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1.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0196921, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702819

ABSTRACT

Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, infection with SARS-CoV-2, the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19, is often associated with neurologic symptoms that range from mild to severe, yet increasing evidence argues the virus does not exhibit extensive neuroinvasive properties. We demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in human iPSC-derived neurons and that infection shows limited antiviral and inflammatory responses but increased activation of EIF2 signaling following infection as determined by RNA sequencing. Intranasal infection of K18 human ACE2 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in lung pathology associated with viral replication and immune cell infiltration. In addition, ∼50% of infected mice exhibited CNS infection characterized by wide-spread viral replication in neurons accompanied by increased expression of chemokine (Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl2, Ccl5 and Ccl19) and cytokine (Ifn-λ and Tnf-α) transcripts associated with microgliosis and a neuroinflammatory response consisting primarily of monocytes/macrophages. Microglia depletion via administration of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, PLX5622, in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice did not affect survival or viral replication but did result in dampened expression of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine transcripts and a reduction in monocyte/macrophage infiltration. These results argue that microglia are dispensable in terms of controlling SARS-CoV-2 replication in in the K18-hACE2 model but do contribute to an inflammatory response through expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Collectively, these findings contribute to previous work demonstrating the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect neurons as well as emphasizing the potential use of the K18-hACE2 model to study immunological and neuropathological aspects related to SARS-CoV-2-induced neurologic disease. IMPORTANCE Understanding the immunological mechanisms contributing to both host defense and disease following viral infection of the CNS is of critical importance given the increasing number of viruses that are capable of infecting and replicating within the nervous system. With this in mind, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of microglia in aiding in host defense following experimental infection of the central nervous system (CNS) of K18-hACE2 with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Neurologic symptoms that range in severity are common in COVID-19 patients and understanding immune responses that contribute to restricting neurologic disease can provide important insight into better understanding consequences associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection of the CNS.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/immunology , Microglia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/genetics , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/virology , Neurons/immunology , Neurons/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
2.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625346

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of the respiratory illness coronavirus disease 2019, with a death rate reaching up to 40%. The main underlying cause of ARDS is a cytokine storm that results in a dysregulated immune response. This review discusses the role of cytokines and chemokines in SARS-CoV-2 and its predecessors SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with particular emphasis on the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators that are shown to be correlated with disease severity. For this purpose, we reviewed and analyzed clinical studies, research articles, and reviews published on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. This review illustrates the role of the innate and adaptive immune responses in SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 and identifies the general cytokine and chemokine profile in each of the three infections, focusing on the most prominent inflammatory mediators primarily responsible for the COVID-19 pathogenesis. The current treatment protocols or medications in clinical trials were reviewed while focusing on those targeting cytokines and chemokines. Altogether, the identified cytokines and chemokines profiles in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 provide important information to better understand SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and highlight the importance of using prominent inflammatory mediators as markers for disease diagnosis and management. Our findings recommend that the use of immunosuppression cocktails provided to patients should be closely monitored and continuously assessed to maintain the desirable effects of cytokines and chemokines needed to fight the SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. The current gap in evidence is the lack of large clinical trials to determine the optimal and effective dosage and timing for a therapeutic regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(12): 3301-3310, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575784

ABSTRACT

Currently, the world is witnessing the pandemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Reported differences in clinical manifestations and outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection could be attributed to factors such as virus replication, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and altered cytokine production. Virus-induced aberrant and excessive cytokine production has been linked to the morbidity and mortality of several viral infections. Using a Luminex platform, we investigated plasma cytokine and chemokine levels of 27 analytes from hospitalized asymptomatic (n = 39) and mildly symptomatic (n = 35) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients (in the early phase of infection), recovered individuals (45-60 days postinfection) (n = 40), and uninfected controls (n = 36) from the city of Pune located in the state of Maharashtra in India. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α and the chemokine CXCL-10 were significantly higher, while those of the antiviral cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12 p70 were significantly lower in both asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients than in controls. Comparison among the patient categories revealed no difference in the levels of the cytokines/chemokines except for CXCL-10 being significantly higher and IL-17, IL-4, and VEGF being significantly lower in the mildly symptomatic patients. Interestingly, levels of all key analytes were significantly lower in recovered individuals than in those in both patient categories. Nevertheless, the level of CXCL10 was significantly higher in the recovered patients than in the controls, indicating that the immune system of SARS-CoV-2 patients may take a longer time to normalize. Our data suggest that IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, CXCL-10, and reduced antiviral cytokines could be used as biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10 , Humans , India/epidemiology , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 689866, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503883

