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1.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715565

ABSTRACT

For most researchers, discovering new anticancer drugs to avoid the adverse effects of current ones, to improve therapeutic benefits and to reduce resistance is essential. Because the COX-2 enzyme plays an important role in various types of cancer leading to malignancy enhancement, inhibition of apoptosis, and tumor-cell metastasis, an indispensable objective is to design new scaffolds or drugs that possess combined action or dual effect, such as kinase and COX-2 inhibition. The start compounds A1 to A6 were prepared through the diazo coupling of 3-aminoacetophenone with a corresponding phenol and then condensed with two new chalcone series, C7-18. The newly synthesized compounds were assessed against both COX-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for their inhibitory effect. All novel compounds were screened for cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines. Compounds C9 and G10 exhibited potent EGFR inhibition with IC50 values of 0.8 and 1.1 µM, respectively. Additionally, they also displayed great COX-2 inhibition with IC50 values of 1.27 and 1.88 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the target compounds were assessed for their cytotoxicity against pancreatic ductal cancer (Panc-1), lung cancer (H-460), human colon cancer (HT-29), human malignant melanoma (A375) and pancreatic cancer (PaCa-2) cell lines. Interestingly, compounds C10 and G12 exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect against PaCa-2 with average IC50 values of 0.9 and 0.8 µM, respectively. To understand the possible binding modes of the compounds under investigation with the receptor cites of EGFR and COX-2, a virtual docking study was conducted.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Chalcones , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Neoplasm Proteins , Neoplasms , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chalcones/chemical synthesis , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Molecular Structure , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/enzymology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
3.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 33(1): 181-188, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596214

ABSTRACT

Affinity selection-mass spectrometry, which includes magnetic microbead affinity selection-screening (MagMASS), is ideal for the discovery of ligands in complex mixtures that bind to pharmacological targets. Therapeutic agents are needed to prevent or treat COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Infection of human cells by SARS-CoV-2 involves binding of the virus spike protein subunit 1 (S1) to the human cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Like antibodies, small molecules have the potential to block the interaction of the viral S1 protein with human ACE2 and prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, a MagMASS assay was developed for the discovery of ligands to the S1 protein. Unlike previous MagMASS approaches, this new assay used robotics for 5-fold enhancement of throughput and sensitivity. The assay was validated using the SBP-1 peptide, which is identical to the ACE2 amino acid sequence recognized by the S1 protein, and then applied to the discovery of natural ligands from botanical extracts. Small molecule ligands to the S1 protein were discovered in extracts of the licorice species, Glycyrrhiza inflata. In particular, the licorice ligand licochalcone A was identified through dereplication and comparison with standards using HPLC with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Fabaceae/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
4.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14846, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555354

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Flavonoids and related compounds, such as quercetin-based antiviral drug Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin, inhibit the protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The alkylated chalcones isolated from Angelica keiskei inhibit SARS-CoV proteases. In this study, we aimed to compare the anti-SARS CoV-2 activities of both newly synthesized chalcone derivatives and these two drugs. METHODS: Determination of the potent antiviral activity of newly synthesized chalcone derivatives against SARS-CoV-2 by calculating the RT-PCR cycling threshold (Ct ) values. RESULTS: Antiviral activities of the compounds varied because of being dose dependent. Compound 6, 7, 9, and 16 were highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 at the concentration of 1.60 µg/mL. Structure-based virtual screening was carried out against the most important druggable SARS-CoV-2 targets, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, to identify putative inhibitors that could facilitate the development of potential anti-coronavirus disease-2019 drug candidates. CONCLUSIONS: Computational analyses identified eight compounds inhibiting each target, with binding affinity scores ranging from -4.370 to -2.748 kcal/mol along with their toxicological, ADME, and drug-like properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chalcone , Chalcones , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chalcone/pharmacology , Chalcones/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105820, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531713

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enter the host cells through the interaction between its receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the plasma membrane of host cell. Neutralizing antibodies and peptide binders of RBD can block viral infection, however, the concern of accessibility and affordability of viral infection inhibitors has been raised. Here, we report the identification of natural compounds as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors using the molecular docking-based virtual screening coupled with bilayer interferometry (BLI). From a library of 1871 natural compounds, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3), 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3), isobavachalcone (Ibvc), isochlorogenic A (IscA) and bakuchiol (Bkc) effectively inhibited pseudovirus entry at concentrations up to 100 µM. Among these compounds, four compounds, EGCG, Ibvc, salvianolic acid A (SalA), and isoliensinine (Isl), were effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation in Vero E6 cells. The EGCG was further validated with no observable animal toxicity and certain antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus mutants (D614G, N501Y, N439K & Y453F). Interestingly, EGCG, Bkc and Ibvc bind to ACE2 receptor in BLI assay, suggesting a dual binding to RBD and ACE2. Current findings shed some insight into identifications and validations of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors from natural compounds.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding, Competitive , Biological Products/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Chalcones/pharmacology , Chlorogenic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Humans , Interferometry , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phenols/pharmacology , Protein Binding
6.
Curr Drug Discov Technol ; 17(1): 30-44, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453168

