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1.
Ter Arkh ; 94(12): 1413-1420, 2023 Jan 16.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The article reflects the clinical significance of the early diagnosis of toxic hepatitis in patients who have undergone a new coronavirus infection with the determination of clinical and laboratory predictors of the response to therapy. A dynamic analysis of the effectiveness of toxic hepatitis therapy in patients of three experimental groups and a control group is presented. AIM: The aim of the present study is to increase the effectiveness of the treatment of toxic hepatitis in patients who have undergone COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On the basis of the newly created infection centers of the Central Clinical Hospital "RZhD-Medicine" and Vishnevsky 3-rd Central Military Clinical Hospital 996 patients with COVID-19, who had clinical and laboratory signs of toxic liver damage (cytolytic and/or cholestatic syndromes) against the background of COVID-19 therapy. RESULTS: On the 14th day from the start of therapy in group 3, there was a significant decrease in the clinical manifestations of jaundice in 163 (72.8%) patients, on the 21st day of treatment, this symptom was stopped in all patients. In groups 1 and 2, the decrease in clinical manifestations of jaundice was significantly lower - 122 (55.2%) and 134 (58.8%); p<0.05. At the end of therapy, no manifestations of jaundice were observed in all experimental groups, while in the control group, symptom reduction was achieved only in 47 (14.5%) patients. CONCLUSION: The use of drugs with hepatoprotective effect in the form of monotherapy in groups 1 (UDCA) and 2 (ademethionine) showed a low therapeutic effect with positive dynamics of clinical and laboratory indicators of toxic hepatitis activity. The use of combined treatment in group 3 (UDCA and ademethionine) demonstrated the maximum therapeutic effect, pronounced positive dynamics in the form of normalization of clinical and laboratory indicators of toxic hepatitis activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Jaundice , Humans , Drug Therapy, Combination , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Treatment Outcome
2.
Acta Biomed ; 94(S1): e2023033, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235519

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of COVID19 measures taken to contain the spread of the virus have influenced the mental well-being of adults and adolescents. Acetaminophen overdose is the major cause of drug intoxication among children and adolescents. We reported a case of a 15-year- old girl referred to our Emergency Department 3 hours after ingestion of 10 g of paracetamol for suicidal purposes. She promptly started the administration of intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the patient was discharged after 5 days of hospitalization in good clinical condition and with neuropsychiatric follow-up. Our case shows that the timing of the intravenous NAC administration is considered the most important factor in the prevention of acetaminophen-induced hepatic failure, despite high serum levels after acetaminophen ingestion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Digestive System Diseases , Drug Overdose , Adult , Child , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Drug Overdose/drug therapy
3.
S Afr Med J ; 113(6): 24-25, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243144

ABSTRACT

Ivermectin remains a popular, albeit unproven, therapy used in both the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. We discuss a patient who developed jaundice and a liver injury 3 weeks after initiating ivermectin for COVID prevention.  Liver histology demonstrated a pattern of injury that was both portal and lobular, with a bile ductulitis as well with marked cholesasis. She was managed with low dose corticosteroids, later tapered and withdrawn. She remains well a year after presenting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Female , Humans , Ivermectin/adverse effects , COVID-19/pathology , South Africa , Liver/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology
5.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 21(8): 2088-2099, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259393

ABSTRACT

Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an infrequent but important cause of liver disease. Newly identified causes of DILI include the COVID vaccines, turmeric, green tea extract, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. DILI is largely a clinical diagnosis of exclusion that requires evaluation for more common causes of liver injury and a compatible temporal association with the suspect drug. Recent progress in DILI causality assessment includes the development of the semi-automated revised electronic causality assessment method (RECAM) instrument. In addition, several drug-specific HLA associations have been identified that can help with the confirmation or exclusion of DILI in individual patients. Various prognostic models can help identify the 5%-10% of patients at highest risk of death. Following suspect drug cessation, 80% of patients with DILI fully recover, whereas 10%-15% have persistently abnormal laboratory studies at 6 months of follow-up. Hospitalized patients with DILI with an elevated international normalized ratio or mental status changes should be considered for N-acetylcysteine therapy and urgent liver transplant evaluation. Selected patients with moderate to severe drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or autoimmune features on liver biopsy may benefit from short-term corticosteroids. However, prospective studies are needed to determine the optimal patients and dose and duration of steroids to use. LiverTox is a comprehensive, freely accessible Web site with important information regarding the hepatotoxicity profile of more than 1000 approved medications and 60 herbal and dietary supplement products. It is hoped that ongoing "omics" studies will lead to additional insight into DILI pathogenesis, improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and mechanism-based treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Liver Diseases , Humans , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Risk Factors
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(11): e33294, 2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254676

