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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809943

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) commonly show abnormalities of liver tests (LTs) of undetermined cause. Considering drugs as tentative culprits, the current systematic review searched for published COVID-19 cases with suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and established diagnosis using the diagnostic algorithm of RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method). Data worldwide on DILI cases assessed by RUCAM in COVID-19 patients were sparse. A total of 6/200 reports with initially suspected 996 DILI cases in COVID-19 patients and using all RUCAM-based DILI cases allowed for a clear description of clinical features of RUCAM-based DILI cases among COVID-19 patients: (1) The updated RUCAM published in 2016 was equally often used as the original RUCAM of 1993, with both identifying DILI and other liver diseases as confounders; (2) RUCAM also worked well in patients treated with up to 18 drugs and provided for most DILI cases a probable or highly probable causality level for drugs; (3) DILI was preferentially caused by antiviral drugs given empirically due to their known therapeutic efficacy in other virus infections; (4) hepatocellular injury was more often reported than cholestatic or mixed injury; (5) maximum LT values were found for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 1.541 U/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 1.076 U/L; (6) the ALT/AST ratio was variable and ranged from 0.4 to 1.4; (7) the mean or median age of the COVID-19 patients with DILI ranged from 54.3 to 56 years; (8) the ratio of males to females was 1.8-3.4:1; (9) outcome was favorable for most patients, likely due to careful selection of the drugs and quick cessation of drug treatment with emerging DILI, but it was fatal in 19 patients; (10) countries reporting RUCAM-based DILI cases in COVID-19 patients included China, India, Japan, Montenegro, and Spain; (11) robust estimation of the percentage contribution of RUCAM-based DILI for the increased LTs in COVID-19 patients is outside of the current scope. In conclusion, RUCAM-based DILI with its clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients and its classification as a confounding variable is now well defined, requiring a new correct description of COVID-19 features by removing DILI characteristics as confounders.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Alanine Transaminase , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Publications
2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(11): 1376-1384, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are no head-to-head trials of different dose escalation strategies of methotrexate (MTX) in RA. We compared the efficacy, safety and tolerability of 'usual' (5 mg every 4 weeks) versus 'fast' (5 mg every 2 weeks) escalation of oral MTX. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label (assessor blinded) RCT included patients 18-55 years of age having active RA with disease duration <5 years, and not on DMARDs. Patients were randomized 1:1 into usual or fast escalation groups, both groups starting MTX at 15 mg/week till a maximum of 25 mg/week. Primary outcome was EULAR good response at 16 weeks, secondary outcomes were ΔDAS28 and adverse effects (AE). Analyses were intention-to-treat. RESULTS: 178 patients with mean DAS28-CRP of 5.4(1.1) were randomized to usual (n=89) or fast escalation groups (n=89). At 16 weeks, there was no difference in good EULAR response in the usual (28.1%) or fast escalation (22.5%) groups (p=0.8). There was no difference in mean ΔDAS28-CRP at 8 weeks (-0.9, -0.8, p=0.72) or 16 weeks (-1.3, -1.3, p=0.98). Even at 24 weeks (extended follow-up), responses were similar. There were no inter-group differences in ΔHAQ, or MTX-polyglutamates 1-3 levels at 8 or 16 weeks. Gastrointestinal AE were higher in the fast escalation group over initial 8 weeks (27%, 40%, p=0.048), but not over 16 weeks. There was no difference in cytopenias, transaminitis, or drug discontinuation/dose reduction between the groups. No serious AE were seen. CONCLUSION: A faster MTX escalation strategy in RA was not more efficacious over 16-24 weeks, and did not significantly increase AE, except higher gastrointestinal AE initially. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CTRI/2018/12/016549.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Leukopenia/chemically induced , Leukopenia/epidemiology , Male , Methotrexate/analogs & derivatives , Methotrexate/blood , Middle Aged , Polyglutamic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Polyglutamic Acid/blood , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 46(2): 101793, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363934

