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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(6): 209, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962929

ABSTRACT

The present study is focused on the use of solid dispersion technology to triumph over the solubility-related problems of bexarotene which is currently used for treating various types of cancer and has shown potential inhibitory action on COVID-19 main protease and human ACE2 receptors. It is based on comparison of green locust bean gum and synthetic poloxamer as polymers using extensive mechanistic methods to explore the mechanism behind solubility enhancement and to find suitable concentration of drug to polymer ratio to prepare porous 3rd generation solid dispersion. The prepared solid dispersions were characterized using different studies like X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and particle size analysis in order to determine the exact changes occurred in the product which are responsible for enhancing solubility profiles of an insoluble drug. The results showed different profiles for particle size, solubility, dissolution rate, porosity, BET, and Langmuir specific surface area of prepared solid dispersions by using different polymers. In addition to the comparison of polymers, the BET analysis deeply explored the changes occurred in all dispersions when the concentration of polymer was increased. The optimized solid dispersion prepared with MLBG using lyophilization technique showed reduced particle size of 745.7±4.4 nm, utmost solubility of 63.97%, pore size of 211.597 Å, BET and Langmuir specific surface area of 5.6413 m2/g and 8.2757 m2/g, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Adsorption , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polymers/chemistry , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
2.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0143721, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434897

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite unprecedented research and developmental efforts, SARS-CoV-2-specific antivirals are still unavailable for the treatment of COVID-19. In most instances, SARS-CoV-2 infection initiates with the binding of Spike glycoprotein to the host cell ACE2 receptor. Utilizing the crystal structure of the ACE2/Spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) complex (PDB file 6M0J) in a computer-aided drug design approach, we identified and validated five potential inhibitors of S-RBD and ACE-2 interaction. Two of the five compounds, MU-UNMC-1 and MU-UNMC-2, blocked the entry of pseudovirus particles expressing SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein. In live SARS-CoV-2 infection assays, both compounds showed antiviral activity with IC50 values in the micromolar range (MU-UNMC-1: IC50 = 0.67 µM and MU-UNMC-2: IC50 = 1.72 µM) in human bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, MU-UNMC-1 and MU-UNMC-2 effectively blocked the replication of rapidly transmitting variants of concern: South African variant B.1.351 (IC50 = 9.27 and 3.00 µM) and Scotland variant B.1.222 (IC50 = 2.64 and 1.39 µM), respectively. Following these assays, we conducted "induced-fit (flexible) docking" to understand the binding mode of MU-UNMC-1/MU-UNMC-2 at the S-RBD/ACE2 interface. Our data showed that mutation N501Y (present in B.1.351 variant) alters the binding mode of MU-UNMC-2 such that it is partially exposed to the solvent and has reduced polar contacts. Finally, MU-UNMC-2 displayed high synergy with remdesivir, the only approved drug for treating hospitalized COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE The ongoing coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). More than 207 million people have been infected globally, and 4.3 million have died due to this viral outbreak. While a few vaccines have been deployed, a SARS-CoV-2-specific antiviral for the treatment of COVID-19 is yet to be approved. As the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein with ACE2 is critical for cellular entry, using a combination of a computer-aided drug design (CADD) approach and cell-based in vitro assays, we report the identification of five potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors. Out of the five, two compounds (MU-UNMC-1 and MU-UNMC-2) have antiviral activity against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants from South Africa and Scotland. Furthermore, MU-UNMC-2 acts synergistically with remdesivir (RDV), suggesting that RDV and MU-UNMC-2 can be developed as a combination therapy to treat COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computer Simulation , Drug Design , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vero Cells
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389404

ABSTRACT

In the past few years, Bruton's tyrosine Kinase (Btk) has emerged as new target in medicinal chemistry. Since approval of ibrutinib in 2013 for treatment of different hematological cancers (as leukemias and lymphomas), two other irreversible Btk inhibitors have been launched on the market. In the attempt to overcome irreversible Btk inhibitor limitations, reversible compounds have been developed and are currently under evaluation. In recent years, many Btk inhibitors have been patented and reported in the literature. In this review, we summarized the (ir)reversible Btk inhibitors recently developed and studied clinical trials and preclinical investigations for malignancies, chronic inflammation conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infection, covering advances in the field of medicinal chemistry. Furthermore, the nanoformulations studied to increase ibrutinib bioavailability are reported.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adenine/administration & dosage , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320599

