, can be accompanied by some neurological disorders. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of the most common neurological symptoms and comorbidities and systematically review the literature regarding the most prevalent neurological complications of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: All relevant studies had been collected from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases. All extracted data were analyzed using Stata version 11.2. The I2 index was applied, and a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model was used for pooled estimation to assess the heterogeneity of studies. Furthermore, Egger and Beeg's tests were used to evaluate the publication bias. RESULTS: Fifty-seven studies (26 observational and 31 case reports) were included (including 6,597 COVID-19 patients). The most prevalent general symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnea with 84.6% (95% CI: 75.3-92.1; I2 = 98.7%), 61.3% (95% CI: 55.3-67.0; I2 = 94.6%), and 34.2% (95% CI: 25.6-43.4; I2 = 97.7%), respectively. Neurological symptoms observed among COVID-19 patients were fatigue, gustatory dysfunction, anorexia, olfactory dysfunction, headache, dizziness, and nausea with 42.9% (95% CI: 36.7-49.3; I2 = 92.8%), 35.4% (95% CI: 11.2-64.4; I2 = 99.2%), 28.9% (95% CI: 19.9-38.8; I2 = 96.3%), 25.3% (95% CI: 1.6-63.4; I2 = 99.6%), 10.1% (95% CI: 2.7-21.0; I2 = 99.1%), 6.7% (95% CI: 3.7-10.5; I2 = 87.5%), and 5.9% (95% CI: 3.1-9.5; I2 = 94.5%). The most prevalent neurological comorbidity in COVID-19 was cerebrovascular disease with 4.3% (95% CI: 2.7-6.3; I2 = 78.7%). CONCLUSION: The most prevalent neurological manifestations of COVID-19 include fatigue, gustatory dysfunction, anorexia, olfactory dysfunction, headache, dizziness, and nausea. Cerebrovascular disorders can either act as a risk factor for poorer prognosis in COVID-19 patients or occur as a critical complication in these patients. Guillain-Barre syndrome, encephalitis, and meningitis have also been reported as complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 34(2): 20-27, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240794

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a systemic disease that affects nearly all organ systems through infection and subsequent dysregulation of the vascular endothelium. One of the most striking phenomena has been a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated coagulopathy. Given these findings, questions naturally emerged about the prothrombotic impact of COVID-19 on cerebrovascular disease and whether ischemic stroke is a clinical feature specific to COVID-19 pathophysiology. Early reports from China and several sites in the northeastern United States seemed to confirm these suspicions. Since these initial reports, many cohort studies worldwide observed decreased rates of stroke since the start of the pandemic, raising concerns for a broader impact of the pandemic on stroke treatment. In this review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of how the pandemic has affected stroke presentation, epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes to better understand the impact of COVID-19 on cerebrovascular disease. Much evidence suggests that this decline in stroke admissions stems from the global response to the virus, which has made it more difficult for patients to get to the hospital once symptoms start. However, there does not appear to be a demonstrable impact on quality metrics once patients arrive at the hospital. Despite initial concerns, there is insufficient evidence to ascribe a causal relationship specific to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 on the cerebral vasculature. Nevertheless, when patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 present with stroke, their presentation is likely to be more severe, and they have a markedly higher rate of in-hospital mortality than patients with either acute ischemic stroke or COVID-19 alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Humans
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically identify the possible risk factors responsible for severe cases. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of science and Cochrane Library for epidemiological studies of confirmed COVID-19, which include information about clinical characteristics and severity of patients' disease. We analyzed the potential associations between clinical characteristics and severe cases. RESULTS: We identified a total of 41 eligible studies including 21060 patients with COVID-19. Severe cases were potentially associated with advanced age (Standard Mean Difference (SMD) = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34-2.12), male gender (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI:1.33-1.71), obesity (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.44-2.46), history of smoking (OR = 1.40, 95% CI:1.06-1.85), hypertension (OR = 2.42, 95% CI: 2.03-2.88), diabetes (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.98-2.91), coronary heart disease (OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22-3.71), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.63-5.41), cerebrovascular disease (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.54-3.97), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.89-4.38), malignancy (OR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.00-3.40), and chronic liver disease (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06-2.17). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR = 39.59, 95% CI: 19.99-78.41), shock (OR = 21.50, 95% CI: 10.49-44.06) and acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR = 8.84, 95% CI: 4.34-18.00) were most likely to prevent recovery. In summary, patients with severe conditions had a higher rate of comorbidities and complications than patients with non-severe conditions. CONCLUSION: Patients who were male, with advanced age, obesity, a history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, malignancy, coronary heart disease, hypertension, chronic liver disease, COPD, or CKD are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 symptoms. ARDS, shock and AKI were thought to be the main hinderances to recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Young Adult
7.
Front Med ; 15(4): 629-637, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204955

