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1.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3301-3311, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884486

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a major alteration in the medical literature including the sepsis discussion. From the outset of the pandemic, various reports have indicated that although there are some unique features pertinent to COVID-19, many of its acute manifestations are similar to sepsis caused by other pathogens. As a consequence, the old definitions now require consideration of this new etiologic agent, namely SARS-CoV-2. Although the pathogenesis of COVID-19 has not been fully explained, the data obtained so far in hospitalized patients has revealed that serum cytokine and chemokine levels are high in severe COVID-19 patients, similar to those found with sepsis. COVID-19 may involve multiple organ systems. In addition to the lungs, the virus has been isolated from blood, urine, faeces, liver, and gallbladder. Results from autopsy series in COVID-19 patients have demonstrated a wide range of findings, including vascular involvement, congestion, consolidation, and hemorrhage as well as diffuse alveolar damage in lung tissue consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The presence of viral cytopathic-like changes, infiltration of inflammatory cells (mononuclear cells and macrophages), and viral particles in histopathological samples are considered a consequence of both direct viral infection and immune hyperactivation. Thromboembolism and hyper-coagulopathy are other components in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Although the pathogenesis of hypercoagulability is not fully understood, it has been pointed out that all three components of Virchow's triad (endothelial injury, stasis, and hypercoagulable state) play a major role in contributing to clot formation in severe COVID-19 infection. In severe COVID-19 cases, laboratory parameters such as hematological findings, coagulation tests, liver function tests, D-dimer, ferritin, and acute phase reactants such as CRP show marked alterations, which are suggestive of a cytokine storm. Another key element of COVID-19 pathogenesis in severe cases is its similarity or association with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). SARS-CoV-2 induced cytokine storm has significant clinical and laboratory findings overlapping with HLH. Viral sepsis has some similarities but also some differences when compared to bacterial sepsis. In bacterial sepsis, systemic inflammation affecting multiple organs is more dominant than in COVID-19 sepsis. While bacterial sepsis causes an early and sudden onset clinical deterioration, viral diseases may exhibit a relatively late onset and chronic course. Consideration of severe COVID-19 disease as a sepsis syndrome has relevance and may assist in terms of determining treatments that will modulate the immune response, limit intrinsic damage to tissue and organs, and potentially improve outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Inflammation , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Sepsis/complications , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/blood
2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875795

ABSTRACT

The expression of cytokines and chemokines in response to adenovirus infection is tightly regulated by the innate immune system. Cytokine-mediated toxicity and cytokine storm are known clinical phenomena observed following naturally disseminated adenovirus infection in immunocompromised hosts as well as when extremely high doses of adenovirus vectors are injected intravenously. This dose-dependent, cytokine-mediated toxicity compromises the safety of adenovirus-based vectors and represents a critical problem, limiting their utility for gene therapy applications and the therapy of disseminated cancer, where intravenous injection of adenovirus vectors may provide therapeutic benefits. The mechanisms triggering severe cytokine response are not sufficiently understood, prompting efforts to further investigate this phenomenon, especially in clinically relevant settings. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on cytokine and chemokine activation in response to adenovirus- and adenovirus-based vectors and discuss the underlying mechanisms that may trigger acute cytokine storm syndrome. First, we review profiles of cytokines and chemokines that are activated in response to adenovirus infection initiated via different routes. Second, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that lead to cytokine and chemokine transcriptional activation. We further highlight how immune cell types in different organs contribute to synthesis and systemic release of cytokines and chemokines in response to adenovirus sensing. Finally, we review host factors that can limit cytokine and chemokine expression and discuss currently available and potential future interventional approaches that allow for the mitigation of the severity of the cytokine storm syndrome. Effective cytokine-targeted interventional approaches may improve the safety of systemic adenovirus delivery and thus broaden the potential clinical utility of adenovirus-based therapeutic vectors.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Adenoviridae , Chemokines , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate
3.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 323(1): L14-L26, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861686

