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2.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 88, 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has been associated with a plethora of different manifestations of systems affected (including pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and thrombotic disease) and time to presentation of complications. Pneumothorax has been established as a complication in the literature. However, tension pneumothorax remains a rare presentation with higher mortality. We report a case of secondary tension pneumothorax in a patient following apparent recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonitis. CASE PRESENTATION: Eight days after resolution of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonitis symptoms, a 51-year-old Caucasian man with no pre-existing pulmonary disease was brought into the emergency department following 48 hours of progressive shortness of breath. Further clinical assessment revealed reduced breath sounds in the right lung, blood pressure was 116/95 mmHg, and jugular venous pressure was not elevated. Chest x-ray showed right-sided tension pneumothorax with mediastinal shift. Insertion of a chest drain led to rapid resolution of symptoms, and the patient was discharged following full re-expansion of the lung. CONCLUSIONS: The period of recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 is variable. Clinicians should consider tension pneumothorax as a possible complication of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonitis in patients presenting with type 1 respiratory failure, even after resolution of pneumonitis symptoms and a considerable time period following initial contraction of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Chest Tubes/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/complications , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
JAMA Surg ; 157(3): 269-274, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653142

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Thoracostomy, or chest tube placement, is used in a variety of clinical indications and can be lifesaving in certain circumstances. There have been developments and modifications to thoracostomy tubes, or chest tubes, over time, but they continue to be a staple in the thoracic surgeon's toolbox as well as adjacent specialties in medicine. This review will provide the nonexpert clinician a comprehensive understanding of the types of chest tubes, indications for their effective use, and key management details for ideal patient outcomes. OBSERVATIONS: This review describes the types of chest tubes, indications for use, techniques for placement, common anatomical landmarks that are encountered with placement and management, and an overview of complications that may arise with tube thoracostomy. In addition, the future direction of chest tubes is explored, as well as the management of chest tubes during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Chest tube management is subjective, but the compilation of data can inform best practices and safe application to successfully manage the pleural space and ameliorate acquired pleural space disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chest Tubes , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracostomy/methods
4.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211013215, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598539

ABSTRACT

Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is associated with high morbidity if left untreated. Although rare, the frequency of BPF in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming recognized in medical literature. We present a case of a 64-year-old male with BPF with persistent air leak due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia treated with Spiration Valve System endobronchial valve (EBV). An EBV was placed in the right middle lobe with successful cessation of air leak. In conclusion, the use of EBVs for BPF with persistent air leaks in SARS-CoV-2 patients who are poor surgical candidates is effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/complications , Empyema, Pleural/surgery , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Surgical Instruments , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , Chest Tubes , Empyema, Pleural/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracostomy
5.
Infection ; 50(2): 525-529, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460518