ABSTRACT

Cardio-cerebrovascular disease (CCVD) is a major comorbidity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the clinical characteristics and outcomes remain unclear. In this study, 102 cases of COVID-19 from January 22, 2020 to March 26, 2020 in Xixi Hospital of Hangzhou were included. Twenty cases had pre-existing CCVD. Results showed that compared with non-CCVD patients, those with CCVD are more likely to develop severe disease (15% versus 1%), and the proportion of pneumonia severity index grade IV was significantly higher (25% versus 3.6%). Computed tomography images demonstrated that the proportion of multiple lobe lesion involvement was significantly higher in the CCVD group than in the non-CCVD group (90% versus 63.4%). Compared with non-CCVD group, the levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and serum amyloid-A were higher, whereas the total protein and arterial partial PaO2 were lower in the CCVD group. Although no statistical difference was observed in the outcomes between groups, CCVD patients received more intensive comprehensive treatment to improve COVID-19 symptoms compared with non-CCVD patients. Integrated Chinese and Western medicine treatments have certain advantages in controlling the severe conversion rate and mortality of COVID-19. In addition, given that COVID-19 patients are usually related to coagulation disorders and thrombosis risk, the application of Chinese medicine in promoting blood circulation and removing stasis should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e24971, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that patients with comorbidities and novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection may have poor survival outcomes. However, the risk of these coexisting medical conditions in severe and non-severe cases has not been systematically reported. PURPOSE: The present study aimed to estimate the association of chronic comorbidities in severe and non-severe cases. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database (CQVIP) from the inception dates to April 1, 2020, to identify cohort studies assessing comorbidity and risk of adverse outcome. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to calculate the overall combined risk estimates. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies involving 3286 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in the analysis. Overall, compared with the patients with non-severe cases, the pooled odds ratios (ORs) of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases in patients with severe cases were 2.79 (95% confidence intervals [95% CI]: 1.66-4.69), 1.64 (95% CI: 2.30-1.08), 1.79 (95% CI: 1.08-2.96), 3.92 (95% CI: 2.45-6.28), and 1.98 (95% CI: 1.26-3.12), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis supports the finding that chronic comorbidities may contribute to severe outcome in patients with COVID-19. According to the findings of the present study, old age and 2 or more comorbidities are significantly impactful to COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Age Factors , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e66, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149658

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Previous studies showed that comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 are risk factors for adverse outcomes. This study aimed to clarify the association between nervous system diseases and severity or mortality in patients with COVID-19. We performed a systematic literature search of four electronic databases and included studies reporting the prevalence of nervous system diseases in COVID-19 patients with severe and non-severe disease or among survivors and non-survivors. The included studies were pooled into a meta-analysis to calculate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We included 69 studies involving 17 879 patients. The nervous system diseases were associated with COVID-19 severity (OR = 3.19, 95%CI: 2.37 to 4.30, P < 0.001) and mortality (OR = 3.75, 95%CI: 2.68 to 5.25, P < 0.001). Specifically, compared with the patients without cerebrovascular disease, patients with cerebrovascular disease infected with COVID-19 had a higher risk of severity (OR = 3.10, 95%CI: 2.21 to 4.36, P < 0.001) and mortality (OR = 3.45, 95% CI: 2.46 to 4.84, P < 0.001). Stroke was associated with severe COVID-19 disease (OR = 1.95, 95%CI: 1.11 to 3.42, P = 0.020). No significant differences were found for the prevalence of epilepsy (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.42 to 2.35, P = 0.994) and dementia (OR = 2.39, 95%CI: 0.55 to 10.48, P = 0.247) between non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients. There was no significant association between stroke (OR = 1.79, 95%CI: 0.76 to 4.23, P = 0.185), epilepsy (OR = 2.08, 95%CI: 0.08 to 50.91, P = 0.654) and COVID-19 mortality. In conclusion, nervous system diseases and cerebrovascular disease were associated with severity and mortality of patients with COVID-19. There might be confounding factors that influence the relationship between nervous system diseases and COVID-19 severity as well as mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Dementia/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3584-3588, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103445