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients manifest many of the same immune features seen in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including both "cytokine storm" and "immune suppression." However, direct comparisons of molecular and cellular profiles between contemporaneously enrolled critically ill patients with and without severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited. We sought to identify immune signatures specifically enriched in critically ill patients with COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19. We enrolled a multisite prospective cohort of patients admitted under suspicion for COVID-19, who were then determined to be SARS-CoV-2-positive (n = 204) or -negative (n = 122). SARS-CoV-2-positive patients had higher plasma levels of CXCL10, sPD-L1, IFN-γ, CCL26, C-reactive protein (CRP), and TNF-α relative to SARS-CoV-2-negative patients adjusting for demographics and severity of illness (Bonferroni P value < 0.05). In contrast, the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17A were not significantly different between the two groups. In SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, higher plasma levels of sPD-L1 and TNF-α were associated with fewer ventilator-free days (VFDs) and higher mortality rates (Bonferroni P value < 0.05). Lymphocyte chemoattractants such as CCL17 were associated with more severe respiratory failure in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, but less severe respiratory failure in SARS-CoV-2-negative patients (P value for interaction < 0.01). Circulating T cells and monocytes from SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects were hyporesponsive to in vitro stimulation compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects. Critically ill SARS-CoV-2-positive patients exhibit an immune signature of high interferon-induced lymphocyte chemoattractants (e.g., CXCL10 and CCL17) and immune cell hyporesponsiveness when directly compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. This suggests a specific role for T-cell migration coupled with an immune-checkpoint regulatory response in COVID-19-related critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , B7-H1 Antigen , Chemokines , Critical Illness , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268296, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855026

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is characterized by vascular inflammation and thrombosis. We and others have proposed that the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection activates endothelial cells, leading to endothelial release of pro-thrombotic proteins. These mediators can trigger obstruction of the pulmonary microvasculature, leading to worsening oxygenation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and death. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of biomarkers released from endothelial cells are associated with worse oxygenation in patients with COVID-19. We studied 83 participants aged 18-84 years with COVID-19 admitted to a single center. The severity of pulmonary disease was classified by oxygen requirement, including no oxygen requirement, low-flow oxygen, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and death. We measured plasma levels of two proteins released by activated endothelial cells, von Willebrand Factor (VWF) antigen and soluble P-Selectin (sP-Sel), and a biomarker of systemic thrombosis, D-dimer. Additionally, we explored the association of endothelial biomarker levels with the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokines, and vascular inflammation biomarkers. We found that levels of VWF, sP-sel, and D-dimer were increased in individuals with more severe COVID-19 pulmonary disease. Biomarkers of endothelial cell activation were also correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Taken together, our data demonstrate increased levels of VWF and sP-selectin are linked to the severity of lung disease in COVID-19 and correlated with biomarkers of inflammation and vascular inflammation. Our data support the concept that COVID-19 is a vascular disease which involves endothelial injury in the context of an inflammatory state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers , Chemokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
5.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 230, 2022 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in asymptomatic patients affected by solid cancer, and whether it is associated with specific transcriptomics changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: Patients affected by solid cancer treated in a top comprehensive cancer center in Italy during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave, and negative for COVID-19-symptoms since the first detection of COVID-19 in Italy, were prospectively evaluated by SARS-CoV-2 serology in the period between April 14th and June 23rd 2020. Follow-up serologies were performed, every 21-28 days, until August 23rd 2020. All SARS-CoV-2 IgM + patients underwent confirmatory nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). PBMCs from a subset of SARS-CoV-2 IgM + patients were collected at baseline, at 2 months, and at 7 months for transcriptome sequencing. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed on 446 of the 466 recruited patients. A total of 14 patients (3.14%) tested positive for at least one SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin in the period between April 14th and August 23rd 2020. Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 IgM decreased from 1.48% in the first month of the accrual to 0% in the last month. Viral RNA could not be detected in any of the NPS. PBMC serial transcriptomic analysis showed progressive downregulation of interleukin 6 upregulated signatures, chemokine-mediated signaling and chemokine-chemokine receptor KEGG pathways. B- and T-cell receptor pathways (p-values = 0.0002 and 0.017 respectively) were progressively upregulated. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rate in asymptomatic patients affected by solid cancer is consistent with that of asymptomatic COVID-19 assessed in the general population through NPS at the peak of the first wave. Transcriptomic features over time in IgM + asymptomatic cases are suggestive of previous viral exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Antibodies, Viral , Chemokines , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Incidence , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 259-289, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844271

