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Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 107598, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240398


MCP-1 (Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), also known as Chemokine (CC-motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is from family of CC chemokines. It has a vital role in the process of inflammation, where it attracts or enhances the expression of other inflammatory factors/cells. It leads to the advancement of many disorders by this main mechanism of migration and infiltration of inflammatory cells like monocytes/macrophages and other cytokines at the site of inflammation. MCP-1 has been inculpated in the pathogenesis of numerous disease conditions either directly or indirectly like novel corona virus, cancers, neuroinflammatory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases. The elevated MCP-1 level has been observed in COVID-19 patients and proven to be a biomarker associated with the extremity of disease along with IP-10. This review will focus on involvement and role of MCP-1 in various pathological conditions.

Chemokine CCL2/immunology , Animals , Biomarkers , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , Chemokine CCL2/physiology , Chemotaxis , Disease , Humans , Monocytes/physiology , Oxidative Stress
JCI Insight ; 6(1)2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027164


Immune and inflammatory responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contribute to disease severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the utility of specific immune-based biomarkers to predict clinical outcome remains elusive. Here, we analyzed levels of 66 soluble biomarkers in 175 Italian patients with COVID-19 ranging from mild/moderate to critical severity and assessed type I IFN-, type II IFN-, and NF-κB-dependent whole-blood transcriptional signatures. A broad inflammatory signature was observed, implicating activation of various immune and nonhematopoietic cell subsets. Discordance between IFN-α2a protein and IFNA2 transcript levels in blood suggests that type I IFNs during COVID-19 may be primarily produced by tissue-resident cells. Multivariable analysis of patients' first samples revealed 12 biomarkers (CCL2, IL-15, soluble ST2 [sST2], NGAL, sTNFRSF1A, ferritin, IL-6, S100A9, MMP-9, IL-2, sVEGFR1, IL-10) that when increased were independently associated with mortality. Multivariate analyses of longitudinal biomarker trajectories identified 8 of the aforementioned biomarkers (IL-15, IL-2, NGAL, CCL2, MMP-9, sTNFRSF1A, sST2, IL-10) and 2 additional biomarkers (lactoferrin, CXCL9) that were substantially associated with mortality when increased, while IL-1α was associated with mortality when decreased. Among these, sST2, sTNFRSF1A, IL-10, and IL-15 were consistently higher throughout the hospitalization in patients who died versus those who recovered, suggesting that these biomarkers may provide an early warning of eventual disease outcome.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Calgranulin B/genetics , Calgranulin B/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , Chemokine CCL2/immunology , Chemokine CXCL9/genetics , Chemokine CXCL9/immunology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Ferritins/genetics , Ferritins/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/genetics , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/immunology , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-15/genetics , Interleukin-15/immunology , Interleukin-2/genetics , Interleukin-2/immunology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lactoferrin/genetics , Lactoferrin/immunology , Lipocalin-2/genetics , Lipocalin-2/immunology , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/immunology , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(11): 1087-1097, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800633


INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can trigger a cytokine response storm (CRS) that is associated with high mortality but for which the underlying pathophysiology and diagnostics are not yet well characterized. This review provides an overview of the underlying immune profile of COVID-19-related CRS as well as laboratory markers for acute diagnosis and chronic follow-up of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and CRS. AREAS COVERED: Innate and acquired immune profiles in COVID-19-CRS, RNA-detection methods for SARS-CoV-2 in the setting of CRS including factors that affect assay performance, serology for SARS-CoV-2 in the setting of CRS, and other biomarkers for COVID-19 will be discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Studies support the implication of CRS in the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of COVID-19 through the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from activated innate and adaptive immune cells. Although these inflammatory molecules, including IL-6, IL-2 R, IL-10, IP-10 and MCP-1, often correlate with disease severity as possible biomarkers, the pathogenic contributions of individual molecules and the therapeutic benefits of targeting them are yet to be demonstrated. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA is the gold standard method for diagnosis of COVID-19 in the context of CRS but assay performance varies and is susceptible to false-negative results even as patients clinically deteriorate due to decreased viral shedding in the setting of CRS. Biomarkers including CRP, ferritin, D-dimer and procalcitonin may provide early clues about progression to CRS and help identify thrombotic and infectious complications of COVID-19.

Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokine CCL2/biosynthesis , Chemokine CCL2/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pandemics , Receptors, Interleukin-2/biosynthesis , Receptors, Interleukin-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index