ABSTRACT

We investigated hospital admission rates for the entire spectrum of acute cerebrovascular diseases and of recanalization treatments for ischaemic stroke (IS) in the Austrian federal state of Styria during and also after the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wave. We retrospectively identified all patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA), IS and non-traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (ICH; including intracerebral, subdural and subarachnoid bleeding types) admitted to one of the 11 public hospitals in Styria (covering > 95% of inhospital cerebrovascular events in this region). Information was extracted from the electronic medical documentation network connecting all public Styrian hospitals. We analysed two periods of interest: (1) three peak months of the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020), and (2) three recovery months thereafter (June-August 2020), compared to respective periods 4 years prior (2016-2019) using Poisson regression. In the three peak months of the first COVID-19 wave, there was an overall decline in hospital admissions for acute cerebrovascular diseases (RR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.89, p < 0.001), which was significant for TIA (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.72, p < 0.001) and ICH (0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.91, p = 0.02), but not for IS (RR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1, p = 0.08). Thrombolysis and thrombectomy numbers were not different compared to respective months 4 years prior. In the recovery period after the first COVID-19 wave, TIA (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.71-0.96, p = 0.011) and ICH (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.99, p = 0.045) hospitalizations remained lower, while the frequency of IS and recanalization treatments was unchanged. In this state-wide analysis covering all types of acute cerebrovascular diseases, hospital admissions for TIA and ICH were reduced during and also after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, but hospitalizations and recanalization treatments for IS were not affected in these two periods.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Stroke , Austria/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 200, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease characterized by cough, fever, and fatigue and 20% of cases will develop into severe conditions resulting from acute lung injury with the manifestation of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that accounts for more than 50% of mortality. Currently, it has been reported that some comorbidities are linked with an increased rate of severity and mortality among COVID-19 patients. To assess the role of comorbidity in COVID-19 progression, we performed a systematic review with a meta-analysis on the relationship of COVID-19 severity with 8 different underlying diseases. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and CNKI were searched for articles investigating the prevalence of comorbidities in severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients. A total of 41 studies comprising 12,526 patients were included. RESULTS: Prevalence of some commodities was lower than that in general population such as hypertension (19% vs 23.2%), diabetes (9% vs 10.9%), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (2% vs 9.5%), chronic liver diseases (CLD) (3% vs 24.8%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (3% vs 8.6%), while some others including cancer (1% vs 0.6%), cardiovascular disease (6% vs 1.8%) and cerebrovascular disease (2% vs 0.9%) exhibited greater percentage in COVID-19. Cerebrovascular disease (OR = 3.70, 95%CI 2.51-5.45) was found to be the strongest risk factor in disease exacerbation, followed by CKD (OR = 3.60, 95%CI 2.18-5.94), COPD (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.35-4.19), cardiovascular disease (OR = 2.76, 95% CI 2.18-3.49), malignancy (OR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.75-3.95), diabetes (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 2.10-2.96) and hypertension (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.81-2.51). We found no correlation between CLD and increased disease severity (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.96-1.82). CONCLUSION: The impact of all eight underlying diseases on COVID-19 deterioration seemed to be higher in patients outside Hubei. Based on different comorbidities, COVID-19 patients tend to be at risk of developing poor outcomes to a varying degree. Thus, tailored infection prevention and monitoring and treatment strategies targeting these high-risk subgroups might improve prognosis during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors
13.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(2): 132-140, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059436