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread throughout the world, threatening global public health. An animal model is a valuable and a crucial tool that allows understanding of nature in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and its associated COVID-19 disease. Here we introduce detailed protocols of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease using C57BL/6 (B6) transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) from the human cytokeratin 18 promoter (K18 hACE2). To mimic natural SARS-CoV-2 infection, K18 hACE2 transgenic mice are infected intranasally under anesthesia. Upon infection, viral pathogenesis is determined by monitoring changes in body weight (morbidity) and monitoring survival (mortality), cytokine/chemokine responses, gross-lung pathology, histopathology, and viral replication in tissues. The presence of the virus and viral replication is evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and viral titrations, respectively, from the upper (nasal turbinate) and the lower (lungs) respiratory tracts, and nervous system (brain). Also, the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is measured by cytokine/chemokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from lung, spleen and brain homogenates to characterize the cytokine storm that hallmarks as one of the major causes of death caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. This small rodent animal model based on the use of K18 hACE2 transgenic mice represents an excellent option to understand the pathogenicity of natural SARS-CoV-2 strains and its recently described Variants of Concern (VoC), and will be applicable to the identification and characterization of prophylactic (vaccine) and therapeutic (antiviral and/or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies) strategies for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection or its associated COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Chemokines , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Lung , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 832394, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809391

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in countless infections and caused millions of deaths since its emergence in 2019. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mortality is caused by uncontrolled inflammation, aberrant immune response, cytokine storm, and an imbalanced hyperactive immune system. The cytokine storm further results in multiple organ failure and lung immunopathology. Therefore, any potential treatments should focus on the direct elimination of viral particles, prevention strategies, and mitigation of the imbalanced (hyperactive) immune system. This review focuses on cytokine secretions of innate and adaptive immune responses against COVID-19, including interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and other chemokines. In addition to the review focus, we discuss potential immunotherapeutic approaches based on relevant pathophysiological features, the systemic immune response against SARS-CoV-2, and data from recent clinical trials and experiments on the COVID-19-associated cytokine storm. Prompt use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers and aggressive prevention and management of the cytokine storm can help determine COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality. The prophylaxis and rapid management of the cytokine storm appear to significantly improve disease outcomes. For these reasons, this study aims to provide advanced information to facilitate innovative strategies to survive in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemokines , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(2): 483-491, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805546

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-mediated deep cytokine storm, an aggressive inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in COVID-19 patients, is correlated directly with lung injury, multi-organ failure, and poor prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Curcumin (CUR), a phenolic antioxidant compound obtained from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), is well-known for its strong anti-inflammatory activity. However, its in vivo efficacy is constrained due to poor bioavailability. Herein, we report that CUR-encapsulated polysaccharide nanoparticles (CUR-PS-NPs) potently inhibit the release of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors associated with damage of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (CoV2-SP)-stimulated liver Huh7.5 and lung A549 epithelial cells. Treatment with CUR-PS-NPs effectively attenuated the interaction of ACE2 and CoV2-SP. The effects of CUR-PS-NPs were linked to reduced NF-κB/MAPK signaling which in turn decreased CoV2-SP-mediated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, p42/44 MAPK, and p65/NF-κB as well as nuclear p65/NF-κB expression. The findings of the study strongly indicate that organic NPs of CUR can be used to control hyper-inflammatory responses and prevent lung and liver injuries associated with CoV2-SP-mediated cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chemokines/biosynthesis , Curcumin/chemistry , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/biosynthesis , Phosphorylation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779941

ABSTRACT

Although it is now widely accepted that host inflammatory response contributes to COVID-19 immunopathogenesis, the pathways and mechanisms driving disease severity and clinical outcome remain poorly understood. In the effort to identify key soluble mediators that characterize life-threatening COVID-19, we quantified 62 cytokines, chemokines and other factors involved in inflammation and immunity in plasma samples, collected at hospital admission, from 80 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 disease who were stratified on the basis of clinical outcome (mechanical ventilation or death by day 28). Our data confirm that age, as well as neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, procalcitonin, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase are strongly associated with the risk of fatal COVID-19. In addition, we found that cytokines related to TH2 regulations (IL-4, IL-13, IL-33), cell metabolism (lep, lep-R) and interferons (IFNα, IFNß, IFNγ) were also predictive of life-threatening COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Chemokines , Humans , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776254