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may result not only in acute symptoms such as severe pneumonia, but also in persisting symptoms after months. Here we present a 1 year follow-up of a patient with a secondary tension pneumothorax due to COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: In May 2020, a 47-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department with fever, dry cough, and sore throat as well as acute chest pain and shortness of breath. Sputum testing (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) and computed tomography (CT) confirmed infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Eleven days after discharge, the patient returned to the emergency department with pronounced dyspnoea after coughing. CT showed a right-sided tension pneumothorax, which was relieved by a chest drain (Buelau) via mini open thoracotomy. For a period of 3 months following resolution of the pneumothorax the patient complained of fatigue with mild joint pain and dyspnoea. After 1 year, the patient did not suffer from any persisting symptoms. The pulmonary function and blood parameters were normal, with the exception of slightly increased levels of D-Dimer. The CT scan revealed only discrete ground glass opacities (GGO) and subpleural linear opacities. CONCLUSION: Tension pneumothorax is a rare, severe complication of a SARS-CoV-2 infection but may resolve after treatment without negative long-term sequelae. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , COVID-19/complications , Chest Tubes/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 31(1): 42-47, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The use of digital chest drainage units (CDUs) has become increasingly common in thoracic surgery due to several advantages. However, in cardiac surgery, its use is still limited in favour of conventional analogue CDUs. In order to investigate the potential benefit of digital CDUs in cardiac surgery, we compared the safety and efficacy of both systems in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at our centre. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 265 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at our institution between June 2017 and October 2017. These patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with analogue (A, n = 65) and digital CDUs (D, n = 200). Postoperative outcome was analysed and compared between both groups. In addition, the 'user experience' was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. RESULTS: The median age of the cohort was 70 years (P = 0.167), 25.3% of patients were female (P = 0.414). There were no differences in terms of re-explorative surgery or use of blood products. Nor was there a difference in the overall amount of fluid collected. However, during the first 6 h, more fluid was collected by the digital CDUs. The overall rate of technical failure was 0.4%. We observed a significantly higher rate of clotting in the tubing system of the digital CDUs (P = 0.042). Concerning the user experience, the digital CDUs were associated with a more favourable ease of use on the regular wards (P < 0.001). With regard to the overall user experience, the digital CDUs outperformed the analogue systems (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Digital CDUs can be safely and effectively applied in patients after cardiac surgery. Due to the improved patient mobility and simplified chest tube management, the use of digital CDUs may be advantageous for patients after cardiac surgery. However, the issue of clotting of the tubing systems should be addressed by further technical improvements.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Chest Tubes , Drainage/methods , Postoperative Care/methods , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 293, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Re-expansion pulmonary edema is an uncommon complication following drainage of a pneumothorax or pleural effusion. While pneumothorax is noted to complicate COVID-19 patients, no case of COVID-19 developing re-expansion pulmonary edema has been reported. CASE REPRESENTATION: A man in his early 40 s without a smoking history and underlying pulmonary diseases suddenly complained of left chest pain with dyspnea 1 day after being diagnosed with COVID-19. Chest X-ray revealed pneumothorax in the left lung field, and a chest tube was inserted into the intrathoracic space without negative pressure 9 h after the onset of chest pain, resulting in the disappearance of respiratory symptoms; however, 2 h thereafter, dyspnea recurred with lower oxygenation status. Chest X-ray revealed improvement of collapse but extensive infiltration in the expanded lung. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with re-expansion pulmonary edema, and his dyspnea and oxygenation status gradually improved without any intervention, such as steroid administration. Abnormal lung images also gradually improved within several days. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the rare presentation of re-expansion pulmonary edema following pneumothorax drainage in a patient with COVID-19, which recovered without requiring treatment for viral pneumonia. Differentiating re-expansion pulmonary edema from viral pneumonia is crucial to prevent unnecessary medication for COVID-19 pneumonia and pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chest Tubes , Pneumothorax/therapy , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Hong Kong Med J ; 27(4): 306-308, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352972
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175140

ABSTRACT

A 71-year-old woman was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department with sudden-onset difficulty in breathing whilst shopping at a large UK retail shopping centre. She had no respiratory history and portable chest X-ray revealed a huge gastrothorax, secondary pneumothorax and mediastinal shift. Clinical deterioration with haemodynamic instability required urgent decompression. Successful needle decompression followed by tube thoracostomy improved patient condition with no further complications. Surgical repair was performed but was delayed by COVID-19. This case provides a rare presentation of an acute life-threatening tension gastrothorax with difficult management considerations. A review of the management options is undertaken.


Subject(s)
Hernia/diagnosis , Mediastinum/pathology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19 , Chest Tubes , Decompression, Surgical , Diagnosis, Differential , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hernia/therapy , Humans , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Thoracostomy
11.
A A Pract ; 15(3): e01419, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150452