ABSTRACT

Deferoxamine B is an outstanding molecule which has been widely studied in the past decade for its ability to bind iron and many other metal ions. The versatility of this metal chelator makes it suitable for a number of medicinal and analytical applications, from the well-known iron chelation therapy to the most recent use in sensor devices. The three bidentate hydroxamic functional groups of deferoxamine B are the centerpiece of its metal binding ability, which allows the formation of stable complexes with many transition, lanthanoid and actinoid metal ions. In addition to the ferric ion, in fact, more than 20 different metal complexes of deferoxamine b have been characterized in terms of their chemical speciation in solution. In addition, the availability of a terminal amino group, most often not involved in complexation, opens the way to deferoxamine B modification and functionalization. This review aims to collect and summarize the available data concerning the complex-formation equilibria in solutions of deferoxamine B with different metal ions. A general overview of the progress of its applications over the past decade is also discussed, including the treatment of iron overload-associated diseases, its clinical use against cancer and neurodegenerative disorders and its role as a diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Chelating Agents/chemistry , Deferoxamine/chemistry , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Electrochemistry/methods , Electrolytes , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Iron/metabolism , Iron Chelating Agents/chemistry , Iron Overload/drug therapy , Kinetics , Ligands , Metals/chemistry , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Potentiometry , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , Zirconium/chemistry
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259549

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that COVID-19 vaccines are already available on the market, there have not been any effective FDA-approved drugs to treat this disease. There are several already known drugs that through drug repositioning have shown an inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These drugs are included in the family of nucleoside analogues. In our efforts, we synthesized a group of new nucleoside analogues, which are modified at the sugar moiety that is replaced by a quinazoline entity. Different nucleobase derivatives are used in order to increase the inhibition. Five new nucleoside analogues were evaluated with in vitro assays for targeting polymerase of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Design , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Nucleosides/analogs & derivatives , Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , In Vitro Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Mol Pharm ; 18(5): 1970-1984, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164785

ABSTRACT

Physicochemical properties, in particular solubility and the associated bioavailability, are key factors in determining efficacy of poorly water-soluble drugs, which constitute 40% of new drugs in the market, and improving them is an important challenge for modern pharmacy. A recent strategy to achieve this goal is formation of stable co-amorphous solid dispersions with co-formers of low molecular weight. Here, the amorphization strategy was applied for low-soluble anti-hypertensive valsartan (VAL), an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and nicotinamide, which exhibits lung- and cardio-protective effects. Through interactions with the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system, VAL may be used to treat both hypertension and the current pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using mechanochemical and liquid- and solid-state approaches, solvated co-amorphous solid dispersions of VAL with nicotinamide were obtained. They were characterized by spectroscopic, thermal, and X-ray analyses. The density functional theory, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, and non-covalent interaction index calculations revealed the presence of two types of hydrogen bonds between VAL and NIC (i.e., N-H···O and O-H···O). One of them had a partially covalent character, which caused conformational changes in the flexible VAL molecule, restricting contribution of the tetrazolyl N-H donor and thus limiting the possibility of co-crystal formation. The recognized VAL/NIC1- and VAL/NIC2-type heterodimeric interactions were responsible for the excellent durability of the solid compositions and up to 24-fold better solubility than VAL alone. The synthesized dispersions constitute a new class of dually acting drugs, containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient (VAL) and supporting nutraceutical (nicotinamide).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Niacinamide/chemistry , Valsartan/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemical synthesis , Biological Availability , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Drug Compounding , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Quantum Theory , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725538

ABSTRACT

At the moment, there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA)-approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, although several antiviral drugs are available for repurposing. Many of these drugs suffer from polymorphic transformations with changes in the drug's safety and efficacy; many are poorly soluble, poorly bioavailable drugs. Current tools to reformulate antiviral APIs into safer and more bioavailable forms include pharmaceutical salts and cocrystals, even though it is difficult to classify solid forms into these regulatory-wise mutually exclusive categories. Pure liquid salt forms of APIs, ionic liquids that incorporate APIs into their structures (API-ILs) present all the advantages that salt forms provide from a pharmaceutical standpoint, without being subject to solid-state matter problems. In this perspective article, the myths and the most voiced concerns holding back implementation of API-ILs are examined, and two case studies of API-ILs antivirals (the amphoteric acyclovir and GSK2838232) are presented in detail, with a focus on drug property improvement. We advocate that the industry should consider the advantages of API-ILs which could be the genesis of disruptive innovation and believe that in order for the industry to grow and develop, the industry should be comfortable with a certain element of risk because progress often only comes from trying something different.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Butyrates/chemistry , Chrysenes/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acyclovir/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Availability , Butyrates/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Chrysenes/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Pandemics , Pentacyclic Triterpenes , SARS-CoV-2 , Solubility
10.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv ; 17(7): 899-902, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306132

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 crisis has highlighted the importance of a robust drug supply chain which can be quickly and flexibly ramped up to produce life-saving drug treatments. 3D printing (3DP) of oral solid dosage forms (OSDF) could be a viable part of the emergency drug production response to support vulnerable patients in rural regions and other isolated locations. In the context of the current pandemic, the suitability of different 3DP technologies will depend on the physicochemical properties, unit dose strength and BCS classification of the repurposed drug compounds currently being trialed for COVID-19. Furthermore, the deployment strategy should focus on simplifying dosage forms and formulations, scaling down the size and complexity of the printing systems and real-time quality assurance via process analytical technologies (PAT).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Administration, Oral , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
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