ABSTRACT

AIM: Several studies reported the accompaniment of severe COVID-19 with comorbidities. However, there is not a systematic evaluation of all aspects of this association. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to assess the association between all underlying comorbidities in COVID-19 infection severity. METHODS: Electronic literature search was performed via scientific search engines. After the removal of duplicates and selection of articles of interest, 28 studies were included. A fixed-effects model was used; however, if heterogeneity was high (I2 > 50%) a random-effects model was applied to combine the data. RESULTS: A total of 6,270 individuals were assessed (1,615 severe and 4,655 non-severe patients). The median age was 63 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49-74) and 47 (95% CI: 19-63) years in the severe and non-severe groups, respectively. Moreover, about 41% of patients had comorbidities. Severity was higher in patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease: OR 4.85 (95% CI: 3.11-7.57). The odds of being in a severe group increase by 4.81 (95% CI: 3.43-6.74) for a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This was 4.19 (95% CI: 2.84-6.19) for chronic lung disease and 3.18, 95% CI: 2.09-4.82 for cancer. The odds ratios of diabetes and hypertension were 2.61 (95% CI: 2.02-3.3) and 2.37 (95% CI: 1.80-3.13), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of comorbidities is associated with severity of COVID-19 infection. The strongest association was observed for cerebrovascular disease, followed by CVD, chronic lung disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications , Humans , Hypertension/complications
16.
Acta Med Port ; 33(11): 720-725, 2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967626

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a viral respiratory disease, which became a global threat to public health. Specific subsets of the population are more vulnerable, namely those with chronic diseases. We aimed to estimate the share of the Portuguese population at the highest risk for complications following COVID-19 infection due to both old age and specific comorbidities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our sample included all people aged 65 years and above (2215 men and 3486 women) who participated in the fifth Portuguese National Health Interview Survey, conducted in 2014. In order to project the potential population at highest risk for COVID-19, we used the latest available official demographic estimates from the National Institute of Statistics - INE 2018. We used a more restrictive definition of risk combining old age criteria and the following chronic conditions as potential risk factors for COVID-19 according to the available literature: hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardio- and cerebrovascular disease. RESULTS: We estimated that 15.5% (n = 1 560 667) of the Portuguese population might be at increased risk for complications from COVID-19 because of old age and existing chronic conditions. Such estimates vary across the country (from 1.7% in Azores to 33.7% in Northern Portugal). Northern Portugal not only has the highest prevalence of selected morbidity (72.8%) within mainland Portugal, but also has the largest population at risk for COVID-19 (n = 526 607). This was followed by the Lisbon and Tagus Valley region (n = 408 564) and Central Portugal (n = 388 867). DISCUSSION: Our results should encourage authorities to continue protecting those more vulnerable to the pandemic threat, particularly on those areas of the country which are more likely to be further affected. CONCLUSION: We projected a considerable number of Portuguese people at the highest risk for severe COVID-19 disease due to both old age and pre-existing chronic conditions. Such estimates vary across the country.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Portugal , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(23): 23450-23463, 2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940432

ABSTRACT

It is essential to know whether COVID-19 patients have a history of cerebrovascular disease, as it may be predictive of prognosis and useful for allocation of limited medical resources. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the incidence of cerebrovascular disease as a comorbidity in COVID-19 patients. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, WFSD, and VIP databases were systematically searched. The pooled analysis of relevant data was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software. The primary outcome was incidence of cerebrovascular disease as a comorbidity. Forty-seven studies involving 16,143 COVID-19 patients were included in this analysis. The incidences of a history of cerebrovascular disease and hypertension in COVID-19 patients were estimated to be 3.0% (95% CI, 2.0%-4.0%; P<0.00001) and 23.0% (95% CI, 16.0%-29.0%; P<0.00001), respectively. The incidence of dizziness/headache as the first symptom in COVID-19 patients was estimated to be 14.0% (95% CI, 8.0%-20.0%; P<0.00001). Subgroup analyses indicated that country, sex ratio, and sample size are potential influencing factors affecting the incidences of cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, and dizziness/headache. These findings suggest that cerebrovascular disease is an underlying comorbidity among patients with COVID-19. In addition, patients experiencing dizziness/headache as the first symptom of COVID-19 should receive a neurological examination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Incidence , Mortality , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prognosis , Publication Bias , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
18.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(3): 159-165, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917828