ABSTRACT

Rapid recruitment of neutrophils to an inflamed site is one of the hallmarks of an effective host defense mechanism. The main pathway through which this happens is by the innate immune response. Neutrophils, which play an important part in innate immune defense, migrate into lungs through the modulation actions of chemokines to execute a variety of pro-inflammatory functions. Despite the importance of chemokines in host immunity, little has been discussed on their roles in host immunity. A holistic understanding of neutrophil recruitment, pattern recognition pathways, the roles of chemokines and the pathophysiological roles of neutrophils in host immunity may allow for new approaches in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory disease of the lung. Herein, this review aims at highlighting some of the developments in lung neutrophil-immunity by focusing on the functions and roles of CXC/CC chemokines and pattern recognition receptors in neutrophil immunity during pulmonary inflammations. The pathophysiological roles of neutrophils in COVID-19 and thromboembolism have also been summarized. We finally summarized various neutrophil biomarkers that can be utilized as prognostic molecules in pulmonary inflammations and discussed various neutrophil-targeted therapies for neutrophil-driven pulmonary inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Degranulation/immunology , Chemokines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Humans , Integrins/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Respiratory Burst/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/immunology
5.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468496

ABSTRACT

The incidence of dengue in Latin America has increased dramatically during the last decade. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms in dengue is crucial for the identification of biomarkers for the triage of patients. We aimed to characterize the profile of cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-18 and IL-10), chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL10/IP-10) and coagulation mediators (Fibrinogen, D-dimer, Tissue factor-TF, Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-TFPI and Thrombomodulin) during the dengue-4 epidemic in Brazil. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases had higher levels of TNF-α (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.005), IL-10 (p < 0.001), IL-18 (p = 0.001), CXCL8/IL-8 (p < 0.001), CCL2/MCP-1 (p < 0.001), CXCL10/IP-10 (p = 0.001), fibrinogen (p = 0.037), D-dimer (p = 0.01) and TFPI (p = 0.042) and lower levels of TF (p = 0.042) compared to healthy controls. A principal component analysis (PCA) distinguished between two profiles of mediators of inflammation and coagulation: protective (TNF-α, IL-1ß and CXCL8/IL-8) and pathological (IL-6, TF and TFPI). Lastly, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified high aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) as independent risk factors associated with severity (adjusted OR: 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.71; p = 0.027), the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.775 (95% CI 0.681-0.869) and an optimal cutoff value was 1.4 (sensitivity: 76%; specificity: 79%), so it could be a useful marker for the triage of patients attending primary care centers.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors/immunology , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/classification , Brazil , Chemokines/classification , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/classification , Cytokines/immunology , Dengue/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Arch Virol ; 166(12): 3301-3310, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432546

ABSTRACT

Currently, the world is witnessing the pandemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Reported differences in clinical manifestations and outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection could be attributed to factors such as virus replication, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and altered cytokine production. Virus-induced aberrant and excessive cytokine production has been linked to the morbidity and mortality of several viral infections. Using a Luminex platform, we investigated plasma cytokine and chemokine levels of 27 analytes from hospitalized asymptomatic (n = 39) and mildly symptomatic (n = 35) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients (in the early phase of infection), recovered individuals (45-60 days postinfection) (n = 40), and uninfected controls (n = 36) from the city of Pune located in the state of Maharashtra in India. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α and the chemokine CXCL-10 were significantly higher, while those of the antiviral cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12 p70 were significantly lower in both asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients than in controls. Comparison among the patient categories revealed no difference in the levels of the cytokines/chemokines except for CXCL-10 being significantly higher and IL-17, IL-4, and VEGF being significantly lower in the mildly symptomatic patients. Interestingly, levels of all key analytes were significantly lower in recovered individuals than in those in both patient categories. Nevertheless, the level of CXCL10 was significantly higher in the recovered patients than in the controls, indicating that the immune system of SARS-CoV-2 patients may take a longer time to normalize. Our data suggest that IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, CXCL-10, and reduced antiviral cytokines could be used as biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10 , Humans , India/epidemiology , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681516, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399136

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out and then became a global epidemic at the end of 2019. With the increasing number of deaths, early identification of disease severity and interpretation of pathogenesis are very important. Aiming to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19, 75 COVID-19 patients, 34 healthy controls and 23 patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) were recruited in this study. Using liquid chip technology, 48 cytokines and chemokines were examined, among which 33 were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls. HGF and IL-1ß were strongly associated with APACHE II score in the first week after disease onset. IP-10, HGF and IL-10 were correlated positively with virus titers. Cytokines were significantly correlated with creatinine, troponin I, international normalized ratio and procalcitonin within two weeks after disease onset. Univariate analyses were carried out, and 6 cytokines including G-CSF, HGF, IL-10, IL-18, M-CSF and SCGF-ß were found to be associated with the severity of COVID-19. 11 kinds of cytokines could predict the severity of COVID-19, among which IP-10 and M-CSF were excellent predictors for disease severity. In conclusion, the levels of cytokines in COVID-19 were significantly correlated with the severity of the disease in the early stage, and serum cytokines could be used as warning indicators of the severity and progression of COVID-19. Early stratification of disease and intervention to reduce hypercytokinaemia may improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Immunol Res ; 69(5): 457-460, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345195

ABSTRACT

In this manuscript, COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, Nipah virus infection, SARS, and MERS are suggested to be considered for a novel immunological reclassification as acute onset immune dysrhythmia syndrome (n-AIDS) due to altered monocytic, Th1/Th2, as well as cytokines and chemokines balances. n-AIDs is postulated to be the cause of the acute respiratory distress and multi-inflammatory syndromes which are described with fatal COVID-19, and immunomodulators are suggested to effectively manage the mentioned diseases as well as for other disorders caused by Th1/Th2 imbalance. Meanwhile, para COVID syndrome is suggested to describe various immune-related complications, whether before or after recovery, and to embrace a potential of a latent infection, that might be discovered later, as occurred with Ebola virus disease. Finally, our hypothesis has evolved out of our real-life practice that uses immunomodulatory drugs to manage COVID-19 safely and effectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Henipavirus Infections/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Henipavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology
9.
Nature ; 588(7837): 315-320, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337122

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) produces more severe symptoms and higher mortality among men than among women1-5. However, whether immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) differ between sexes, and whether such differences correlate with the sex difference in the disease course of COVID-19, is currently unknown. Here we examined sex differences in viral loads, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titres, plasma cytokines and blood-cell phenotyping in patients with moderate COVID-19 who had not received immunomodulatory medications. Male patients had higher plasma levels of innate immune cytokines such as IL-8 and IL-18 along with more robust induction of non-classical monocytes. By contrast, female patients had more robust T cell activation than male patients during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Notably, we found that a poor T cell response negatively correlated with patients' age and was associated with worse disease outcome in male patients, but not in female patients. By contrast, higher levels of innate immune cytokines were associated with worse disease progression in female patients, but not in male patients. These findings provide a possible explanation for the observed sex biases in COVID-19, and provide an important basis for the development of a sex-based approach to the treatment and care of male and female patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Characteristics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Monocytes/immunology , Phenotype , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 40, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335407

ABSTRACT

In its severe form, corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) is characterized by various immunological abnormalities, dominated by massive pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release, such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1b, IFN-y and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), associated with T CD3, T CD4 and T CD8 lymphopenia. These two abnormalities are significantly associated with COVID-19 acute severe respiratory syndrome. Conversely, these markers decrease during the favorable course of the disease. Coupled with other biological parameters such as leukopenia, increased level of CRP (C Reactive Protein), ferritin and D-dimers, high levels of IL-6 with CD4 and CD8 T cell lymphopenia may be considered as criteria of disease severity, justifying a rapid admission to the intensive care unit, and are also useful for patient monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254367, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304472

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 serological test must have high sensitivity as well as specificity to rule out cross-reactivity with common coronaviruses (HCoVs). We have developed a quantitative multiplex test, measuring antibodies against spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and common human coronavirus strains (229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1), and nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV viruses. Receptor binding domain of S protein of SARS-CoV-2 (S-RBD), and N protein, demonstrated sensitivity (94% and 92.5%, respectively) in COVID-19 patients (n = 53), with 98% specificity in non-COVID-19 respiratory-disease (n = 98), and healthy-controls (n = 129). Anti S-RBD and N antibodies appeared five to ten days post-onset of symptoms, peaking at approximately four weeks. The appearance of IgG and IgM coincided while IgG subtypes, IgG1 and IgG3 appeared soon after the total IgG; IgG2 and IgG4 remained undetectable. Several inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were found to be elevated in many COVID-19 patients (e.g., Eotaxin, Gro-α, CXCL-10 (IP-10), RANTES (CCL5), IL-2Rα, MCP-1, and SCGF-b); CXCL-10 was elevated in all. In contrast to antibody titers, levels of CXCL-10 decreased with the improvement in patient health suggesting it as a candidate for disease resolution. Importantly, anti-N antibodies appear before S-RBD and differentiate between vaccinated and infected people-current vaccines (and several in the pipeline) are S protein-based.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Chemokines , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2099: 195-204, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292553

ABSTRACT

Innate immune cells play a vital role in mounting an effective host response to a variety of pathogen challenges. Myeloid cells such as neutrophils and monocyte-macrophages are major innate leukocytes that orchestrate protective immunity to viral lung infections. However, a dysregulated cytokine response can promote excessive infiltration and robust pro-inflammatory activity of neutrophils and monocyte-macrophages, leading to fatal disease. Following virus infection, the beneficial or deleterious role of infiltrating neutrophils and monocyte-macrophages is determined largely by their ability to secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. A majority of studies use the total number of infiltrating cells and their activation status as measures to demonstrate their role during an infection. Consequently, the ability of neutrophils and Inflammatory Monocyte Macrophages (IMMs) to secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and its correlation with the disease severity, is not well defined. In this chapter, we report useful markers to identify lung infiltrating innate immune cells and define their activation status. We also describe a simple method to measure intracellular cytokine production to evaluate the inflammatory activity of neutrophils and IMMs in a mouse model of human coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Monocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology
13.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287275

ABSTRACT

The recently discovered exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), compared with protein kinase A (PKA), is a fairly new family of cAMP effectors. Soon after the discovery, EPAC has shown its significance in many diseases including its emerging role in infectious diseases. In a recent study, we demonstrated that EPAC, but not PKA, is a promising therapeutic target to regulate respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication and its associated inflammation. In mammals, there are two isoforms of EPAC-EPAC1 and EPAC2. Unlike other viruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Ebola virus, which use EPAC1 to regulate viral replication, RSV uses EPAC2 to control its replication and associated cytokine/chemokine responses. To determine whether EPAC2 protein has a broad impact on other respiratory viral infections, we used an EPAC2-specific inhibitor, MAY0132, to examine the functions of EPAC2 in human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and adenovirus (AdV) infections. HMPV is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Pneumoviridae, which also includes RSV, while AdV is a double-stranded DNA virus. Treatment with an EPAC1-specific inhibitor was also included to investigate the impact of EPAC1 on these two viruses. We found that the replication of HMPV, AdV, and RSV and the viral-induced immune mediators are significantly impaired by MAY0132, while an EPAC1-specific inhibitor, CE3F4, does not impact or slightly impacts, demonstrating that EPAC2 could serve as a novel common therapeutic target to control these viruses, all of which do not have effective treatment and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/physiology , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/genetics , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/metabolism , Metapneumovirus/physiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , Virus Replication , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Chemokines/immunology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Quinolines/pharmacology
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 668507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226979

ABSTRACT

SARS-COV-2 virus is responsible for the ongoing devastating pandemic. Since the early phase of the pandemic, the "cytokine-storm" appeared a peculiar aspect of SARS-COV-2 infection which, at least in the severe cases, is responsible for respiratory treat damage and subsequent multi-organ failure. The efforts made in the last few months elucidated that the cytokine-storm results from a complex network involving cytokines/chemokines/infiltrating-immune-cells which orchestrate the aberrant immune response in COVID-19. Clinical and experimental studies aimed at depicting a potential "immune signature" of SARS-COV-2, identified three main "actors," namely the cytokine IL-6, the chemokine CXCL10 and the infiltrating immune cell type macrophages. Although other cytokines, chemokines and infiltrating immune cells are deeply involved and their role should not be neglected, based on currently available data, IL-6, CXCL10, and infiltrating macrophages could be considered prototype factors representing each component of the immune system. It rapidly became clear that a strong and continuous interplay among the three components of the immune response is mandatory in order to produce a severe clinical course of the disease. Indeed, while IL-6, CXCL10 and macrophages alone would not be able to fully drive the onset and maintenance of the cytokine-storm, the establishment of a IL-6/CXCL10/macrophages axis is crucial in driving the sequence of events characterizing this condition. The present review is specifically aimed at overviewing current evidences provided by both in vitro and in vivo studies addressing the issue of the interplay among IL-6, CXCL10 and macrophages in the onset and progression of cytokine storm. SARS-COV-2 infection and the "cytokine storm."


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Vaccine ; 38(50): 7897-7904, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912658

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rubella virus (RV) was eliminated in the United States in 2004, although a small portion of the population fails to develop long-term immunity against RV even after two doses of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. We hypothesized that inherent biological differences in cytokine and chemokine signaling likely govern an individual's response to a third dose of the vaccine. METHODS: Healthy young women (n = 97) were selected as study participants if they had either low or high extremes of RV-specific antibody titer after two previous doses of MMR vaccine. We measured cytokine and chemokine secretion from RV-stimulated PBMCs before and 28 days after they received a third dose of MMR vaccine and assessed correlations with humoral immune response outcomes. RESULTS: High and low antibody vaccine responders exhibited a strong pro-inflammatory cellular response, with an underlying Th1-associated signature (IL-2, IFN-γ, MIP-1ß, IP-10) and suppressed production of most Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13). IL-10 and IL-4 exhibited significant negative associations with neutralizing antibody titers and memory B cell ELISpot responses among low vaccine responders. CONCLUSION: IL-4 and IL-10 signaling pathways may be potential targets for understanding and improving the immune response to rubella vaccination or for designing new vaccines that induce more durable immunity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Rubella/immunology , Adult , Chemokines/immunology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Middle Aged , Rubella/prevention & control , Young Adult
16.
J Virol ; 94(19)2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852551

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a pandemic of respiratory illness. Current evidence suggests that severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 are associated with a dysregulated immune response. However, little is known about how the innate immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we modeled SARS-CoV-2 infection using primary human airway epithelial (pHAE) cultures, which are maintained in an air-liquid interface. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infects and replicates in pHAE cultures and is directionally released on the apical, but not basolateral, surface. Transcriptional profiling studies found that infected pHAE cultures had a molecular signature dominated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine induction, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CXCL8, and identified NF-κB and ATF-4 as key drivers of this proinflammatory cytokine response. Surprisingly, we observed a complete lack of a type I or III interferon (IFN) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, pretreatment and posttreatment with type I and III IFNs significantly reduced virus replication in pHAE cultures that correlated with upregulation of antiviral effector genes. Combined, our findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 does not trigger an IFN response but is sensitive to the effects of type I and III IFNs. Our studies demonstrate the utility of pHAE cultures to model SARS-CoV-2 infection and that both type I and III IFNs can serve as therapeutic options to treat COVID-19 patients.IMPORTANCE The current pandemic of respiratory illness, COVID-19, is caused by a recently emerged coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2. This virus infects airway and lung cells causing fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Severe cases of COVID-19 can result in lung damage, low blood oxygen levels, and even death. As there are currently no vaccines approved for use in humans, studies of the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection are urgently needed. Our research identifies an excellent system to model SARS-CoV-2 infection of the human airways that can be used to test various treatments. Analysis of infection in this model system found that human airway epithelial cell cultures induce a strong proinflammatory cytokine response yet block the production of type I and III IFNs to SARS-CoV-2. However, treatment of airway cultures with the immune molecules type I or type III interferon (IFN) was able to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, our model system identified type I or type III IFN as potential antiviral treatments for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/immunology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Chemokines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Dogs , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/cytology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2132, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782002

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, COVID-19, was discovered to be the causal agent of a severe respiratory infection named SARS-CoV-2, and it has since been recognized worldwide as a pandemic. There are still numerous doubts concerning its pathogenesis and particularly the underlying causes of the various clinical courses, ranging from severe manifestations to asymptomatic forms, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. The major factor responsible for acute respiratory distress syndrome is the so-called "cytokine storm," which is an aberrant response from the host immune system that induces an exaggerated release of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. In this review, we will discuss the role of cytokine storm in COVID-19 and potential treatments with which counteract this aberrant response, which may be valuable in the clinical translation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Nat Med ; 26(10): 1623-1635, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717130

ABSTRACT

Improved understanding and management of COVID-19, a potentially life-threatening disease, could greatly reduce the threat posed by its etiologic agent, SARS-CoV-2. Toward this end, we have identified a core peripheral blood immune signature across 63 hospital-treated patients with COVID-19 who were otherwise highly heterogeneous. The signature includes discrete changes in B and myelomonocytic cell composition, profoundly altered T cell phenotypes, selective cytokine/chemokine upregulation and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Some signature traits identify links with other settings of immunoprotection and immunopathology; others, including basophil and plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion, correlate strongly with disease severity; while a third set of traits, including a triad of IP-10, interleukin-10 and interleukin-6, anticipate subsequent clinical progression. Hence, contingent upon independent validation in other COVID-19 cohorts, individual traits within this signature may collectively and individually guide treatment options; offer insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis; and aid early, risk-based patient stratification that is particularly beneficial in phasic diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Basophils/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cell Cycle , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Chemokines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Flow Cytometry , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Up-Regulation
19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(1): 226-231, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648995

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been linked to a higher risk of mortality compared to influenza, which is mainly due to severe secondary diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In turn, ARDS is characterized by an acute inflammation and an excessive activity of the coagulation cascade, rising the vulnerability for venous thromboembolic events. In order to investigate the relation of inflammation and the influence of coagulation factors on their release, human peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) were treated with autologous serum, heparinized plasma and different doses of fibrin. Thereafter, the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the secretome of PBMCs was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our analyses revealed autologous serum to significantly increase the secretion of cytokines and chemokines after 24 h of incubation time. Furthermore, the addition of fibrin markedly increased the secretion of cytokines and chemokines by PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Consequently, in accordance with previous studies, our study outlines that anti-coagulation may constitute a promising tool for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, reducing both, the cytokine storm, as well as the risk for thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Fibrin , Inflammation , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fibrin/immunology , Fibrin/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/therapy , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2
20.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616594

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often related to hyperinflammation that drives lung or multiorgan injury. The immunopathological mechanisms that cause excessive inflammation are under investigation and constantly updated. Here, a gene network approach was used on recently published data sets to identify possible COVID-19 inflammatory mechanisms and bioactive genes. First, network analysis of putative SARS-CoV-2 cellular receptors led to the mining of a neutrophil-response signature and relevant inflammatory genes. Second, analysis of RNA-seq data sets of lung cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 revealed that infected cells expressed neutrophil-attracting chemokines. Third, analysis of RNA-seq data sets of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells from COVID-19 patients identified upregulation of neutrophil genes and chemokines. Different inflammatory genes mined here, including TNFR, IL-8, CXCR1, CXCR2, ADAM10, GPR84, MME, ANPEP, and LAP3, might be druggable targets in efforts to limit SARS-CoV-2 inflammation in severe clinical cases. The possible role of neutrophils in COVID-19 inflammation needs to be studied further.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , COVID-19 , Chemokines/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Neutrophil Infiltration/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
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