ABSTRACT

Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks in December 2019 in Wuhan, almost no studies have systematically described drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the characteristics of liver test abnormality or liver injury in patients with COVID-19, and further to explore DILI in COVID-19 patients during hospitalization. It was a single-center retrospective analysis of confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infected patients in the hospital from January 2020 to March 2020. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to assess the risk factors associated with liver test abnormality or liver injury. At admission, 148 (48.8%, 148/303) patients had abnormal liver test results and 7 (2.4%, 7/303) had liver injury, while 195 (64.4%, 195/303) had abnormal liver test results and 17 (5.6%, 17/303) had liver injury during hospitalization. After excluding these patients with liver disease and liver function abnormalities or liver injury at admission, 15 (11.1%, 15/135) patients developed DILI during hospitalization. Further regression analysis indicated that methylprednisolone (odds ratio = 4.177, 95% confidence interval [1.106-15.771], P = .035), but not Chinese herbal medicine or other used drug, was associated with DILI in patients during hospitalization. Abnormal liver function results were in more than half of patients with COVID-19, and the incidence of DILI in COVID-19 patients was 11.1% during hospitalization. Liver test abnormality or liver injury in patients might be directly caused by the viral infection at admission, but the detrimental effects on liver injury mainly related to certain medications used during hospitalization, particularly methylprednisolone. Severe COVID-19 could increase the occurrence of liver injury (P = .007) during hospitalization, but not a risk factor of liver injury. However, Chinese herbal medicine was a protective factor for liver injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Methylprednisolone , Plant Extracts
7.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(8): 767-785, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2021, over 3,000 articles on Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) were published, nearly doubling the annual number compared to 2011. This review selected DILI articles from 2021 we felt held the greatest interest and clinical relevance. AREAS COVERED: A literature search was conducted using PubMed between 1 March 2021 and 28 February 2022. 86 articles were included. This review discusses new and established cases of hepatotoxins, including new FDA approvals and COVID-19 therapeutics. Developments in biomarkers and causality assessment methods are discussed. Updates from registries are also explored. EXPERT OPINION: DILI diagnosis and prognostication remain challenging. Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) is the best option for determining causality and has been increasingly accepted by clinicians. Revised Electronic Causality Assessment Method (RECAM) may be more user-friendly and accurate but requires further validation. Quantitative systems pharmacology methods, such as DILIsym, are increasingly used to predict hepatotoxicity. Oncotherapeutic agents represent many newly approved and described causes of DILI. Such hepatotoxicity is deemed acceptable relative to the benefit these drugs offer. Drugs developed for non-life-threatening disorders may not show a favorable benefit-to-risk ratio and will be more difficult to approve. As the COVID-19 landscape evolves, its effect on DILI deserves further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Biomarkers , Causality , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Humans , Risk Assessment
8.
Hepatol Commun ; 7(3): e0064, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236251

