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1.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 19(1): 92-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154160

ABSTRACT

The pandemic novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global concern in which the respiratory system is not the only one involved. Previous researches have presented the common clinical manifestations including respiratory symptoms (i.e., fever and cough), fatigue and myalgia. However, there is limited evidence for neurological and psychological influences of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the common neurological manifestations of COVID-19 including acute cerebrovascular disease (i.e., cerebral hemorrhage) and muscle ache. Possible viral transmission to the nervous system may occur via circulation, an upper nasal transcribrial route and/or conjunctival route. Moreover, we cannot ignore the psychological influence on the public, medical staff and confirmed patients. Dealing with public psychological barriers and performing psychological crisis intervention are an important part of public health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Blood-Brain Barrier , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/psychology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/transmission , Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Conjunctiva , Dizziness/physiopathology , Ethmoid Bone , Headache/physiopathology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3719-3722, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case series indicating cerebrovascular disorders in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. Comprehensive workups, including clinical characteristics, laboratory, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid findings, are needed to understand the mechanisms. METHODS: We evaluated 32 consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at a tertiary care center from March 9 to April 3, 2020, for concomitant severe central nervous system involvement. Patients identified underwent computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and autopsy in case of death. RESULTS: Of 32 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 8 (25%) had severe central nervous system involvement. Two presented with lacunar ischemic stroke in the early phase and 6 with prolonged impaired consciousness after termination of analgosedation. In all but one with delayed wake-up, neuroimaging or autopsy showed multiple cerebral microbleeds, in 3 with additional subarachnoid hemorrhage and in 2 with additional small ischemic lesions. In 3 patients, intracranial vessel wall sequence magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the first time to our knowledge. All showed contrast enhancement of vessel walls in large cerebral arteries, suggesting vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions for SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid were all negative. No intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG synthesis was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: Different mechanisms of cerebrovascular disorders might be involved in COVID-19. Acute ischemic stroke might occur early. In a later phase, microinfarctions and vessel wall contrast enhancement occur, indicating small and large cerebral vessels involvement. Central nervous system disorders associated with COVID-19 may lead to long-term disabilities. Mechanisms should be urgently investigated to develop neuroprotective strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/immunology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Contrast Media , Critical Illness , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Radiology ; 297(3): E313-E323, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930394

ABSTRACT

Background This study provides a detailed imaging assessment in a large series of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and presenting with neurologic manifestations. Purpose To review the MRI findings associated with acute neurologic manifestations in patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between March 23 and May 7, 2020, at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, a reference center for COVID-19 in the Paris area. Adult patients were included if they had a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with acute neurologic manifestations and referral for brain MRI. Patients with a prior history of neurologic disease were excluded. The characteristics and frequency of different MRI features were investigated. The findings were analyzed separately in patients in intensive care units (ICUs) and other departments (non-ICU). Results During the inclusion period, 1176 patients suspected of having COVID-19 were hospitalized. Of 308 patients with acute neurologic symptoms, 73 met the inclusion criteria and were included (23.7%): thirty-five patients were in the ICU (47.9%) and 38 were not (52.1%). The mean age was 58.5 years ± 15.6 [standard deviation], with a male predominance (65.8% vs 34.2%). Forty-three patients had abnormal MRI findings 2-4 weeks after symptom onset (58.9%), including 17 with acute ischemic infarct (23.3%), one with a deep venous thrombosis (1.4%), eight with multiple microhemorrhages (11.3%), 22 with perfusion abnormalities (47.7%), and three with restricted diffusion foci within the corpus callosum consistent with cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (4.1%). Multifocal white matter-enhancing lesions were seen in four patients in the ICU (5%). Basal ganglia abnormalities were seen in four other patients (5%). Cerebrospinal fluid analyses were negative for SARS-CoV-2 in all patients tested (n = 39). Conclusion In addition to cerebrovascular lesions, perfusion abnormalities, cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum, and intensive care unit-related complications, we identified two patterns including white matter-enhancing lesions and basal ganglia abnormalities that could be related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105260, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the central nervous system (CNS) complications in patients with COVID-19 infection especially among Native American population in the current pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection at University of New Mexico hospital (UNMH) were screened for development of neurological complications during Feb 01 to April 29, 2020 via retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Total of 90 hospitalized patients were screened. Out of seven patients, majority were Native Americans females, and developed neurological complications including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH), Ischemic stroke (IS) and seizure. All 7 patients required Intensive care unit (ICU) level of care. Patients who developed CNS complications other than seizure were females in the younger age group (4 patients, 38-58 years) with poor outcome. Out of 7, three developed subarachnoid hemorrhage, two developed ischemic infarction, and four developed seizure. Two patients with hemorrhagic complication expired during the course of hospitalization. All three patients with seizure were discharged to home. CONCLUSION: Patients with serious CNS complications secondary to COVID-19 infection were observed to be Native Americans. Patients who developed hemorrhagic or ischemic events were observed to have poor outcomes as compared to patients who developed seizures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/ethnology , Indians, North American , Seizures/ethnology , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Mexico/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seizures/mortality , Seizures/physiopathology , Seizures/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 9-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. This review aims to analyze them with a discussion of evolving therapeutic recommendations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020 with the following key terms: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pandemic", "neuro-COVID", "stroke-COVID", "epilepsy-COVID", "COVID-encephalopathy", "SARS-CoV-2-encephalitis", "SARS-CoV-2-rhabdomyolysis", "COVID-demyelinating disease", "neurological manifestations", "psychosocial manifestations", "treatment recommendations", "COVID-19 and therapeutic changes", "psychiatry", "marginalised", "telemedicine", "mental health", "quarantine", "infodemic" and "social media". A few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. RESULTS: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are abundant. Clinical features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement are evident. These have been categorically analyzed briefly with literature support. Most of the psychological effects are secondary to pandemic-associated regulatory, socioeconomic and psychosocial changes. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disease are only beginning to unravel. This demands a wide index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent further complications and mortality.