ABSTRACT

Currently, there have been more than one hundred million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with two million deaths worldwide. This has caused a huge medical burden. Severe COVID-19 patients can experience multi-organ damage, including cardiac injury, kidney injury, and liver injury. About 2.0%-4.9% of COVID-19 cases involve patients with preexisting liver diseases. Additionally, preexisting liver diseases were reported and associated with severity (odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) = 1.48-1.70) and mortality (OR or RR = 1.08-2.65) among COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the prevalence of liver injury was 16%-29% in COVID-19 patients. Higher prevalence of liver injury may worsen prognosis in patients (severity: OR or RR = 1.9-2.6; mortality: OR or RR = 1.1-4.0). The mechanisms of this association between liver injury and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection are complex, including direct cholangiocyte damage induced by SARS-COV-2, cytokine storm, and drug-induced liver injury. In particular, drug-induced liver injury may be the most important reason. This review discusses the epidemiology of COVID-19 and liver dysfunction as well as potential mechanisms underlying the association between COVID-19 and liver dysfunction or other preexisting liver diseases. However, the association between preexisting liver diseases and COVID-19 prognosis and potential mechanisms underlying these associations require further prospective studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(4): 1116-1122, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333104

ABSTRACT

Background Liver injury has been documented independently in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. Objective to investigate the drug-induced liver injury associated with lopinavir-ritonavir among the patients with COVID-19. Methods We conducted a disproportionality analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) between 2020Q1 and 2021Q1 to evaluate the association between lopinavir-ritonavir and risk of drug-induced liver injury (or severe drug-induced liver injury) and calculated their reporting odds ratios (RORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 3,425 cases of drug-induced liver injury were reported in 19,782 patients with COVID-19. The ROR for drug-induced liver injury was 2.99 (2.59-3.46), 3.16 (2.68-3.73), and 5.39 (4.63-6.26) when comparing lopinavir-ritonavir with all other drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine only, and remdesivir, respectively. For severe drug-induced liver injury, RORs for lopinavir-ritonavir provided evidence of an association compared with all other drugs (3.98; 3.15-5.05), compared with hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine only (5.33; 4.09-6.94), and compared with remdesivir (3.85; 3.03-4.89). Conclusions In the FAERS, we observed a disproportional signal for drug-induced liver injury associated with lopinavir-ritonavir in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Lopinavir/toxicity , Ritonavir/toxicity , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
6.
Drug Saf ; 43(12): 1309-1314, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092869

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In late 2019, a new coronavirus-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-was discovered in Wuhan, China, and the World Health Organization later declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic. Numerous drugs have been repurposed and investigated for therapeutic effectiveness in the disease, including those from "Solidarity," an international clinical trial (azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, the fixed combination lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting for drugs when used in the treatment of COVID-19 compared with use for other indications, specifically focussing on sex differences. METHOD: We extracted reports on COVID-19-specific treatments from the global ADR database, VigiBase, using an algorithm developed to identify reports that listed COVID-19 as the indication. The Solidarity trial drugs were included, as were any drugs reported ≥ 100 times. We performed a descriptive comparison of reports for the same drugs used in non-COVID-19 indications. The data lock point date was 7 June 2020. RESULTS: In total, 2573 reports were identified for drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19. In order of frequency, the most reported ADRs were electrocardiogram QT-prolonged, diarrhoea, nausea, hepatitis, and vomiting in males and diarrhoea, electrocardiogram QT-prolonged, nausea, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain in females. Other hepatic and kidney-related events were included in the top ten ADRs in males, whereas no hepatic or renal terms were reported for females. COVID-19-related reporting patterns differed from non-pandemic reporting for these drugs. CONCLUSION: Review of a global database of suspected ADR reports revealed sex differences in the reporting patterns for drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19. Patterns of ADR sex differences need further elucidation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/chemically induced , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Drug Eruptions/epidemiology , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Repositioning , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Nausea/chemically induced , Nausea/epidemiology , Oseltamivir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Sex Distribution , Sex Factors , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/epidemiology
7.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 325-342, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057773

