Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14050, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991675

ABSTRACT

Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a quaternary ammonium compound, which is present in mouthwash, is effective against bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses. This study was conducted to explore the antiviral effect of CPC on SARS-CoV-2. There are few reports on the effect of CPC against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 at low concentrations such as 0.001%-0.005% (10-50 µg/mL). Interestingly, we found that low concentrations of CPC suppressed the infectivity of human isolated SARS-CoV-2 strains (Wuhan, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma) even in saliva. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CPC shows anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects without disrupting the virus envelope, using sucrose density analysis and electron microscopic examination. In conclusion, this study provided experimental evidence that CPC may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection even at lower concentrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cetylpyridinium , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(2)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709252

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The importance of human saliva in aerosol-based transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is now widely recognized. However, little is known about the efficacy of virucidal mouthwash formulations against emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and in the presence of saliva.Hypothesis. Mouthwashes containing virucidal actives will have similar inactivation effects against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and will retain efficacy in the presence of human saliva.Aim. To examine in vitro efficacy of mouthwash formulations to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 variants.Methodology. Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 variants by mouthwash formulations in the presence or absence of human saliva was assayed using ASTM International Standard E1052-20 methodology.Results. Appropriately formulated mouthwashes containing 0.07 % cetylpyridinium chloride but not 0.2 % chlorhexidine completely inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta) up to the limit of detection in suspension assays. Tests using USA-WA1/2020 indicates that efficacy is maintained in the presence of human saliva.Conclusions. Together these data suggest cetylpyridinium chloride-based mouthwashes are effective at inactivating SARS-CoV-2 variants. This indicates potential to reduce viral load in the oral cavity and mitigate transmission via salivary aerosols.


Subject(s)
Cetylpyridinium , Mouthwashes , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , COVID-19 , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saliva/virology
3.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 440: 115913, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671180

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raises significance for a potential influenza therapeutic compound, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), which has been extensively used in personal care products as a positively-charged quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent. CPC is currently in clinical trials to assess its effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) morbidity. Two published studies have provided mouse and human data indicating that CPC may alleviate influenza infection, and here we show that CPC (0.1 µM, 1 h) reduces zebrafish mortality and viral load following influenza infection. However, CPC mechanisms of action upon viral-host cell interaction are currently unknown. We have utilized super-resolution fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy to probe the mode of CPC action. Reduction in density of influenza viral protein hemagglutinin (HA) clusters is known to reduce influenza infectivity: here, we show that CPC (at non-cytotoxic doses, 5-10 µM) reduces HA density and number of HA molecules per cluster within the plasma membrane of NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts. HA is known to colocalize with the negatively-charged mammalian lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2); here, we show that nanoscale co-localization of HA with the PIP2-binding Pleckstrin homology (PH) reporter in the plasma membrane is diminished by CPC. CPC also dramatically displaces the PIP2-binding protein myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) from the plasma membrane of rat RBL-2H3 mast cells; this disruption of PIP2 is correlated with inhibition of mast cell degranulation. Together, these findings offer a PIP2-focused mechanism underlying CPC disruption of influenza and suggest potential pharmacological use of this drug as an influenza therapeutic to reduce global deaths from viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Animals , Cell Communication , Cetylpyridinium/chemistry , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Dinucleoside Phosphates , Humans , Immunity , Mammals , Mice , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Pandemics , Phosphatidylinositols , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2610122, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this study, the cytotoxic responses of six different over-the-counter mouthwashes on L929 cells were analyzed by two different techniques: the traditional colorimetric tetrazolium-based reduction assay (MTT) and the modern impedance-based real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system to investigate their biocompatibility in vitro. Thus, the investigation of the antiproliferative effects of the specified materials via different techniques is vital to reach this goal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, L929 mouse fibroblasts were exposed to the dilutions of mouthwashes for 2 minutes. After incubation, the tetrazolium reduction method was used to assess the metabolic viability of cells measured by colorimetric MTT assay and morphological inspection of cells was performed via phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of each mouthwash on the proliferation, morphology, and adhesion of L929 cells was monitored continuously by a noninvasive and label-free RTCA system for 140 h. RESULTS: Our data showed that all of the mouthwashes had varying cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts compared to the control group in MTT assay. In addition to that, RTCA technology has provided the growth kinetic profiles that can be used to analyze if the treatment is causing antimitotic or DNA-damaging effect on cells. Thus, analysis via this system can tell us the mechanism of toxicity behind the cell growth inhibition in vitro. Here, we found that only mouthwash 1 moderately maintained the viability of the L929 cells, yet displaying antimitotic effects and the other mouthwashes (mouthwash 2-mouthwash 6) showed toxicity via DNA-damaging effects. CONCLUSIONS: Of the six types of mouthwash tested, the most biocompatible result was obtained from a mouthwash containing alcohol (i.e., mouthwash 1). On the other hand, sodium fluoride- (NaF-) and cetylpyridinium chloride- (CPC-) containing mouthwash (i.e., mouthwash 2) showed the most cytotoxic effect.