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to evaluate the impact of a stay-at-home order on stroke metrics during the 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Data on baseline characteristics, stroke subtype, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, the time between last known well (LKW) to emergency department (ED) arrival, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration, the involvement of large vessel occlusion (LVO), and whether mechanical thrombectomy (MT) was pursued in patients with acute stroke were extracted from 24 March to 23 April 2020 (the time period of a stay-at-home order was placed due to the COVID-19 pandemic as the study group) at a tertiary care hospital in West Michigan, USA, compared with data from 24 March to 23 April 2019 (control group). RESULTS: Our study demonstrated a reduction in cases of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), although this did not reach statistical significance. However, there was an increase in hemorrhagic stroke (7.5% controls vs. 19.2% study group). The age of stroke patients was significantly younger during the period of the stay-at-home order compared to the control group. We identified a significant overall delay of ED arrivals from LKW in the study group. Additionally, an increased number of AIS patients with LVO in the study group (34.8%) was found compared to the control group (17.5%). A significantly increased number of patients received MT in the study group. Additionally, 11 patients were COVID-19 PCR-positive in the study group, 10 with AIS and only 1 with hemorrhagic stroke. Patients with COVID-19 had a high incidence of atrial fibrillation and hyperlipidemia. One AIS patient with COVID-19 rapidly developed cytotoxic edema with corresponding elevated inflammatory biomarkers. No statistical significance was noted when stroke subtype, LVO, and MT groups were compared. CONCLUSIONS: There was a trend of decreasing AIS admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was also a significantly increased number of AIS patients with LVO who received MT, especially those with COVID-19. We conclude that cytokine storm resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection might play a role in AIS patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Communicable Disease Control , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Stroke/classification , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
20.
Int J Stroke ; 16(4): 437-447, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with a significant risk of thrombotic events in critically ill patients. AIM: To summarize the findings of a multinational observational cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort of consecutive adults evaluated in the emergency department and/or admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across 31 hospitals in four countries (1 February 2020-16 June 2020). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of cerebrovascular events, inclusive of acute ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhages (ICH), and cortical vein and/or sinus thrombosis (CVST). RESULTS: Of the 14,483 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, 172 were diagnosed with an acute cerebrovascular event (1.13% of cohort; 1130/100,000 patients, 95%CI 970-1320/100,000), 68/171 (40.5%) were female and 96/172 (55.8%) were between the ages 60 and 79 years. Of these, 156 had acute ischemic stroke (1.08%; 1080/100,000 95%CI 920-1260/100,000), 28 ICH (0.19%; 190/100,000 95%CI 130-280/100,000), and 3 with CVST (0.02%; 20/100,000, 95%CI 4-60/100,000). The in-hospital mortality rate for SARS-CoV-2-associated stroke was 38.1% and for ICH 58.3%. After adjusting for clustering by site and age, baseline stroke severity, and all predictors of in-hospital mortality found in univariate regression (p < 0.1: male sex, tobacco use, arrival by emergency medical services, lower platelet and lymphocyte counts, and intracranial occlusion), cryptogenic stroke mechanism (aOR 5.01, 95%CI 1.63-15.44, p < 0.01), older age (aOR 1.78, 95%CI 1.07-2.94, p = 0.03), and lower lymphocyte count on admission (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.34-0.98, p = 0.04) were the only independent predictors of mortality among patients with stroke and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with a small but significant risk of clinically relevant cerebrovascular events, particularly ischemic stroke. The mortality rate is high for COVID-19-associated cerebrovascular complications; therefore, aggressive monitoring and early intervention should be pursued to mitigate poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Thrombosis/etiology , Tobacco Use , Young Adult
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