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological mechanism of matrine in treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury. Potential targets related to matrine, COVID-19 and liver injury were identified from several databases. We constructed PPI network and screened the core targets according to the degree value. Then, GO and KEGG enrichment were carried out. Molecular docking technology was used to verify the affinity between matrine and the crystal structure of core target protein. Finally, real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the effects of matrine on hub gene expression in liver tissue of liver injury mice and lung tissue of lung injury mice to further confirm the results of network pharmacological analysis. The results show that six core targets including AKT1, TP53, TNF, IL6, BCL2L1 and ATM were identified. The potential therapeutic mechanism of matrine on COVID-19 combined with liver injury is closely related to regulate antiviral process, improve immune system and regulate the level of inflammatory factors. Molecular docking showed that matrine could spontaneously bind to the receptor protein and had strong binding force. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that matrine could significantly reduce the expression of AKT1, TP53, TNF, IL6 and ATM in mice with liver injury or lung injury (P < 0.05), and increase the expression of BCL2L1 to a certain extent (P > 0.05). Our results indicate that matrine can achieve simultaneous intervention of COVID-19 combined with liver injury by multi-dimensional pharmacological mechanism.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Quinolizines/pharmacology , Alkaloids/administration & dosage , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Liver/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Quinolizines/administration & dosage , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects
8.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971013

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is known as one of the deadliest pandemics of the century. The rapid spread of this deadly virus at incredible speed has stunned the planet and poses a challenge to global scientific and medical communities. Patients with COVID-19 are at an increased risk of co-morbidities associated with liver dysfunction and injury. Moreover, hepatotoxicity induced by antiviral therapy is gaining importance and is an area of great concern. Currently, alternatives therapies are being sought to mitigate hepatic damage, and there has been growing interest in the research on bioactive phytochemical agents (nutraceuticals) due to their versatility in health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Therefore, this review provides information and summarizes the juncture of antiviral, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective nutraceuticals that can be useful during the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diet therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Humans
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 256, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899906

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection is spreading globally and poses a huge threat to human health. Besides common respiratory symptoms, some patients with COVID-19 experience gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. SARS-CoV-2 might infect the gastrointestinal tract through its viral receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and there is increasing evidence of a possible fecal-oral transmission route. In addition, there exist multiple abnormalities in liver enzymes. COVID-19-related liver injury may be due to drug-induced liver injury, systemic inflammatory reaction, and hypoxia-ischemia reperfusion injury. The direct toxic attack of SARS-CoV-2 on the liver is still questionable. This review highlights the manifestations and potential mechanisms of gastrointestinal and hepatic injuries in COVID-19 to raise awareness of digestive system injury in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/genetics , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/genetics , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/injuries , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Liver/physiopathology , Liver/virology , Liver Diseases/genetics , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
10.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(12): 2835-2836, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741122