Subject(s)
Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Mice , Mouthwashes/chemistry
5.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 379(1): 96-107, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483965

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, drug repurposing has been highlighted for rapid introduction of therapeutics. Proposed drugs with activity against SARS-CoV-2 include compounds with positive charges at physiologic pH, making them potential targets for the organic cation secretory transporters of kidney and liver, i.e., the basolateral organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2; and the apical multidrug and toxin extruders, MATE1 and MATE2-K. We selected several compounds proposed to have in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinacrine, tilorone, pyronaridine, cetylpyridinium, and miramistin) to test their interaction with OCT and MATE transporters. We used Bayesian machine learning models to generate predictions for each molecule with each transporter and also experimentally determined IC50 values for each compound against labeled substrate transport into CHO cells that stably expressed OCT2, MATE1, or MATE2-K using three structurally distinct substrates (atenolol, metformin and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) to assess the impact of substrate structure on inhibitory efficacy. For the OCTs substrate identity influenced IC50 values, although the effect was larger and more systematic for OCT2. In contrast, inhibition of MATE1-mediated transport was largely insensitive to substrate identity. Unlike MATE1, inhibition of MATE2-K was influenced, albeit modestly, by substrate identity. Maximum unbound plasma concentration/IC50 ratios were used to identify potential clinical DDI recommendations; all the compounds interacted with the OCT/MATE secretory pathway, most with sufficient avidity to represent potential DDI issues for secretion of cationic drugs. This should be considered when proposing cationic agents as repurposed antivirals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Drugs proposed as potential COVID-19 therapeutics based on in vitro activity data against SARS-CoV-2 include compounds with positive charges at physiological pH, making them potential interactors with the OCT/MATE renal secretory pathway. We tested seven such molecules as inhibitors of OCT1/2 and MATE1/2-K. All the compounds blocked transport activity regardless of substrate used to monitor activity. Suggesting that plasma concentrations achieved by normal clinical application of the test agents could be expected to influence the pharmacokinetics of selected cationic drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , CHO Cells , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/drug effects , Quinacrine/pharmacology , Tilorone/pharmacology
6.
J Dent Res ; 100(11): 1265-1272, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318252

ABSTRACT

Oral mouthwashes decrease the infectivity of several respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2. However, the precise agents with antiviral activity in these oral rinses and their exact mechanism of action remain unknown. Here we show that cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a quaternary ammonium compound in many oral mouthwashes, reduces SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by inhibiting the viral fusion step with target cells after disrupting the integrity of the viral envelope. We also found that CPC-containing mouth rinses decreased more than a thousand times the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, while the corresponding vehicles had no effect. This activity was effective for different SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the B.1.1.7 or Alpha variant originally identified in United Kingdom, and in the presence of sterilized saliva. CPC-containing mouth rinses could therefore represent a cost-effective measure to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in saliva, aiding to reduce viral transmission from infected individuals regardless of the variants they are infected with.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mouthwashes , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 113: 30-43, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185067

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, so ACE2-expressing cells can act as target cells and are susceptible to infection. ACE2 receptors are highly expressed in the oral cavity, so this may be a potential high-risk route for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the virus can be detected in saliva, even before COVID-19 symptoms appear, with the consequent high risk of virus transmission in asymptomatic/presymptomatic patients. Reducing oral viral load could lead to a lower risk of transmission via salivary droplets or aerosols and therefore contribute to the control of the pandemic. Our aim was to evaluate the available evidence testing the in-vitro and in-vivo effects of oral antiseptics to inactivate or eradicate coronaviruses. The criteria used were those described in the PRISMA declaration for performing systematic reviews. An electronic search was conducted in Medline (via PubMed) and in Web of Sciences, using the MeSH terms: 'mouthwash' OR 'oral rinse' OR 'mouth rinse' OR 'povidone iodine' OR 'hydrogen peroxide' OR 'cetylpyridinium chloride' AND 'COVID-19' OR 'SARS-CoV-2' OR 'coronavirus' OR 'SARS' OR 'MERS'. The initial search strategy identified 619 articles on two electronic databases. Seventeen articles were included assessing the virucidal efficacy of oral antiseptics against coronaviruses. In conclusion, there is sufficient in-vitro evidence to support the use of antiseptics to potentially reduce the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. However, in-vivo evidence for most oral antiseptics is limited. Randomized clinical trials with a control group are needed to demonstrate its clinical efficacy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Viral Load/drug effects , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mouth , Pandemics , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saliva/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL