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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776254

ABSTRACT

In the novel pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019, high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines lead to endothelial activation and dysfunction, promoting a pro-coagulative state, thrombotic events, and microvasculature injuries. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue factor, and chemokine release, with Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMEC-1). ACE2 receptor expression was evaluated by western blot analysis. SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed by one-step RT-PCR until 7 days post-infection (p.i.), and by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IFN-α, and hTF mRNA expression levels were detected by RT-PCR, while cytokine release was evaluated by ELISA. HMEC-1 expressed ACE2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 infection showed a constant viral load. TEM analysis showed virions localized in the cytoplasm. Expression of IL-6 at 24 h and IFN-α mRNA at 24 h and 48 h p.i. was higher in infected than uninfected HMEC-1 (p < 0.05). IL-6 levels were significantly higher in supernatants from infected HMEC-1 (p < 0.001) at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h p.i., while IL-8 levels were significantly lower at 24 h p.i. (p < 0.001). These data indicate that in vitro microvascular endothelial cells are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but slightly contribute to viral amplification. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection might trigger the increase of pro-inflammatory mediators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0196921, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702819

ABSTRACT

Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, infection with SARS-CoV-2, the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19, is often associated with neurologic symptoms that range from mild to severe, yet increasing evidence argues the virus does not exhibit extensive neuroinvasive properties. We demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in human iPSC-derived neurons and that infection shows limited antiviral and inflammatory responses but increased activation of EIF2 signaling following infection as determined by RNA sequencing. Intranasal infection of K18 human ACE2 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in lung pathology associated with viral replication and immune cell infiltration. In addition, ∼50% of infected mice exhibited CNS infection characterized by wide-spread viral replication in neurons accompanied by increased expression of chemokine (Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl2, Ccl5 and Ccl19) and cytokine (Ifn-λ and Tnf-α) transcripts associated with microgliosis and a neuroinflammatory response consisting primarily of monocytes/macrophages. Microglia depletion via administration of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, PLX5622, in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice did not affect survival or viral replication but did result in dampened expression of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine transcripts and a reduction in monocyte/macrophage infiltration. These results argue that microglia are dispensable in terms of controlling SARS-CoV-2 replication in in the K18-hACE2 model but do contribute to an inflammatory response through expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Collectively, these findings contribute to previous work demonstrating the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect neurons as well as emphasizing the potential use of the K18-hACE2 model to study immunological and neuropathological aspects related to SARS-CoV-2-induced neurologic disease. IMPORTANCE Understanding the immunological mechanisms contributing to both host defense and disease following viral infection of the CNS is of critical importance given the increasing number of viruses that are capable of infecting and replicating within the nervous system. With this in mind, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of microglia in aiding in host defense following experimental infection of the central nervous system (CNS) of K18-hACE2 with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Neurologic symptoms that range in severity are common in COVID-19 patients and understanding immune responses that contribute to restricting neurologic disease can provide important insight into better understanding consequences associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection of the CNS.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/immunology , Microglia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/genetics , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/virology , Neurons/immunology , Neurons/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13464, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500743

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in human populations recently. Severely ill COVID-19 patients exhibit the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines, and such an unbalanced production of proinflammatory cytokines is linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome with high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Our study provides evidence that the ORF3a, M, ORF7a, and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were NF-κB activators. The viral sequence from infected zoo lions belonged to clade V, and a single mutation of G251V is found for ORF3a gene compared to all other clades. No significant functional difference was found for clade V ORF3a, indicating the NF-κB activation is conserved among COVID-19 variants. Of the four viral proteins, the ORF7a protein induced the NF-κB dictated proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFNß. The ORF7a protein also induced IL-3, IL-4, IL-7, IL-23. Of 15 different chemokines examined in the study, CCL11, CCL17, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL22, CCL25, CCL26, CCL27, and CXCL9 were significantly upregulated by ORF7. These cytokines and chemokines were frequently elevated in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Our data provide an insight into how SARS-CoV-2 modulates NF-κB signaling and inflammatory cytokine expressions. The ORF7a protein may be a desirable target for strategic developments to minimize uncontrolled inflammation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Alignment , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681516, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399136

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out and then became a global epidemic at the end of 2019. With the increasing number of deaths, early identification of disease severity and interpretation of pathogenesis are very important. Aiming to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19, 75 COVID-19 patients, 34 healthy controls and 23 patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) were recruited in this study. Using liquid chip technology, 48 cytokines and chemokines were examined, among which 33 were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls. HGF and IL-1ß were strongly associated with APACHE II score in the first week after disease onset. IP-10, HGF and IL-10 were correlated positively with virus titers. Cytokines were significantly correlated with creatinine, troponin I, international normalized ratio and procalcitonin within two weeks after disease onset. Univariate analyses were carried out, and 6 cytokines including G-CSF, HGF, IL-10, IL-18, M-CSF and SCGF-ß were found to be associated with the severity of COVID-19. 11 kinds of cytokines could predict the severity of COVID-19, among which IP-10 and M-CSF were excellent predictors for disease severity. In conclusion, the levels of cytokines in COVID-19 were significantly correlated with the severity of the disease in the early stage, and serum cytokines could be used as warning indicators of the severity and progression of COVID-19. Early stratification of disease and intervention to reduce hypercytokinaemia may improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280634

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are promising therapeutics against COVID-19, little is known about their mechanism(s) of action or effective dosing windows. We report the generation and development of SC31, a potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, isolated from a convalescent patient. Antibody-mediated neutralization occurs via an epitope within the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. SC31 exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities in multiple animal models. In SARS-CoV-2 infected K18-human ACE2 transgenic mice, treatment with SC31 greatly reduced viral loads and attenuated pro-inflammatory responses linked to the severity of COVID-19. Importantly, a comparison of the efficacies of SC31 and its Fc-null LALA variant revealed that the optimal therapeutic efficacy of SC31 requires Fc-mediated effector functions that promote IFNγ-driven anti-viral immune responses, in addition to its neutralization ability. A dose-dependent efficacy of SC31 was observed down to 5mg/kg when administered before viral-induced lung inflammatory responses. In addition, antibody-dependent enhancement was not observed even when infected mice were treated with SC31 at sub-therapeutic doses. In SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, SC31 treatment significantly prevented weight loss, reduced viral loads, and attenuated the histopathology of the lungs. In rhesus macaques, the therapeutic potential of SC31 was evidenced through the reduction of viral loads in both upper and lower respiratory tracts to undetectable levels. Together, the results of our preclinical studies demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of SC31 in three different models and its potential as a COVID-19 therapeutic candidate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescence , Cricetinae , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Load
6.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153583, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A key clinical feature of COVID-19 is a deep inflammatory state known as "cytokine storm" and characterized by high expression of several cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, including IL-6 and IL-8. A direct consequence of this inflammatory state in the lungs is the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), frequently observed in severe COVID-19 patients. The "cytokine storm" is associated with severe forms of COVID-19 and poor prognosis for COVID-19 patients. Sulforaphane (SFN), one of the main components of Brassica oleraceae L. (Brassicaceae or Cruciferae), is known to possess anti-inflammatory effects in tissues from several organs, among which joints, kidneys and lungs. PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to determine whether SFN is able to inhibit IL-6 and IL-8, two key molecules involved in the COVID-19 "cytokine storm". METHODS: The effects of SFN were studied in vitro on bronchial epithelial IB3-1 cells exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (S-protein). The anti-inflammatory activity of SFN on IL-6 and IL-8 expression has been evaluated by RT-qPCR and Bio-Plex analysis. RESULTS: In our study SFN inhibits, in cultured IB3-1 bronchial cells, the gene expression of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. This represents the proof-of-principle that SFN may modulate the release of some key proteins of the COVID-19 "cytokine storm". CONCLUSION: The control of the cytokine storm is one of the major issues in the management of COVID-19 patients. Our study suggests that SFN can be employed in protocols useful to control hyperinflammatory state associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/virology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Isothiocyanates/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/toxicity , Sulfoxides/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/drug effects , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cell Line , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Up-Regulation/drug effects
7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104846, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209164

ABSTRACT

The Severe acute respiratory syndrome may be caused by coronavirus disease which has resulted in a global pandemic. Polymorphisms in the population play a role in susceptibility to severity. We aimed to perform a systematic review related to the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the development of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Twenty-eight eligible articles published were identified in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PMC Central and Portal BVS and additional records, with 20 studies performed in China. Information on study characteristics, genetic polymorphisms, and comorbidities was extracted. Study quality was assessed by the STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association (STREGA) guideline. Few studies investigated the presence of polymorphisms in HLA, ACE1, OAS-1, MxA, PKR, MBL, E-CR1, FcγRIIA, MBL2, L-SIGN (CLEC4M), IFNG, CD14, ICAM3, RANTES, IL-12 RB1, TNFA, CXCL10/IP-10, CD209 (DC-SIGN), AHSG, CYP4F3 and CCL2 with the susceptibility or protection to SARS-Cov. This review provides comprehensive evidence of the association between genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility or protection to severity SARS-CoV. The literature about coronavirus infection, susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and genetic variations is scarce. Further studies are necessary to provide more concrete evidence, mainly related to Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Chemokines/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Markers , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24321, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125485

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 induces severe infection, and it is responsible for a worldwide disease outbreak starting in late 2019. Currently, there are no effective medications against coronavirus. In the present study, we utilized a holistic bioinformatics approach to study gene signatures of SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected Calu-3 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Through the Gene Ontology platform, we determined that several cytokine genes were up-regulated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, including TNF, IL6, CSF2, IFNL1, IL-17C, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Differentially regulated pathways were detected by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, gene ontology, and Hallmark platform, including chemokines, cytokines, cytokine receptors, cytokine metabolism, inflammation, immune responses, and cellular responses to the virus. A Venn diagram was utilized to illustrate common overlapping genes from SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected datasets. An Ingenuity pathway analysis discovered an enrichment of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) and interleukin (IL)-17-related signaling in a gene set enrichment analysis. Downstream networks were predicted by the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery platform also revealed that TNF and TNF receptor 2 signaling elicited leukocyte recruitment, activation, and survival of host cells after coronavirus infection. Our discovery provides essential evidence for transcript regulation and downstream signaling of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemokines/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Ontology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interleukin-17/biosynthesis , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Up-Regulation
9.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 785-795, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117041