ABSTRACT

The risk of aerosol transmission has been a key factor for the rapid dissemination of the coronavirus pandemic. Transportation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected patients with active air leaks could expose unprotected health care personnel and other patients to aerosolized viral particles. We devised a way to avoid aerosolization while the chest tube drain is on water seal. It involves placing an Ultipor100 viral filter on the suction port of the drain system as well as sealing off the safety valve. This mechanism allows positive pressure from an air leak to escape while on water seal while trapping viral particles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Carrier State/prevention & control , Chest Tubes/adverse effects , Disease Management , Inventions/trends , Postoperative Care/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Humans , Postoperative Care/methods
12.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(2): 132-137, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM), its clinical course and effect on prognosis in patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Kayseri City Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from April  to September 2020. METHODOLOGY: All COVID-19 patients' clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics, as well as treatment outcome data, were obtained through medical record extraction. Group A had 50 patients (22 men and 28 women) without SPM, and Group B had 20 patients (10 men and 10 women) with SPM. RESULTS: Considering the accompanying comorbidities, the frequencies of asthma and inhaler-use was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (p <0.05). In the CT evaluation at presentation, the rate of involvement of all five lobes of the lung in Group B was significantly higher than in Group A. Rates of tube thoracostomy, mechanical ventilator requirement, length of stay in hospital, and exitus were significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: SPM development in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia is a sign that the prognosis will not be good, and these patients need a more aggressive treatment. Key Words: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum, COVID-19, Pneumothorax, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Subcutaneous emphysema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chest Tubes , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/virology , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Thoracostomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(1): S29-S31, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068271

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease mainly affects respiratory system. Its common clinical findings include fever, cough and shortness of breath. Characteristic radiological features of the disease include peripherally distributed, bilateral ground-glass opacities, predominantly involving the lower lung zones. In this report, we present a case of COVID-19 disease presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax. A 26-year male patient was admitted to the Emergency Department with fever, dry cough, shortness of breath and right-sided chest pain. Radiographic imaging of the patient revealed pneumothorax on the right and peripherally distributed non-homogenous opacification. The patient underwent right lateral tube thoracostomy. COVID-19 was diagnosed on testing of nasopharyngeal swab. In conclusion, spontaneous pneumothorax is one of the rare presentations of COVID-19 pneumonia and should be kept in mind in patients presenting with shortness of breath and chest pain. Key Words: Spontaneous pneumothorax, Corona, pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Chest Tubes , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Male , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066837

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 37-year-old man presented with fevers and myalgias for a week with a minimal dry cough. Initial SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal testing was negative, but in light of high community prevalence, he was diagnosed with COVID-19, treated with supportive care and self-quarantined at home. Three days after resolution of all symptoms, he developed sudden onset chest pain. Chest imaging revealed a large right-sided pneumothorax and patchy subpleural ground glass opacities. IgM and IgG antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 were positive. His pneumothorax resolved after placement of a small-bore chest tube, which was removed after 2 days.This case demonstrates that patients with COVID-19 can develop a significant pulmonary complication, a large pneumothorax, despite only minimal lower respiratory tract symptoms and after resolution of the original illness. Medical professionals should consider development of a pneumothorax in patients who have recovered from COVID-19 and present with new respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Convalescence , Pneumothorax/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Chest Pain/physiopathology , Chest Tubes , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/physiopathology , Pneumothorax/therapy , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thoracostomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(Suppl 2): 102-105, 2020. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1043192

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION What has been published so far regarding safe methods to deal with chest tube insertion during COVID-19. METHODS A descriptive study of the literature available in the Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, Scopus databases and specialized books. The search was carried out using the terms "infectious diseases"; "COVID-19"; "Chest tubes". RESULTS This paper aggregates and consolidates some old concepts to new tactics to minimize the contamination of teams who deal with chest tubes, before, during, and after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS Health officials are under increasing pressure to control the spread of COVID-19, which is a very virulent disease. Our analysis brought together old rules against contamination along with new tactics for professionals who deal with chest drains in order to minimize the contamination of teams during the Pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Chest Tubes/adverse effects , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 39: 258.e1-258.e3, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023407