Les impacts neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques d'une infection à la COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Bien qu'il s'agisse principalement d'une maladie des voies respiratoires, la maladie infectieuse à coronavirus apparue en 2019 (COVID-19) s'est avérée avoir un lien de causalité avec une pléthore d'impacts d'ordre neurologique, neuropsychiatrique et psychologique. Cette étude entend donc analyser ces impacts tout en discutant l'évolution des recommandations thérapeutiques se rapportant à cette maladie. MÉTHODES: Les bases de données PubMed et Google Scholar ont été interrogées entre les 1er janvier et 30 mai 2020. Les termes clés suivants ont été utilisés : « COVID-19 ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ¼, « Pandémie ¼, « Neuro ­ COVID ¼, « AVC ­ COVID ¼, « Épilepsie ­ COVID ¼, « COVID ­ encéphalopathie ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ encéphalite ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ rhabdomyolyse ¼, « COVID ­ maladie démyélinisante ¼, « Manifestations neurologiques ¼, « Manifestations psychosociales ¼, « Recommandations thérapeutiques ¼, « COVID-19 et changement thérapeutiques ¼, « Psychiatrie ¼, « Marginalisés ¼, « Télémédecine ¼, « Santé mentale ¼, « Quarantaine ¼, « Infodémique ¼ et « Médias sociaux ¼. De plus, quelques articles de journaux relatifs à la pandémie de COVID-19 et à ses impacts psychosociaux ont également été ajoutés en fonction du contexte. RÉSULTATS: Il appert que les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques des infections à la COVID-19 sont nombreuses. Les caractéristiques cliniques d'une implication des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique sautent désormais aux yeux. Ces caractéristiques ont fait l'objet d'une brève analyse systématique à l'aide de publications scientifiques. En outre, la plupart des impacts d'ordre psychologique de cette pandémie se sont révélés moins apparents que les changements réglementaires, socioéconomiques et psychosociaux. CONCLUSION: Les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques de cette maladie ne font que commencer à être élucidées. Cela exige donc une capacité accrue de vigilance en vue d'un diagnostic rapide, et ce, afin de prévenir des complications additionnelles et une mortalité accrue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Disease Management , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Epilepsy/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Myoclonus/etiology , Myoclonus/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Viral Tropism
6.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 66-76, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence showed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection may present with neurological manifestations. This review aimed to determine the neurological manifestations and complications in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that included cohort and case series/reports involving a population of patients confirmed with COVID-19 infection and their neurologic manifestations. We searched the following electronic databases until April 18, 2020: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and World Health Organization database (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020180658). RESULTS: From 403 articles identified, 49 studies involving a total of 6,335 confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. The random-effects modeling analysis for each neurological symptom showed the following proportional point estimates with 95% confidence intervals: "headache" (0.12; 0.10-0.14; I2 = 77%), "dizziness" (0.08; 0.05-0.12; I2 = 82%), "headache and dizziness" (0.09; 0.06-0.13; I2 = 0%), "nausea" (0.07; 0.04-0.11; I2 = 79%), "vomiting" (0.05; 0.03-0.08; I2 = 74%), "nausea and vomiting" (0.06; 0.03-0.11; I2 = 83%), "confusion" (0.05; 0.02-0.14; I2 = 86%), and "myalgia" (0.21; 0.18-0.25; I2 = 85%). The most common neurological complication associated with COVID-19 infection was vascular disorders (n = 23); other associated conditions were encephalopathy (n = 3), encephalitis (n = 1), oculomotor nerve palsy (n = 1), isolated sudden-onset anosmia (n = 1), Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1), and Miller-Fisher syndrome (n = 2). Most patients with neurological complications survived (n = 14); a considerable number of patients died (n = 7); and the rest had unclear outcomes (n = 12). CONCLUSION: This review revealed that neurologic involvement may manifest in COVID-19 infection. What has initially been thought of as a primarily respiratory illness has evolved into a wide-ranging multi-organ disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Confusion/etiology , Confusion/physiopathology , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Myalgia/etiology , Nausea/etiology , Nausea/physiopathology , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/etiology , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/physiopathology , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/physiopathology
8.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 290-300, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-539324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds worldwide, different forms of reports have described its neurologic manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Literature search performed following systematic reviews guidelines, using specific keywords based on the COVID-19 neurological complications described up to May 10th, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were selected, including data ranging from common, non-specific symptoms, such as hyposmia and myalgia, to more complex and life-threatening conditions, such as cerebrovascular diseases, encephalopathies, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CONCLUSION: Recognition of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized despite the obvious challenges faced by clinicians caring for critical patients who are often sedated and presenting other concurrent systemic complications.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ageusia/complications , Brain Diseases/complications , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Humans , Myalgia/complications , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Pandemics
10.
Neurol Sci ; 41(7): 1667-1671, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457225