ABSTRACT

In the novel pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019, high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines lead to endothelial activation and dysfunction, promoting a pro-coagulative state, thrombotic events, and microvasculature injuries. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue factor, and chemokine release, with Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMEC-1). ACE2 receptor expression was evaluated by western blot analysis. SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed by one-step RT-PCR until 7 days post-infection (p.i.), and by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IFN-α, and hTF mRNA expression levels were detected by RT-PCR, while cytokine release was evaluated by ELISA. HMEC-1 expressed ACE2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 infection showed a constant viral load. TEM analysis showed virions localized in the cytoplasm. Expression of IL-6 at 24 h and IFN-α mRNA at 24 h and 48 h p.i. was higher in infected than uninfected HMEC-1 (p < 0.05). IL-6 levels were significantly higher in supernatants from infected HMEC-1 (p < 0.001) at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h p.i., while IL-8 levels were significantly lower at 24 h p.i. (p < 0.001). These data indicate that in vitro microvascular endothelial cells are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but slightly contribute to viral amplification. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection might trigger the increase of pro-inflammatory mediators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cytokine ; 154: 155874, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773240

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected and killed millions of people, but little is known about the risk factors that lead to the development of severe, mild or asymptomatic conditions after infection. The individual immune response and the balance of cytokines and chemokines have been shown to be important for the prognosis of patients. Additionally, it is essential to understand how the production of specific antibodies with viral neutralizing capacity is established. In this context, this study aimed to identify positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 in a large population of blood donors (n = 7837) to establish their immune response profile and to evaluate its viral neutralization capacity. The prevalence found for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was 5.6% (n = 441), with male blood donors (61.9%) being more prevalent among the positive ones. The results showed that positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 have high serum concentrations of chemokines, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-10. The analyses showed that the positivity index for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies, which, in turn, is significantly related to lower serum concentrations of CCL5 and CXCL10. The results allow us to hypothesize that the development and maintenance of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in infected individuals occurs in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment well regulated by IL-10 with great capacity for recruiting cells from the innate and adaptive immune systems.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(3): 187, 2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739282

ABSTRACT

Under physiological conditions, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow niches are responsible for the highly regulated and interconnected hematopoiesis process. At the same time, they must recognize potential threats and respond promptly to protect the host. A wide spectrum of microbial agents/products and the consequences of infection-induced mediators (e.g. cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors) can have prominent impact on HSPCs. While COVID-19 starts as a respiratory tract infection, it is considered a systemic disease which profoundly alters the hematopoietic system. Lymphopenia, neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, and stress erythropoiesis are the hallmark of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, thrombocytopenia and blood hypercoagulability are common among COVID-19 patients with severe disease. Notably, the invasion of erythroid precursors and progenitors by SARS-CoV-2 is a cardinal feature of COVID-19 disease which may in part explain the mechanism underlying hypoxia. These pieces of evidence support the notion of skewed steady-state hematopoiesis to stress hematopoiesis following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The functional consequences of these alterations depend on the magnitude of the effect, which launches a unique hematopoietic response that is associated with increased myeloid at the expense of decreased lymphoid cells. This article reviews some of the key pathways including the infectious and inflammatory processes that control hematopoiesis, followed by a comprehensive review that summarizes the latest evidence and discusses how SARS-CoV-2 infection impacts hematopoiesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Hematopoiesis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombocytopenia/complications
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3954, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740473

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in a variety of clinical symptoms ranging from no or mild to severe disease. Currently, there are multiple postulated mechanisms that may push a moderate to severe disease into a critical state. Human serum contains abundant evidence of the immune status following infection. Cytokines, chemokines, and antibodies can be assayed to determine the extent to which a patient responded to a pathogen. We examined serum and plasma from a cohort of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 early in the pandemic and compared them to negative-control sera. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations varied depending on the severity of infection, and antibody responses were significantly increased in severe cases compared to mild to moderate infections. Neutralization data revealed that patients with high titers against an early 2020 SARS-CoV-2 isolate had detectable but limited neutralizing antibodies against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Beta and Delta variants. This study highlights the potential of re-infection for recovered COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Young Adult
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4150, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735291