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era, the presence of acute respiratory failure is generally associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome; however, it is essential to consider other differential diagnoses that require different, and urgent, therapeutic approaches. Herein we describe a COVID-19 case complicated with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. A previously healthy 45-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with sudden-onset chest pain and progressive shortness of breath 17 days after diagnosis with uncomplicated COVID-19 infection. He was tachypneic and presented severe hypoxemia (75% percutaneous oxygen saturation). Breath sounds were diminished bilaterally on auscultation. A chest X-ray revealed the presence of a large bilateral pneumothorax. A thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the large bilateral pneumothorax, with findings consistent with severe COVID-19 infection. Chest tubes were inserted, with immediate clinical improvement. Follow-up chest CT scan revealed resolution of bilateral pneumothorax, reduction of parenchymal consolidation, and formation of large bilateral pneumatoceles. The patient remained under observation and was then discharged home. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax is a very rare, potentially life-threatening complication in patients with COVID-19. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this complication early to prevent potentially fatal consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/virology , Chest Tubes , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/therapy , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(5): 470-474, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading all over the world. The occurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients might be higher than the fact, and we should pay high clinical attention to them. METHOD: Data regarding clinical investigation, laboratory investigation, diagnosis, and treatment measures of 21 COVID-19 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax from January to March of 2020 were collected and analyzed in this study. RESULTS: Seven patients had a history of basic lung diseases. All patients used different methods of oxygen therapy before the occurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax according to the severity of the COVID-19, including 18 patients with ventilator-assisted breathing, 2 patients with bilevel positive airway pressure assisted breathing, and 1 patient with mask oxygen inhalation. All patients were confirmed cases of COVID-19 by chest CT (computed tomography) and virus nucleic acid detection and were found to have spontaneous pneumothorax through physical examination, bedside X-ray, and/or bedside ultrasound. 13 of 21 patients combined with pleural effusion at the same time. All the patients underwent closed thoracic drainage for spontaneous pneumothorax and the pleural effusion, if any. Nine patients died, and 12 patients recovered smoothly. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous pneumothorax might be an overlooked complication of COVID-19 patients and may be associated with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chest Tubes , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 32(3): 367-370, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939568

ABSTRACT

We report the first surgical series of patients developing pleural empyema after severe bilateral interstitial lung disease in confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The empyema results in a complex medical challenge that requires combination of medical therapies, mechanical ventilation and surgery. The chest drainage approach was not successful to relieve the symptomatology and to drain the excess fluid. After multidisciplinary discussion, a surgical approach was recommended. Even though decortication and pleurectomy are high-risk procedures, they must be considered as an option for pleural effusion in Coronavirus disease-positive patients. This is a life-treating condition, which can worsen the coronavirus disease manifestation and should be treated immediately to improve patient's status and chance of recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Drainage/methods , Empyema, Pleural/surgery , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chest Tubes , Empyema, Pleural/epidemiology , Empyema, Pleural/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Switzerland/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 58(6): 1216-1221, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915869

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a novel coronavirus, affects mainly the pulmonary parenchyma and produces significant morbidity and mortality. During the pandemic, several complications have been shown to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our goal was to present a series of patients with COVID-19 who underwent chest tube placements due to the development of pleural complications and to make suggestions for the insertion and follow-up management of the chest tube. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in our hospital between 11 March and 15 May 2020. Patients from this patient group who developed pleural complications requiring chest tube insertion were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 542 patients who were suspected of having COVID-19 were hospitalized. The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed with laboratory tests in 342 patients between 11 March and 15 May 2020 in our centre. A chest tube was used in 13 (3.8%) of these patients. A high-efficiency particulate air filter mounted double-bottle technique was used to prevent viral transmission. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, the chest tube can be applied in cases with disease or treatment-related pleural complications. Our case series comprised a small group of patients, which is one of its limitations. Still, our main goal was to present our experience with patients with pleural complications and describe a new drainage technique to prevent viral transmission during chest tube application and follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chest Tubes , Drainage/instrumentation , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pleural Diseases/therapy , Aftercare/methods , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission , Drainage/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pleural Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
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