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Mol Neurobiol ; 57(12): 4921-4928, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722661


The global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has taken the entire human race by surprise and led to an unprecedented number of mortalities worldwide so far. Current clinical studies have interpreted that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the host receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition, ACE2 is the major component of the renin-angiotensin system. ACE2 deteriorates angiotensin II, a peptide that is responsible for the promotion of stroke. The downregulation of ACE2 further activates an immunological cascade. Thus, researchers need to explore and examine the possible links between COVID-19 and ischemic stroke (IS). Human ACE2 expression level and pattern in various tissues might be decisive for the vulnerability, symptoms, and treatment outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The swift increase in the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 has given creditable evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infected patients also encounter neurological deficits. As the SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE2, it will hamper the activity of ACE2 in providing neuroprotection, especially in the case of stroke patients. Due to the downregulation of ACE2, the inflammatory response is activated in the ischemic penumbra. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people with various pre-existing diseases, including IS, in such a way that these patients need special care and attention for their survival. Several clinical trials are currently ongoing worldwide as well as many other projects are in different stages of conceptualization and planning to facilitate the effective management of stroke patients with COVID-19 infection.

Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Stroke/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/immunology , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Chemotaxis, Leukocyte , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/physiology , Encephalitis, Viral/complications , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Inflammation , Models, Immunological , Models, Neurological , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/physiopathology