ABSTRACT

Models of animals that are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can usefully evaluate the efficacy of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrate that infection with the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 variant (TY8-612 strain) induces bodyweight loss and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production in wild-type laboratory mice (BALB/c and C57BL/6 J mice). Furthermore, compared to their counterparts, BALB/c mice had a higher viral load in their lungs and worse symptoms. Importantly, infecting aged BALB/c mice (older than 6 months) with the TY8-612 strain elicited a massive and sustained production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and led to universal mortality. These results indicated that the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 variant-infected mice exhibited symptoms ranging from mild to fatal depending on their strain and age. Our data provide insights into the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and may be useful in developing prophylactics and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aging , Animals , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Principal Component Analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
16.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3301-3311, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726157

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a major alteration in the medical literature including the sepsis discussion. From the outset of the pandemic, various reports have indicated that although there are some unique features pertinent to COVID-19, many of its acute manifestations are similar to sepsis caused by other pathogens. As a consequence, the old definitions now require consideration of this new etiologic agent, namely SARS-CoV-2. Although the pathogenesis of COVID-19 has not been fully explained, the data obtained so far in hospitalized patients has revealed that serum cytokine and chemokine levels are high in severe COVID-19 patients, similar to those found with sepsis. COVID-19 may involve multiple organ systems. In addition to the lungs, the virus has been isolated from blood, urine, faeces, liver, and gallbladder. Results from autopsy series in COVID-19 patients have demonstrated a wide range of findings, including vascular involvement, congestion, consolidation, and hemorrhage as well as diffuse alveolar damage in lung tissue consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The presence of viral cytopathic-like changes, infiltration of inflammatory cells (mononuclear cells and macrophages), and viral particles in histopathological samples are considered a consequence of both direct viral infection and immune hyperactivation. Thromboembolism and hyper-coagulopathy are other components in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Although the pathogenesis of hypercoagulability is not fully understood, it has been pointed out that all three components of Virchow's triad (endothelial injury, stasis, and hypercoagulable state) play a major role in contributing to clot formation in severe COVID-19 infection. In severe COVID-19 cases, laboratory parameters such as hematological findings, coagulation tests, liver function tests, D-dimer, ferritin, and acute phase reactants such as CRP show marked alterations, which are suggestive of a cytokine storm. Another key element of COVID-19 pathogenesis in severe cases is its similarity or association with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). SARS-CoV-2 induced cytokine storm has significant clinical and laboratory findings overlapping with HLH. Viral sepsis has some similarities but also some differences when compared to bacterial sepsis. In bacterial sepsis, systemic inflammation affecting multiple organs is more dominant than in COVID-19 sepsis. While bacterial sepsis causes an early and sudden onset clinical deterioration, viral diseases may exhibit a relatively late onset and chronic course. Consideration of severe COVID-19 disease as a sepsis syndrome has relevance and may assist in terms of determining treatments that will modulate the immune response, limit intrinsic damage to tissue and organs, and potentially improve outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Inflammation , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Sepsis/complications , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/blood
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112753, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707727

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a lethal disease caused by the pandemic SARS-CoV-2, which continues to be a public health threat. COVID-19 is principally a respiratory disease and is often associated with sputum retention and cytokine storm, for which there are limited therapeutic options. In this regard, we evaluated the use of BromAc®, a combination of Bromelain and Acetylcysteine (NAC). Both drugs present mucolytic effect and have been studied to treat COVID-19. Therefore, we sought to examine the mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® in tracheal aspirate samples from critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. METHOD: Tracheal aspirate samples from COVID-19 patients were collected following next of kin consent and mucolysis, rheometry and cytokine analysis using Luminex kit was performed. RESULTS: BromAc® displayed a robust mucolytic effect in a dose dependent manner on COVID-19 sputum ex vivo. BromAc® showed anti-inflammatory activity, reducing the action of cytokine storm, chemokines including MIP-1alpha, CXCL8, MIP-1b, MCP-1 and IP-10, and regulatory cytokines IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 IL-1Ra and total reduction for IL-9 compared to NAC alone and control. BromAc® acted on IL-6, demonstrating a reduction in G-CSF and VEGF-D at concentrations of 125 and 250 µg. CONCLUSION: These results indicate robust mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® ex vivo in tracheal aspirates from critically ill COVID-19 patients, indicating its potential to be further assessed as pharmacological treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bromelains/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemokines/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Sputum/cytology , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bromelains/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Down-Regulation , Drug Combinations , Expectorants/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Rheology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/pathology , Young Adult
18.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0196921, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702819