ABSTRACT

RESULTS: Various neurological manifestations have been reported in the literature associated with COVID-19, which in the current study are classified into Central Nervous System (CNS) related manifestations including headache, dizziness, impaired consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) related manifestations such as hyposmia/anosmia, hypogeusia/ageusia, muscle pain, and Guillain-Barre syndrome. CONCLUSION: During the current context of COVID-19 pandemic, physicians should be aware of wide spectrum of neurological COVID-19 sign and symptoms for early diagnosis and isolation of patients. In this regard, COVID-19 has been associated with many neurological manifestations such as confusion, anosmia, and ageusia. Also, various evidences support the possible CNS roles in the COVID-19 pathophysiology. In this regard, further investigation of CNS involvement of SARS-COV-2 is suggested.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Headache/complications , Headache/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Neurol ; 267(9): 2485-2489, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378307

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic disease globally. While it mostly presents with respiratory symptoms, it has already been found that it could manifest with a series of neurological symptoms as well, either at presentation or during the course of the disease. Symptoms vary from non-specific such as headache or dizziness to more specific such as convulsions and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to give an overview of the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and discuss the potential pathogenetic mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Clinicians and especially internists, neurologists, and infectious disease specialists should be aware of these symptoms and able to recognize them early. Prompt diagnosis and immediate management of the neurological manifestations of the novel coronavirus will not only improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients but will also prevent the dissemination of the disease due to misdiagnosed cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/blood , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/blood , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Neurol Sci ; 414: 116884, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197833

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive review of the neurological disorders reported during the current COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates that infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the muscle. CNS manifestations include: headache and decreased responsiveness considered initial indicators of potential neurological involvement; anosmia, hyposmia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia are frequent early symptoms of coronavirus infection. Respiratory failure, the lethal manifestation of COVID-19, responsible for 264,679 deaths worldwide, is probably neurogenic in origin and may result from the viral invasion of cranial nerve I, progressing into rhinencephalon and brainstem respiratory centers. Cerebrovascular disease, in particular large-vessel ischemic strokes, and less frequently cerebral venous thrombosis, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, usually occur as part of a thrombotic state induced by viral attachment to ACE2 receptors in endothelium causing widespread endotheliitis, coagulopathy, arterial and venous thromboses. Acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy is associated to the cytokine storm. A frontal hypoperfusion syndrome has been identified. There are isolated reports of seizures, encephalopathy, meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis. The neurological diseases affecting the PNS and muscle in COVID-19 are less frequent and include Guillain-Barré syndrome; Miller Fisher syndrome; polyneuritis cranialis; and rare instances of viral myopathy with rhabdomyolysis. The main conclusion of this review is the pressing need to define the neurology of COVID-19, its frequency, manifestations, neuropathology and pathogenesis. On behalf of the World Federation of Neurology we invite national and regional neurological associations to create local databases to report cases with neurological manifestations observed during the on-going pandemic. International neuroepidemiological collaboration may help define the natural history of this worldwide problem.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuromuscular Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Registries , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronaviridae/pathogenicity , Coronaviridae/physiology , Coronaviridae/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Humans , Models, Animal , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Neuromuscular Diseases/physiopathology , Organ Specificity , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Viral Tropism
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