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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776251

ABSTRACT

Two tetradentate dibasic chelating Schiff base iron (III) chelates were prepared from the reaction of 2,2'-((1E,1'E)-(1,2-phenylenebis(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis(4-bromophenol) (PDBS) and 2,2'-((1E,1'E)-((4-chloro-1,2-phenylene)bis(azanylylidene))-bis(methanylylidene))bis(4-bromophenol) (CPBS) with Fe3+ ions. The prepared complexes were fully characterized with spectral and physicochemical tools such as IR, NMR, CHN analysis, TGA, UV-visible spectra, and magnetic moment measurements. Moreover, geometry optimizations for the synthesized ligands and complexes were conducted using the Gaussian09 program through the DFT approach, to find the best structures and key parameters. The prepared compounds were tested as antimicrobial agents against selected strains of bacteria and fungi. The results suggests that the CPBSFe complex has the highest activity, which is close to the reference. An MTT assay was used to screen the newly synthesized compounds against a variety of cell lines, including colon cancer cells, hepatic cellular carcinoma cells, and breast carcinoma cells. The results are expressed by IC50 value, in which the 48 µg/mL value of the CPBSFe complex indicates its success as a potential anticancer agent. The antioxidant behavior of the two imine chelates was studied by DPPH assay. All the tested imine complexes show potent antioxidant activity compared to the standard Vitamin C. Furthermore, the in vitro assay and the mechanism of binding and interaction efficiency of the tested samples with the receptor of COVID-19 core protease viral protein (PDB ID: 6lu7) and the receptor of Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, PDB ID: 1fj4) were investigated using molecular docking experiments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Imines , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , DNA/chemistry , Density Functional Theory , Ferric Compounds , Humans , Imines/chemistry , Imines/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pharmaceutical Preparations
2.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538425

ABSTRACT

Novel complexes of type [Cu(N-N)(dmtp)2(OH2)](ClO4)2·dmtp ((1) N-N: 2,2'-bipyridine; (2) L: 1,10-phenantroline and dmtp: 5,7-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine) were designed in order to obtain biologically active compounds. Complexes were characterized as mononuclear species that crystallized in the space group P-1 of the triclinic system with a square pyramidal geometry around the copper (II). In addition to the antiproliferative effect on murine melanoma B16 cells, complex (1) exhibited low toxicity on normal BJ cells and did not affect membrane integrity. Complex (2) proved to be a more potent antimicrobial in comparison with (1), but both compounds were more active in comparison with dmtp-both against planktonic cells and biofilms. A stronger antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect was noticed against the Gram-positive strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Both electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae studies indicated that the complexes were scavengers rather than reactive oxygen species promoters. Their DNA intercalating capacity was evidenced by modifications in both absorption and fluorescence spectra. Furthermore, both complexes exhibited nuclease-like activity, which increased in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Chelating Agents , Coordination Complexes , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Pyrimidines , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chelating Agents/chemical synthesis , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Coordination Complexes/chemical synthesis , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Pyrimidines/pharmacology
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320599

ABSTRACT

Deferoxamine B is an outstanding molecule which has been widely studied in the past decade for its ability to bind iron and many other metal ions. The versatility of this metal chelator makes it suitable for a number of medicinal and analytical applications, from the well-known iron chelation therapy to the most recent use in sensor devices. The three bidentate hydroxamic functional groups of deferoxamine B are the centerpiece of its metal binding ability, which allows the formation of stable complexes with many transition, lanthanoid and actinoid metal ions. In addition to the ferric ion, in fact, more than 20 different metal complexes of deferoxamine b have been characterized in terms of their chemical speciation in solution. In addition, the availability of a terminal amino group, most often not involved in complexation, opens the way to deferoxamine B modification and functionalization. This review aims to collect and summarize the available data concerning the complex-formation equilibria in solutions of deferoxamine B with different metal ions. A general overview of the progress of its applications over the past decade is also discussed, including the treatment of iron overload-associated diseases, its clinical use against cancer and neurodegenerative disorders and its role as a diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Chelating Agents/chemistry , Deferoxamine/chemistry , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Electrochemistry/methods , Electrolytes , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Iron/metabolism , Iron Chelating Agents/chemistry , Iron Overload/drug therapy , Kinetics , Ligands , Metals/chemistry , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Potentiometry , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , Zirconium/chemistry
4.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122409

ABSTRACT

The article describes the rationale for the administration of zinc-chelating agents in COVID-19 patients. In a previous work I have highlighted that the binding of the SARS-CoV spike proteins to the zinc-metalloprotease ACE2 has been shown to induce ACE2 shedding by activating the zinc-metalloprotease ADAM17, which ultimately leads to systemic upregulation of ACE2 activity. Moreover, based on experimental models, it was also shown the detrimental effect of the excessive systemic activity of ACE2 through its downstream pathways, which leads to "clinical" manifestations resembling COVID-19. In this regard, strong upregulation of circulating ACE2 activity was recently reported in COVID-19 patients, thus supporting the previous hypothesis that COVID-19 may derive from upregulation of ACE2 activity. Based on this, a reasonable hypothesis of using inhibitors that curb the upregulation of both ACE2 and ADAM17 zinc-metalloprotease activities and consequent positive feedback-loops (initially triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently sustained independently on viral trigger) is proposed as therapy for COVID-19. In particular, zinc-chelating agents such as citrate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alone or in combination are expected to act in protecting from COVID-19 at different levels thanks to their both anticoagulant properties and inhibitory activity on zinc-metalloproteases. Several arguments are presented in support of this hypothesis and based on the current knowledge of both beneficial/harmful effects and cost/effectiveness, the use of chelating agents in the prevention and therapy of COVID-19 is proposed. In this regard, clinical trials (currently absent) employing citrate/EDTA in COVID-19 are urgently needed in order to shed more light on the efficacy of zinc chelators against SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Zinc/metabolism , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Up-Regulation/drug effects
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