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Homeopathic remedies are highly diluted formulations without proven clinical benefits, traditionally believed not to cause adverse events. Nonetheless, published literature reveals severe local and non-liver-related systemic side effects. We present the first series on homeopathy-related severe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) from a single center. METHODS: A retrospective review of records from January 2019 to February 2022 identified 9 patients with liver injury attributed to homeopathic formulations. Competing causes were comprehensively excluded. Chemical analysis was performed on retrieved formulations using triple quadrupole gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. RESULTS: Males predominated with a median age of 54 years. The most typical clinical presentation was acute hepatitis, followed by acute on chronic liver failure. All patients developed jaundice, and ascites were notable in one-third of the patients. Five patients had underlying chronic liver disease. COVID-19 prevention was the most common indication for homeopathic use. Probable DILI was seen in 77.8%, and hepatocellular injury predominated (66.7%). Four (44.4%) patients died (3 with chronic liver disease) at a median follow-up of 194 days. Liver histopathology showed necrosis, portal and lobular neutrophilic inflammation, and eosinophilic infiltration with cholestasis. A total of 29 remedies were consumed between 9 patients, and 15 formulations were analyzed. Toxicology revealed industrial solvents, corticosteroids, antibiotics, sedatives, synthetic opioids, heavy metals, and toxic phyto-compounds, even in 'supposed' ultra-dilute formulations. CONCLUSION: Homeopathic remedies potentially result in severe liver injury, leading to death in those with underlying liver disease. The use of mother tinctures, insufficient dilution, poor manufacturing practices, adulteration and contamination, and the presence of direct hepatotoxic herbals were the reasons for toxicity. Physicians, the public, and patients must realize that Homeopathic drugs are not 'gentle placebos.'


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Homeopathy , Materia Medica , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Materia Medica/adverse effects , Homeopathy/adverse effects , Homeopathy/methods , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , India/epidemiology
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(45): 6314-6327, 2022 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201052

ABSTRACT

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be correlated with the risk of liver injury development. An increasing number of studies indicate that degrees of hepatotoxicity have been associated with using some medications in the management of COVID-19 patients. However, limited studies have systematically investigated the evidence of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in COVID-19 patients. An increasing number of studies indicate that degrees of hepatotoxicity have been associated with using some of these medications in the management of COVID-19 patients. Significantly, it was relieved after the cessation of these agents. However, to our knowledge, no studies have systematically investigated the evidence of DILI in COVID-19 patients. In this review, we discussed the association between hepatotoxicity in COVID-19 patients and the drugs used in these patients and possible mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The currently available evidence on the association of different therapeutic agents with hepatotoxicity in COVID-19 patient was systematically reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(12)2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163509

ABSTRACT

In the last few years, the world has had to face the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its multiple effects. Even though COVID-19 was first considered to be a respiratory disease, it has an extended clinical spectrum with symptoms occurring in many tissues, and it is now identified as a systematic disease. Therefore, various drugs are used during the therapy of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Studies have shown that many of these drugs could have adverse side-effects, including drug-induced liver injury-also known as DILI-which is the focus of our review. Despite the consistent findings, the pathophysiological mechanism behind DILI in COVID-19 disease is still complex, and there are a few risk factors related to it. However, when it comes to the diagnosis, there are specific algorithms (including the RUCAM algorithm) and biomarkers that can assist in identifying DILI and which we will analyze in our review. As indicated by the title, a variety of drugs are associated with this COVID-19-related complication, including systemic corticosteroids, drugs used for the therapy of uncontrolled cytokine storm, as well as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anticoagulant drugs. Bearing in mind that hepatotoxicity is very likely to occur during COVID-19, especially in patients treated with multiple medications, we will also refer to the use of other drugs used for DILI therapy in an effort to control and prevent a severe and long-term outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Risk Factors
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 929, 2022 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) blockers including tocilizumab and sarilumab were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2021 for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. The use of sarilumab or tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients has been related to a reduction in mortality compared to standard care. Recent evidence has emerged concerning drug-induced liver injury (DILI) after sarilumab or tocilizumab applications in COVID-19 patients. AIMS: The study aimed to estimate DILI associated with sarilumab or tocilizumab in treating moderate to severe patients infected with SARS-Cov-2. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective pharmacovigilance study by data mining of the FDA's adverse event reporting systems (FAERS) database from the first quarter of 2004 to the fourth quarter of 2021 in confirmed COVID-19 patients. We analyzed DILI cases associated with tocilizumab or sarilumab in treating COVID-19 patients from the FAERS during this period. Disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis of COVID-19 patients were utilized for case analysis, and we also next compared the onset time and fatality rates of DILI following tocilizumab or sarilumab. RESULTS: A total of 275 cases of TCZ or SAR-related DILI reports were extracted. A total of 192 AEs cases were related to tocilizumab (TCZ), and 83 were related to sarilumab (SAR). In patients treated with TCZ, most were < 75 years old (51.57%), with more male than female (46.35% vs. 13.02%). The correlation between IL-6 receptor antagonists and DILI was stronger in SAR (ROR = 12.94; 95%CI 9.6-17.44) than in TCZ (ROR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.14-1.55). The onset time of DILI was different between TCZ and SAR, and a significant difference was observed in TCZ than SAR (P < 0.0001). A significant difference was observed in the mortality rate of TCZ and SAR (P = 0.0009). DILI associated with COVID-19 patients treated with TCZ appeared to have earlier onset-time (1(0-46) day) VS. SAR (3.5(0-27) day). CONCLUSION: This study shows strict monitor ought to be paid for TCZ or SAR when used for COVID-19 patients with poor liver function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Bayes Theorem , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology
12.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 53(3): e5005187, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091431