ABSTRACT

Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, infection with SARS-CoV-2, the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19, is often associated with neurologic symptoms that range from mild to severe, yet increasing evidence argues the virus does not exhibit extensive neuroinvasive properties. We demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in human iPSC-derived neurons and that infection shows limited antiviral and inflammatory responses but increased activation of EIF2 signaling following infection as determined by RNA sequencing. Intranasal infection of K18 human ACE2 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in lung pathology associated with viral replication and immune cell infiltration. In addition, ∼50% of infected mice exhibited CNS infection characterized by wide-spread viral replication in neurons accompanied by increased expression of chemokine (Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl2, Ccl5 and Ccl19) and cytokine (Ifn-λ and Tnf-α) transcripts associated with microgliosis and a neuroinflammatory response consisting primarily of monocytes/macrophages. Microglia depletion via administration of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, PLX5622, in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice did not affect survival or viral replication but did result in dampened expression of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine transcripts and a reduction in monocyte/macrophage infiltration. These results argue that microglia are dispensable in terms of controlling SARS-CoV-2 replication in in the K18-hACE2 model but do contribute to an inflammatory response through expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Collectively, these findings contribute to previous work demonstrating the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect neurons as well as emphasizing the potential use of the K18-hACE2 model to study immunological and neuropathological aspects related to SARS-CoV-2-induced neurologic disease. IMPORTANCE Understanding the immunological mechanisms contributing to both host defense and disease following viral infection of the CNS is of critical importance given the increasing number of viruses that are capable of infecting and replicating within the nervous system. With this in mind, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of microglia in aiding in host defense following experimental infection of the central nervous system (CNS) of K18-hACE2 with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Neurologic symptoms that range in severity are common in COVID-19 patients and understanding immune responses that contribute to restricting neurologic disease can provide important insight into better understanding consequences associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection of the CNS.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/immunology , Microglia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/genetics , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/virology , Neurons/immunology , Neurons/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
19.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(2)2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702787

ABSTRACT

Predictors of early diagnosis and severe infection in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has killed more than 4 million people worldwide, have not been identified. However, some biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, are associated with the diagnosis, pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 in adults. We examined whether such biomarkers can be used to predict the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 in pediatric patients. Eighty-nine children were included in the study, comprising three patient groups of 69 patients (6 severe, 36 moderate and 27 mild) diagnosed with COVID-19 by real-time polymerase chain reaction observed for 2-216 months and clinical findings and 20 healthy children in the same age group. Hemogram, coagulation, inflammatory parameters and serum levels of 16 cytokines and chemokines were measured in blood samples and were analyzed and compared with clinical data. Interleukin 1-beta (IL-1ß), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) levels were significantly higher in the COVID-19 patients (p = 0.035, p = 0.006 and p < 0.001). Additionally, D-dimer and IP-10 levels were higher in the severe group (p = 0.043 for D-dimer, area under the curve = 0.743, p = 0.027 for IP-10). Lymphocytes, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels were not diagnostic or prognostic factors in pediatric patients (p = 0.304, p = 0.144 and p = 0.67). Increased IL-1ß, IL-12 and IP-10 levels in children with COVID-19 are indicators for early diagnosis, and D-dimer and IP-10 levels are predictive of disease severity. In children with COVID-19, these biomarkers can provide information on prognosis and enable early treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10 , Chemokines/blood , Child , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-1beta , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674519

ABSTRACT

Cancer cachexia remains a serious public health concern worldwide, particularly as cancer rates rise. Treatment is endangered, and survival is reduced, because this illness is commonly misdiagnosed and undertreated. Although weight loss is the most evident sign of cachexia, there are other early metabolic and inflammatory changes that occur before the most obvious symptoms appear. Cachexia-related inflammation is induced by a combination of factors, one of which is the release of inflammation-promoting chemicals by the tumor. Today, more scientists are beginning to believe that the development of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) related cachexia is similar to cancer-related cachexia. It is worth noting that patients infected with COVID-19 have a significant inflammatory response and can develop cachexia. These correlations provide feasible reasons for the variance in the occurrence and severity of cachexia in human malignancies, therefore, specific therapeutic options for these individuals must be addressed based on disease types. In this review, we highlighted the role of key chemokines, cytokines, and clinical management in relation to cancer cachexia and its long-term impact on COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cachexia/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cachexia/etiology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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