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a nucleotide analog prodrug with antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of human coronavirus in cell cultures and mouse models including severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2. Recently, the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended remdesivir for the treatment of patients hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.1,2 In the remdesivir clinical development program, some cases have raised concerns regarding potential hepatobiliary disorders associated with remdesivir, including in healthy volunteers and patients with COVID-19.3 In cohort studies of patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19 who were treated with compassionate-use remdesivir, elevated hepatic enzymes were the most frequent adverse drug reaction reported.4,5 In the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessing the effect of intravenous remdesivir in adults admitted to hospital with severe COVID-19 (n = 237), a higher proportion of remdesivir recipients than placebo recipients had dosing prematurely stopped by the investigators because of adverse events including aminotransferase or bilirubin increases (3 versus 0).6 Although there is no signal from the available data of severe hepatotoxicity or drug-induced liver injury in clinical trials, the number of patients exposed to remdesivir was too limited. Therefore, there is an urgent need to investigate the hepatic safety profile associated with remdesivir in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Betacoronavirus , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
11.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(4): 584-599, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of elevated liver chemistries and the presence of pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) have been variably reported in COVID-19. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of CLD, the incidence of elevated liver chemistries and the outcomes of patients with and without underlying CLD/elevated liver chemistries in COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases from 1 December 2019 to 24 April 2020 was done. We included studies reporting underlying CLD or elevated liver chemistries and patient outcomes in COVID-19. RESULTS: 107 articles (n = 20 874 patients) were included for the systematic review. The pooled prevalence of underlying CLD was 3.6% (95% CI, 2.5-5.1) among the 15 407 COVID-19 patients. The pooled incidence of elevated liver chemistries in COVID-19 was 23.1% (19.3-27.3) at initial presentation. Additionally, 24.4% (13.5-40) developed elevated liver chemistries during the illness. The pooled incidence of drug-induced liver injury was 25.4% (14.2-41.4). The pooled prevalence of CLD among 1587 severely infected patients was 3.9% (3%-5.2%). The odds of developing severe COVID-19 in CLD patients was 0.81 (0.31-2.09; P = 0.67) compared to non-CLD patients. COVID-19 patients with elevated liver chemistries had increased risk of mortality (OR-3.46 [2.42-4.95, P < 0.001]) and severe disease (OR-2.87 [95% CI, 2.29-3.6, P < 0.001]) compared to patients without elevated liver chemistries. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated liver chemistries are common at presentation and during COVID-19. The severity of elevated liver chemistries correlates with the outcome of COVID-19. The presence of CLD does not alter the outcome of COVID-19. Further studies are needed to analyse the outcomes of compensated and decompensated liver disease.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Prevalence
12.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(3): 1533-1540, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635720

ABSTRACT

Given its approval for the treatment of cytokine release syndrome, tocilizumab is under investigation in severe coronavirus disease-2019. To characterize serious adverse events (AEs) with tocilizumab, we queried the worldwide FDA Adverse Event Reporting System and performed disproportionality analysis, selecting only designated medical events (DMEs) where tocilizumab was reported as suspect, with a focus on hepatic reactions. The reporting odds ratios (RORs) were calculated, deemed significant by a lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (LL 95% CI) > 1. A total of 2,433 reports of DMEs were recorded with tocilizumab, mainly in rheumatic diseases. Statistically significant RORs emerged for 13 DMEs, with drug-induced liver injury (n = 91; LL 95% CI 3.07), pancreatitis (151; 1.41), and pulmonary fibrosis (222; 7.21) as unpredictable AEs. A total of 174 cases of liver-related DMEs were retrieved (proportion of deaths = 18.4%), with median onset of 27.5 days. These serious unpredictable reactions occurring in chronic real-world tocilizumab use may support patient care and monitoring of ongoing clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Odds Ratio , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Pharmacovigilance , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Young Adult
13.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 8(7): 814-819, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports of liver injury in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are emerging from China and the USA. A wide variety of liver function test abnormalities and few cases of severe liver failure have been reported. No data on the hepatic phenotype from Europe are available at current. METHODS: We report a case series of 44 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Germany. RESULTS: At the time of admission, aspartate aminotransferase greater than the upper limit of normal was present in 70%, while alanine aminotransferase was elevated in 15.8%. Markers of cholestatic liver injury were altered only in a minority of patients. During hospitalization, 31% and 22% experienced increasing aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, respectively, when transaminases were normal at admission. Severe liver injury defined by 3×> upper limit of normal was observed in 9.1% over a mean time of 10.5 days. Importantly, patients exhibited cytotoxicity including lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase elevations, but no signs of relevant liver function impairment. CONCLUSION: In summary, in a case series of hospitalized patients in Germany, cytotoxicity in the absence of severe liver dysfunction at admission and only few cases suggestive of severe liver injury during hospital were observed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Failure, Acute/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Liver/drug effects , Liver/virology , Liver Failure, Acute/blood , Liver Failure, Acute/diagnosis , Liver Failure, Acute/virology , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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