ABSTRACT

The anti-infective potentials of the natural products are very well known for centuries and are a part of traditional healing. The foremost therapeutic classes include flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanidins, chalcones, and aurones. The chalcone or 1,3-diphenyl-2E-propene-1-one represents the class of natural products which are comprised of benzylideneacetophenone function; i.e. two aromatic moieties linked together by an α, ß-unsaturated carbonyl bridge comprising three-carbons. At present, chalcone is one of the privileged scaffolds that can be synthesized in the laboratory to derive different pharmacologically active compounds. This article is the continued form of the previously published work on anti-infective perspectives of chalcones (highlighted till 2015). The current work emphasizes on the discovery process of the chalcone in the period of 2016 to 2017 on malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, filaria, tuberculosis, netamodes, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and miscellaneous conditions. This review comprehensively focuses on the latest progress related with the anti-infective chalcones. The content includes the crucial structural features of chalcone scaffold including structure-activity relationship(s) along with their plausible mechanism of action(s) from the duration Jan 2016 to Dec 2017. This literature will be of prime interest to medicinal chemists in getting ideas and concepts for better rational development of potential anti-infective inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Chalcones/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/trends , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/therapeutic use , Humans , Structure-Activity Relationship
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 280: 114488, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397458

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history in the prevention and treatment of pandemics. The TCM formula Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction (LCDD), also known as Qing Fei Pai Du Decoction, has been demonstrated effective against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aimed to elucidate the active ingredients, targets and pathway mechanism of LCDD related to suppression of inflammatory, immunity regulation and relaxation of airway smooth muscle for the treatment of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mining chemical ingredients reported in LCDD, 144 compounds covering all herbs were selected and screened against inflammatory-, immunity- and respiratory-related GPCRs including GPR35, H1, CB2, B2, M3 and ß2-adrenoceptor receptor using a label-free integrative pharmacology method. Further, all active compounds were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and an herb-compound-target network based on potency and content of compounds was constructed to elucidate the multi-target and synergistic effect. RESULTS: Thirteen compounds were identified as GPR35 agonists, including licochalcone B, isoliquiritigenin, etc. Licochalcone B, isoliquiritigenin and alisol A exhibited bradykinin receptor B2 antagonism activities. Atractyline and shogaol showed as a cannabinoid receptor CB2 agonist and a histamine receptor H1 antagonist, respectively. Tectorigenin and aristofone acted as muscarinic receptor M3 antagonists, while synephrine, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were ß2-adrenoceptor agonists. Pathway deconvolution assays suggested activation of GPR35 triggered PI3K, MEK, JNK pathways and EGFR transactivation, and the activation of ß2-adrenoceptor mediated MEK and Ca2+. The herb-compound-target network analysis found that some compounds such as licochalcone B acted on multiple targets, and multiple components interacted with the same target such as GPR35, reflecting the synergistic mechanism of Chinese medicine. At the same time, some low-abundance compounds displayed high target activity, meaning its important role in LCDD for anti-COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidates the active ingredients, targets and pathways of LCDD. This is useful for elucidating multitarget synergistic action for its clinical therapeutic efficacy.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chalcones/pharmacology , Cricetulus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Ephedrine/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Respiration/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects
8.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 36(1): 160-170, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: SARS-CoV-2 is one of the coronavirus families that emerged at the end of 2019. It infected the respiratory system and caused a pandemic worldwide. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) have been safely used as antibacterial agents for decades. The antiviral activity of FQs was observed. Moreover, substitution on the C-7 position of ciprofloxacin enhanced its antiviral activity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the antiviral activity of 7-(4-(N-substituted-carbamoyl-methyl)piperazin-1yl)-chalcone in comparison with ciprofloxacin against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vero cells were infected with SARS-CoV-2. After treatment with ciprofloxacin and the chalcone at the concentrations of 1.6, 16, 160 nmol/L for 48 h, SARS-CoV-2 viral load was detected using real-time qPCR, SARS-CoV-2 infectivity was determined using plaque assay, and the main protease enzyme activity was detected using in vitro 3CL-protease inhibition assay. The activity of the chalcone was justified through molecular docking within SARS-CoV-2 Mpro , in comparison with ciprofloxacin. RESULTS: The new chalcone significantly inhibited viral load replication where the EC50 was 3.93 nmol/L, the plaque formation ability of the virus was inhibited to 86.8% ± 2.47. The chalcone exhibited a significant inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The docking study into SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site justified the importance of adding a substitution to the parent drug. Additionally, the assessment of the drug-likeness properties indicated that the chalcone might have acceptable ADMET properties. CONCLUSION: The new chalcone might be useful and has new insights for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro .


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chalcones , Ciprofloxacin , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Chalcones/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Vero Cells
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 886: 173448, 2020 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005587

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is distinctly infective and there is an ongoing effort to find a cure for this pandemic. Flavonoids exist in many diets as well as in traditional medicine, and their modern subset, indole-chalcones, are effective in fighting various diseases. Hence, these flavonoids and structurally similar indole chalcones derivatives were studied in silico for their pharmacokinetic properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties against their proteins, namely, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (rdrp), main protease (Mpro) and Spike (S) protein via homology modelling and docking. Interactions were studied with respect to biology and function of SARS-CoV-2 proteins for activity. Functional/structural roles of amino acid residues of SARS-CoV-2 proteins and, the effect of flavonoid and indole chalcone interactions which may cause disease suppression are discussed. The results reveal that out of 23 natural flavonoids and 25 synthetic indole chalcones, 30 compounds are capable of Mpro deactivation as well as potentially lowering the efficiency of Mpro function. Cyanidin may inhibit RNA polymerase function and, Quercetin is found to block interaction sites on the viral spike. These results suggest flavonoids and their modern pharmaceutical cousins, indole chalcones are capable of fighting SARS-CoV-2. The in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of these 30 compounds needs to be studied further for complete understanding and confirmation of their inhibitory potential.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Indoles/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Chalcones/metabolism , Chalcones/pharmacokinetics , Computer Simulation , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Tissue Distribution , Viral Proteins/chemistry
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19963, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933721

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused severe pneumonia, a disease named COVID-19, that became pandemic and created an acute threat to public health. The effective therapeutics are in urgent need. Here, we developed a high-content screening for the antiviral candidates using fluorescence-based SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein detection in Vero E6 cells coupled with plaque reduction assay. Among 122 Thai natural products, we found that Boesenbergia rotunda extract and its phytochemical compound, panduratin A, exhibited the potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Treatment with B. rotunda extract and panduratin A after viral infection drastically suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in Vero E6 cells with IC50 of 3.62 µg/mL (CC50 = 28.06 µg/mL) and 0.81 µΜ (CC50 = 14.71 µM), respectively. Also, the treatment of panduratin A at the pre-entry phase inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection with IC50 of 5.30 µM (CC50 = 43.47 µM). Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that panduratin A exerts the inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection at both pre-entry and post-infection phases. Apart from Vero E6 cells, treatment with this compound was able to suppress viral infectivity in human airway epithelial cells. This result confirmed the potential of panduratin A as the anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent in the major target cells in human. Since B. rotunda is a culinary herb generally grown in China and Southeast Asia, its extract and the purified panduratin A may serve as the promising candidates for therapeutic purposes with economic advantage during COVID-19 situation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chalcones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication , Zingiberaceae/chemistry
11.
Life Sci ; 263: 118601, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866958

ABSTRACT

Dimethyl cardamonin (DMC) has been isolated from diverse plants, notably from Cleistocalyx operculatus. We have reviewed the pharmacological properties of this natural product which displays anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-cancer properties. The pharmacological activities essentially derive from the capacity of DMC to interact with the protein targets HMGB1 and AMPK. Upon binding to HMGB1, DMC inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transfer of the protein and its extracellular secretion, thereby blocking its alarmin function. DMC also binds to the AMP site of AMPK to activate phospho-AMPK and then to trigger downstream signals leading to the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic effects. AMPK activation by DMC reinforces inhibition of HMGB1, to further reduce the release of the alarmin protein, likely contributing to the anticancer effects. The characterization of a tight control of DMC over the AMPK-HMGB1 axis not only helps to explain the known activities of DMC but also suggests opportunities to use this chalcone to treat other pathological conditions such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (which affects patients with COVID-19). DMC structural analogues are also evoked.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Chalcones/pharmacology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects
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