ABSTRACT

Case description: A 22-year-old female patient received the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (RNAm) against COVID-19; 6 days later, she presented abdominal pain located in the right hypochondrium and epigastrium, associated with emetic episodes. Re-consultation 21 days later due to the same symptoms; three days after the second dose of the vaccine was administered. Clinical findings: Pain on palpation in the right hypochondrium. Laboratories reported hepatocellular lesion and cholestasis, with negative amylase, hepatotropic virus and autoimmune hepatitis tests. Liver and biliary tract ultrasound and cholangioresonance were normal. Treatment and Results: Hyoscine and intravenous fluids as support therapy. She presented improvement in abdominal pain and progressive decrease of transaminases and bilirubin levels until normalization, and was discharged on the fifth day of hospitalization. A drug-associated hepatotoxicity (DILI) diagnosis was considered probable, in this case, secondary to vaccination against COVID-19. Clinical Relevance: The current SARS CoV-2 pandemic has spurred the development of new vaccines, the safety of which remains a concern. There is a likely causal relationship between vaccination and liver involvement in this clinical case, rather than simply a sporadic occurrence.


Descripción del caso: Paciente femenina de 22 años, quien recibió primera dosis de vacuna Pfizer-BioNTech (RNAm) contra COVID-19; presenta 6 días después, dolor abdominal localizado en hipocondrio derecho y epigastrio, asociado a episodios eméticos. Reconsulta a los 21 días por la misma sintomatología; tres días posteriores a la aplicación de la segunda dosis de la vacuna. Hallazgos clínicos: dolor a la palpación en hipocondrio derecho. Los laboratorios reportaron lesión hepatocelular y colestasis, con amilasa, estudios para virus hepatotrópos y hepatitis autoinmune negativos. La ecografía de hígado, vías biliares y colangioresonancia fueron normales. Tratamiento y Resultados: hioscina 20 mg vía oral cada 8 horas y líquidos endovenosos como terapia de soporte. Presentó mejoría del dolor abdominal y descenso progresivo de transaminasas y bilirrubinas, hasta su normalización y se dio egreso al quinto día de hospitalización. Se consideró probable diagnóstico de hepatotoxicidad asociada a medicamentos (DILI), en este caso, secundario a la vacunación contra COVID-19. Relevancia Clínica: La pandemia actual por el virus SARS CoV-2 ha impulsado el desarrollo de nuevas vacunas, cuya seguridad sigue siendo un motivo de preocupación. En este caso clínico, hay una probable relación causal entre la vacunación y el compromiso hepático, en lugar de una simple aparición esporádica.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Abdominal Pain , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0268705, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a rising morbidity amongst patients with COVID-19 clinical syndrome. The updated RUCAM causality assessment scale is validated for use in the general population, but its utility for causality determination in cohorts of patients with COVID-19 and DILI remains uncertain. METHODS: This retrospective study was comprised of COVID-19 patients presenting with suspected DILI to the emergency department of Weill Cornell medicine-affiliated Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar. All cases that met the inclusion criteria were comparatively adjudicated by two independent rating pairs (2 clinical pharmacist and 2 physicians) utilizing the updated RUCAM scale to assess the likelihood of DILI. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients (mean age 48.96 (SD ± 10.21) years) were examined for the determination of DILI causality. The majority had probability likelihood of "possible" or "probable" by the updated RUCAM scale. Azithromycin was the most commonly reported drug as a cause of DILI. The median R-ratio was 4.74 which correspond to a mixed liver injury phenotype. The overall Krippendorf's kappa was 0.52; with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.79 (IQR 0.72-0.85). The proportion of exact pairwise agreement and disagreement between the rating pairs were 64.4%, kappa 0.269 (ICC 0.28 [0.18, 0.40]) and kappa 0.45 (ICC 0.43 [0.29-0.57]), respectively. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of patients with COVID-19 clinical syndrome, we found the updated RUCAM scale to be useful in establishing "possible" or "probable" DILI likelihood as evident by the respective kappa values; this results if validated by larger sample sized studies will extend the clinical application of this universal tool for adjudication of DILI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Causality , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809943

