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1.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 133, 2023 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polyradiculoneuropathy following infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) is rare and most of the time, happens in the context of reactivation of latent VZV. We report a case of acute polyradiculoneuropathy following primary infection with VZV marked by atypical clinical features raising the hypothesis of a para-infectious disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 43-years-old male who developed ataxia, dysphagia, dysphonia, and oculomotor disorders (vertical binocular diplopia and bilateral ptosis) followed by quadriplegia with areflexia which occurred 4 days later. The patient had a history of varicella that occurred 10 days before the onset of these symptoms. Nerve conduction study revealed features consistent with an acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN). Anti-ganglioside antibodies were negative. Based on clinical presentation and ancillary examination, we retain the Miller Fisher/Guillain-Barré overlap syndrome diagnosis. The patient was treated with high doses of methylprednisolone but the evolution of the disease was nevertheless marked by a complete recovery six weeks after onset of symptoms. CONCLUSION: GBS following varicella is a rare but severe disease occurring most often in adults and marked by greater involvement of the cranial nerves. Its clinical features suggest that it is a para-infectious disease. Antiviral therapy has no effect on the course of the disease but its administration within the first 24 h after the onset of chickenpox in adults can prevent its occurrence.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Communicable Diseases , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Miller Fisher Syndrome , Adult , Male , Humans , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Chickenpox/complications , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Diplopia/complications , Communicable Diseases/complications
2.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283465, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varicella is usually a mild disease in children but may be life-threatening, especially in adolescents and adults. Infection control measures implemented during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have suppressed varicella transmission, potentially creating an 'immunity debt', particularly in countries without universal varicella vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in Google search engine queries for varicella keywords as a proxy for varicella infection rates and to evaluate the effect of universal varicella vaccination on these trends. A further objective was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on varicella keyword search query trends in countries with and without universal varicella vaccination. METHODS: This study used the keyword research tool, Google Trends, to evaluate trends in time series of the relative search query popularity of language-specific varicella keywords in 28 European countries from January 2015 through December 2021. The Google Ads Keyword Planner tool was used to evaluate absolute search volumes from March 2018 through December 2021. RESULTS: The relative search query popularity of varicella keywords displayed marked seasonal variation. In all 28 countries, the relative search query popularity of varicella keywords declined after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020), compared with pre-pandemic levels (range, -18% to -70%). From April 2020 to July 2021, a period of intense COVID-19 transmission and infection control, absolute search volumes for varicella keywords were lower than pre-pandemic levels but rebounded after July 2021, when infection control measures were relaxed. CONCLUSION: This evaluation of search query trends demonstrated that search query data could be used as a proxy for trends in varicella infection rates and revealed that transmission of varicella may have been suppressed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Consideration should be given to using search query data to better understand the burden of varicella, particularly in countries where surveillance systems are inadequate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Child , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Europe/epidemiology , Vaccination , Immunization , Search Engine
4.
Vaccine ; 41(6): 1182-1189, 2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278521

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Although usually benign, varicella can lead to serious complications and sometimes long-term sequelae. Vaccines are safe and effective but not yet included in immunisation programmes in many countries. We aimed to quantify the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in children with varicella and their families, key to assessing cost-utility in countries with low mortality due to this infection. METHODS: Children with varicella in the community and admitted to hospitals in Portugal were included over 18 months from January 2019. Children's and carers' HRQoL losses were assessed prospectively using standard multi-attribute utility instruments for measuring HRQoL (EQ-5D and CHU9D), from presentation to recovery, allowing the calculation of QALYs. RESULTS: Among 109 families with children with varicella recruited from attendees at a pediatric emergency service (community arm), the mean HRQoL loss/child was 2.0 days (95 % CI 1.9-2.2, n = 101) (mean 5.4 QALYs/1000 children (95 % CI 5.3-6.1) and 1.3 days/primary carer (95 % CI 1.2-1.6, n = 103) (mean 3.6 QALYs /1000 carers (95 % CI 3.4-4.4). Among 114 families with children admitted to hospital because of severe varicella or a complication (hospital arm), the mean HRQoL loss/child was 9.8 days (95 % CI 9.4-10.6, n = 114) (mean 26.8 QALYs /1000 children (95 % CI 25.8-29.0) and 8.5 days/primary carer (95 % CI 7.4-9.6, n = 114) (mean 23.4 QALYs/1000 carers (95 % CI 20.3-26.2). Mean QALY losses/1000 patients were particularly high for bone and joint infections [67.5 (95 % CI 43.9-97.6)]. Estimates for children's QALYs lost using the CHU9D tool were well correlated with those obtained using EQ-5D, but substantially lower. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of varicella on HRQoL is substantial. We report the first measurements of QALYs lost in hospitalised children and in the families of children both in the community and admitted to hospital, providing important information to guide vaccination policy recommendations.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Quality of Life , Humans , Child , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Prospective Studies , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Portugal , Cost-Benefit Analysis
5.
CMAJ ; 195(8): E300-E303, 2023 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270325

Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Adult , Humans , Canada
6.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 568-573, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252502

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus. The characteristic feature of this virus is very high visibility of 90-95%. The most common connection is direct contact with the disease or via droplets. The United States was the first country to introduce a universal, population-based childhood varicella vaccination program in 1995. In its 25 years of implementation, this program has significantly reduced the burden of chickenpox. There was a more than 97% reduction in varicella incidence and a 90% reduction in varicella-related hospitalizations and deaths, the highest (99%) in those under the age of 20 (born after starting the vaccination programme). Chickenpox is very common in Poland. In recent years, starting from 2002, there has been an upward trend in the incidence of chickenpox, except for 2020. In 2020, a decrease in the number of cases was recorded. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2020 and to compare it with the situation in previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2020 was based on the results of the analysis of aggregate data published in the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2020." and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2020". In addition, recommendations from the Protective Vaccination Program for 2020 were used. RESULTS: In 2020, 71,567 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland, i.e. 39.6% less than in the previous year. The incidence of chickenpox in 2020 was 186.6 per 100,000 and was lower than in 2019. The lowest incidence was recorded in the Swietokrzyskie Voivodship - 118.5/100,000, while the highest in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship - 263.5/100,000. Most cases concerned children aged 0-4 years (36,661). The incidence of chickenpox in men was higher than in women, and in rural areas higher than in urban dwellers. Hospitalization due to chickenpox in 2020 covered 1,368 people, which accounted for 0.51% of the total number of registered cases. CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, there was a decrease in the number of cases of chickenpox compared to the previous year. The lower incidence may have been the result of reduced transmission of the varicella virus due to changes in the health behavior of the population during the COVID-19 pandemic (isolation measures and the introduction of a lock down throughout Poland limiting the activity of the population).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Child , Male , Humans , Female , Infant , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mass Vaccination , Disease Outbreaks , Registries , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Rural Population , Urban Population , Incidence
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e068611, 2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270939

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While still a ubiquitous disease of childhood, chickenpox has been effectively controlled in many countries through the use of vaccination. Previous health economic assessment of the use of these vaccines in the UK were based on limited quality of life data and only routinely collected epidemiological outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This two armed study will carry prospective surveillance of hospital admissions and recruit from community settings to measure the acute quality of life loss caused by paediatric chickenpox both in the UK and in Portugal. The quality of life effects on children and their primary and secondary caregivers will be assessed using the EuroQol EQ-5D with the Child Health Utility instrument (CHU-9) in addition for children. Results will be used to derive quality-adjusted life year loss estimates for cases of simple varicella and the secondary complications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We have received National Health Service ethical approval (REC ref: 18/ES/0040) for the inpatient arm, university ethical approval (University of Bristol ref: 60721) for the community arm and 10 sites currently are recruiting in the UK and 14 in Portugal. Informed consent is obtained from the parent(s). Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15017985.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Child , Humans , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , State Medicine , Quality of Life , Hospitalization , Hospitals
8.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14958, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, many countries, including Japan, implemented policies limiting social activities and encouraging preventive behaviors. This study examines the influence of such policies on the trends of 10 infectious pediatric diseases: pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; herpangina; respiratory syncytial virus; exanthem subitum; and mumps. METHODS: The research adopted a retrospective cohort study design. We collected data from Japan's National Epidemiological Surveillance Program detailing the incidences of the 10 diseases per pediatric sentinel site for a period beginning at 9 weeks before government-ordered school closures and ending at 9 weeks after the end of the state of emergency. We obtained corresponding data for the equivalent weeks in 2015-2019. We estimated the influence of the policies using a difference-in-differences regression model. RESULTS: For seven diseases (pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; and herpangina), the incidence in 2020 decreased significantly during and after the school closures. Sensitivity analysis, in which the focus area was limited to the policy-implementation period or existing trend patterns, replicated these significant decreases for one of the above mentioned seven diseases - infectious gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS: Policies such as school closures and encouragement of preventive behaviors were associated with significant decreases in the incidences of most of the 10 diseases, which sensitivity analysis replicated in infectious gastroenteritis. To determine the long-term effects of these policies, prospective cohort studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Communicable Diseases , Erythema Infectiosum , Gastroenteritis , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Herpangina , Pharyngitis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Policy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus pyogenes
10.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 36(2): 109-113, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222952