ABSTRACT

Studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients and experimentally infected animals indicate a critical role for augmented expression of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines in severe disease. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells was abortive, but induced the production of multiple antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-α, interferon-ß, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukins 1ß, 6, and 10) and a chemokine (CXCL10). Despite the lack of efficient replication in MDMs, SARS-CoV-2 induced profound interferon-mediated cell death of host cells. Macrophage activation and death were not enhanced by exposure to low levels of convalescent plasma, suggesting that antibody-dependent enhancement of infection does not contribute to cell death. Together, these results indicate that infection of macrophages and dendritic cells potentially plays a major role in coronavirus disease 2019 pathogenesis, even in the absence of productive infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Dendritic Cells/virology , Macrophages/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Death , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/ultrastructure , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism
10.
Genomics ; 113(2): 463-473, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039591

ABSTRACT

In Yangtze River Delta white goat, hypermethylation of CMTM3 leads to a decreased expression level in high quality brush hair. However, the regulation of CMTM3 expression and its function in hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulation of CMTM3 expression, function, and molecular mechanism in HFSCs. The re-expression of CMTM3 significantly suppressed the proliferation of HFSCs by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis. Moreover, the downregulation of CMTM3 promoted HFSC proliferation. Treatment with sh_CMTM3 and incubation in a DHT culture medium had the most significant growth-promoting effect. It was hypothesized that transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in samples would enable the identification of unique protein-coding and non-coding genes that may help uncover the role of CMTM3. Multiple genes and pathways were involved in this process, including 168 common DEGs, such as CXCL8 and E-selectin, which is reportedly involved in multiple regulatory pathways. These results indicated that CMTM3 can function as HFSCs through the induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis by mediating crosstalk between several pathways and transcription factors. Our data is available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database with the accession number PRJNA657430.


Subject(s)
Androgens/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Chemokines/genetics , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Hair Follicle/cytology , MARVEL Domain-Containing Proteins/genetics , Stem Cells/metabolism , Adult , Animals , Apoptosis , Cells, Cultured , Goats , Hair Follicle/drug effects , Hair Follicle/metabolism , Humans , Stem Cells/drug effects , Transcriptome
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104512, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733697

ABSTRACT

Emerging results indicate that an uncontrolled host immune response, leading to a life-threatening condition called cytokine release syndrome (also termed "cytokine storm"), is the major driver of pathology in severe COVID-19. In this pandemic, considerable effort is being focused on identifying host genomic factors that increase susceptibility or resistance to the complications of COVID-19 and translating these findings to improved patient care. In this regard, the chemokine receptor-ligand nexus has been reported as potentially important in severe COVID-19 disease pathogenesis and its treatment. Valuable genomic insights into the chemokine receptor-ligand nexus have been gained from HIV infection and disease progression studies. Applying that knowledge, together with newly discovered potential host genomic factors associated with COVID-19, may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Chemokines/genetics , HIV Infections/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Regulation , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Ligands , Promoter Regions, Genetic
12.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616594

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often related to hyperinflammation that drives lung or multiorgan injury. The immunopathological mechanisms that cause excessive inflammation are under investigation and constantly updated. Here, a gene network approach was used on recently published data sets to identify possible COVID-19 inflammatory mechanisms and bioactive genes. First, network analysis of putative SARS-CoV-2 cellular receptors led to the mining of a neutrophil-response signature and relevant inflammatory genes. Second, analysis of RNA-seq data sets of lung cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 revealed that infected cells expressed neutrophil-attracting chemokines. Third, analysis of RNA-seq data sets of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells from COVID-19 patients identified upregulation of neutrophil genes and chemokines. Different inflammatory genes mined here, including TNFR, IL-8, CXCR1, CXCR2, ADAM10, GPR84, MME, ANPEP, and LAP3, might be druggable targets in efforts to limit SARS-CoV-2 inflammation in severe clinical cases. The possible role of neutrophils in COVID-19 inflammation needs to be studied further.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , COVID-19 , Chemokines/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Neutrophil Infiltration/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cell ; 181(5): 1036-1045.e9, 2020 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72372

ABSTRACT

Viral pandemics, such as the one caused by SARS-CoV-2, pose an imminent threat to humanity. Because of its recent emergence, there is a paucity of information regarding viral behavior and host response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we offer an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 compared with other respiratory viruses. Cell and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to transcriptional and serum profiling of COVID-19 patients, consistently revealed a unique and inappropriate inflammatory response. This response is defined by low levels of type I and III interferons juxtaposed to elevated chemokines and high expression of IL-6. We propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with exuberant inflammatory cytokine production are the defining and driving features of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA Viruses/immunology , Animals , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/virology , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA Viruses/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription, Genetic
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