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) commonly show abnormalities of liver tests (LTs) of undetermined cause. Considering drugs as tentative culprits, the current systematic review searched for published COVID-19 cases with suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and established diagnosis using the diagnostic algorithm of RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method). Data worldwide on DILI cases assessed by RUCAM in COVID-19 patients were sparse. A total of 6/200 reports with initially suspected 996 DILI cases in COVID-19 patients and using all RUCAM-based DILI cases allowed for a clear description of clinical features of RUCAM-based DILI cases among COVID-19 patients: (1) The updated RUCAM published in 2016 was equally often used as the original RUCAM of 1993, with both identifying DILI and other liver diseases as confounders; (2) RUCAM also worked well in patients treated with up to 18 drugs and provided for most DILI cases a probable or highly probable causality level for drugs; (3) DILI was preferentially caused by antiviral drugs given empirically due to their known therapeutic efficacy in other virus infections; (4) hepatocellular injury was more often reported than cholestatic or mixed injury; (5) maximum LT values were found for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 1.541 U/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 1.076 U/L; (6) the ALT/AST ratio was variable and ranged from 0.4 to 1.4; (7) the mean or median age of the COVID-19 patients with DILI ranged from 54.3 to 56 years; (8) the ratio of males to females was 1.8-3.4:1; (9) outcome was favorable for most patients, likely due to careful selection of the drugs and quick cessation of drug treatment with emerging DILI, but it was fatal in 19 patients; (10) countries reporting RUCAM-based DILI cases in COVID-19 patients included China, India, Japan, Montenegro, and Spain; (11) robust estimation of the percentage contribution of RUCAM-based DILI for the increased LTs in COVID-19 patients is outside of the current scope. In conclusion, RUCAM-based DILI with its clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients and its classification as a confounding variable is now well defined, requiring a new correct description of COVID-19 features by removing DILI characteristics as confounders.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Alanine Transaminase , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Publications
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(48): 8370-8373, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580314

ABSTRACT

Investigational treatments/drugs for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been applied, with repurposed or newly developed drugs, and their effectiveness has been evaluated. Some of these drugs may be hepatotoxic, and each monotherapy or combination therapy may increase the risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We should aim to control dysregulation of liver function, as well as the progression of COVID-19, as much as possible. We discussed the potential risks of investigational treatments/drugs and promising drugs for both COVID-19 and DILI due to investigational treatments/drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drugs, Investigational/adverse effects , Humans , Liver , SARS-CoV-2 , Therapies, Investigational
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361973

ABSTRACT

Hydralazine is a commonly prescribed antihypertensive agent. Some of its labelled adverse reactions include lupus-like syndrome, tachycardia, headache and fever. Despite its well-known side effects, little is known about hydralazine's hepatotoxic effects. We report the case of a 54-year-old female patient who was started on hydralazine for hypertension management but later presented with hydralazine-induced liver injury. Her initial presentation consisted of non-specific symptoms and a hepatocellular injury pattern. Liver biopsy revealed hepatic steatosis. Three weeks after discontinuation of hydralazine, the patient's liver enzymes normalised, and her symptoms resolved. Few studies have examined the incidence and mechanism by which hydralazine induces a liver injury pattern. With this case, we review the literature, the pathogenesis involved and the eventual management of hydralazine-induced liver injury. We propose close monitoring of liver enzymes for patients on hydralazine throughout their treatment course.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hydralazine/adverse effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Middle Aged
18.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e932544, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Fusarium spp. is a rare cause of opportunistic life-threatening fungal infections. It has a remarkably high resistance profile with few effective antifungal agents, mostly limited to voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) by 1 of these 2 antifungal agents further complicates the management of these infections. CASE REPORT A 38-year-old woman with short bowel syndrome presented to the hospital with concerns of abdominal pain and loose stools. An abdominal CT was negative for inflammatory or ischemic bowel disease, and there was no evidence of liver disease. She tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and required transfer to the ICU due to hypotension requiring fluid resuscitation and vasopressors. On day 43 of her admission, the patient developed a low-grade fever, for which she underwent central-line and peripheral-blood cultures that were positive for Fusarium dimerum. The central line was removed and i.v. voriconazole started. After 3 days of treatment, the patient's liver enzymes rose abruptly. Voriconazole was discontinued and replaced with liposomal amphotericin B, and the liver enzymes improved significantly. The patient completed 14 days of therapy and was discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS This is a case of F. dimerum infection followed by DILI from voriconazole treatment. Her infection was resolved after switching to liposomal amphotericin B, with improvement in liver enzymes on day 1 after discontinuing voriconazole. This observation demonstrates that altering antifungal classes may be an appropriate strategy when confronted with DILI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Fusarium , Sepsis , Adult , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy , Voriconazole/adverse effects
19.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(4): 1116-1122, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333104

ABSTRACT

Background Liver injury has been documented independently in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. Objective to investigate the drug-induced liver injury associated with lopinavir-ritonavir among the patients with COVID-19. Methods We conducted a disproportionality analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) between 2020Q1 and 2021Q1 to evaluate the association between lopinavir-ritonavir and risk of drug-induced liver injury (or severe drug-induced liver injury) and calculated their reporting odds ratios (RORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 3,425 cases of drug-induced liver injury were reported in 19,782 patients with COVID-19. The ROR for drug-induced liver injury was 2.99 (2.59-3.46), 3.16 (2.68-3.73), and 5.39 (4.63-6.26) when comparing lopinavir-ritonavir with all other drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine only, and remdesivir, respectively. For severe drug-induced liver injury, RORs for lopinavir-ritonavir provided evidence of an association compared with all other drugs (3.98; 3.15-5.05), compared with hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine only (5.33; 4.09-6.94), and compared with remdesivir (3.85; 3.03-4.89). Conclusions In the FAERS, we observed a disproportional signal for drug-induced liver injury associated with lopinavir-ritonavir in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Lopinavir/toxicity , Ritonavir/toxicity , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
20.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 28(2): 445-448, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308070

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Favipiravir is an antiviral agent that is recently used for SARS-CoV2 infection. The drug-drug interactions of favipiravir especially with chemotherapeutic agents in a patient with malignancy are not well known. CASE REPORT: The patient diagnosed with metastatic osteosarcoma was given high dose methotrexate treatment, and favipiravir was started on the third day of the treatment with suspicion of SARS-CoV2 infection. Grade 3 hepatotoxicity developed after favipiravir.Management & outcome: The acute viral hepatitis panel and autoimmune liver disease panel were negative. The ultrasound of the abdomen was unremarkable for any hepatobiliary pathology. The all viral and hepatobiliary possible etiological factors were ruled out. The patient's liver enzymes increased just after (12 hours later) the initiation of favipiravir, and we diagnosed toxic hepatitis caused by favipiravir-methotrexate interaction. Therefore, methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg dose was started for a presumed diagnosis of toxic hepatitis. Hepatotoxicity completely regressed after favipiravir was discontinued. DISCUSSION: Favipiravir may inhibit methotrexate elimination by inhibiting aldehyde oxidase and its sequential use may cause hepatotoxicity in this case. The clinicians should keep in mind possible drug interactions while using new antiviral agents against SARS-CoV2 like favipiravir.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Osteosarcoma , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Humans , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Osteosarcoma/drug therapy , Pyrazines , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
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