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin rashes seen during COVID-19 usually feature maculopapular or vesicular morphology, thus mimicking cutaneous eruptions occurring in other common infectious dermatoses, such as mononucleosis, chickenpox, sixth disease and measles, with possible diagnostic mistakes. In this review article, we sought to provide a practical overview about clinical appearance of skin rashes related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The study summarizes literature evidence on clinical patterns of COVID-19-associated maculopapular or vesicular rash, with a particular emphasis on the principal points of differentiation with possible mimickers. SUMMARY: Several differences do exist between rashes due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and other viral eruptions, mainly including lesions morphology, spreading pattern, symptoms and mucosal involvement. The increase of awareness of such features among clinicians may help promptly recognize COVID-19-related exanthemas in order to take proper action to manage the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Exanthema Subitum , Exanthema , Measles , Skin Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Exanthema Subitum/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Chickenpox/complications , Chickenpox/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Exanthema/complications , Measles/complications , Measles/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/diagnosis
11.
Acta Biomed ; 93(6): e2022326, 2022 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205217

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous co-infections have been reported, with some studies indicating that patients with HIV/AIDS have worse outcomes when co-infected with COVID-19. Here, we present the case of a young adult male who presented with disseminated Varicella and was simultaneously diagnosed with AIDS and COVID-19 virus with several infection-related complications.  A 25-year-old African-American male presented to the Emergency Department with vesicular, blistering rashes in multiple dermatomes including his eyelids. The screening test in the ED was positive for COVID-19. Given his high-risk sexual history, he was tested for HIV which returned positive with a CD4 count of zero. He was started on IV antivirals for disseminated varicella with zoster ophthalmicus. The patient was intubated for worsening respiratory failure and required intensive care. During the hospital course, he developed worsening encephalopathy and CSF analysis was positive for CMV and VZV. The patient has a prolonged hospital stay and exhibited evidence of infectious CNS vasculitis and HIV myelopathy. Anti-retroviral therapy was started after the acute period and the patient showed slow but definite clinical improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with AIDS with COVID-19 and disseminated VZV and with multiple complex infection-related complications.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Coinfection , Cytomegalovirus Infections , HIV Infections , Herpes Zoster , Meningoencephalitis , Young Adult , Humans , Male , Adult , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Chickenpox/complications , Pandemics , HIV Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Meningoencephalitis/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications
12.
Euro Surveill ; 28(1)2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198367

ABSTRACT

In 2022, a sevenfold increase in the number of notifiable invasive Streptococcus pyogenes (iGAS) infections among children aged 0-5 years was observed in the Netherlands compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic years. Of 42 cases in this age group, seven had preceding or coinciding varicella zoster infections, nine were fatal. This increase is not attributable to a specific emm type. Vigilance for clinical deterioration as iGAS sign is warranted in young children, especially those with varicella zoster infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Herpes Zoster , Streptococcal Infections , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Adult , Streptococcus pyogenes , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics
13.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 20(10): 1327-1351, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103148

ABSTRACT

Human herpes viruses belong to the DNA viruses and are among the most common viral pathogens. Currently, eight human herpes viruses have been characterized. Primary infection is typically followed by virus latency. Viral reactivations are more often symptomatic than primary infections and lead more often to medical consultation. In daily practice, infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) are the most common. If HSV primary infections become clinically manifest, they are often accompanied by systemic symptoms whereas manifest HSV reactivations are usually harmless, self-limiting and present as grouped vesicles on an erythematous base (herpetiform). Primary VZV infection leads to the clinical picture of varicella (chickenpox). VZV reactivation manifests clinically as shingles and can be accompanied by severe acute neuralgiform pain. In immunosuppression, complicated (necrotizing, ulcerative, hemorrhagic, generalized) manifestations may occur. The diagnosis is usually made clinically. Therapeutic options include topical agents and systemic antivirals. Adequate therapeutic management includes the recognition and treatment of complications such as the possible involvement of other organ systems and pain. Infection during pregnancy may result in transmission to the unborn child.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Herpes Simplex , Herpes Zoster , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickenpox/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Pain
14.
Vaccine ; 40(35): 5095-5102, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000755

ABSTRACT

In 2015, one-dose universal varicella vaccination (UVV) was introduced in the Colombian National Immunization Program targeting children aged 12 months, expanding to a two-dose program in 2019. This study aimed to examine the effect of one-dose UVV on the burden of varicella in Colombia. A retrospective study was conducted using national databases to estimate incidence and mortality for the target (1-4 years old), non-target (less than 1 and 5 years and older) and overall (all age groups) populations from the pre-UVV period (January 2008-June 2015) to the post-UVV period (July 2015-December 2019). A time-series analyses with ARIMA modeling was used to project expected varicella incidence and mortality in the absence of UVV in the post-UVV period. UVV impact was estimated by comparing predicted and observed values, providing point estimates and prediction intervals (PI). Overall vaccination coverage rate was over 90 % from 2016-2019. Following UVV introduction, mean annual incidence rates reduced from 743.6 to 676.8 per 100,000 in the target population and from 203.2 to 198.1 per 100,000 in the overall population. Our study estimated a reduction in varicella incidence from 2017, with the highest reduction of 70.5 % (95 % PI: 78.2-54.2) and 54.8 % (95 % PI: 65.0-36.4) observed in 2019 for the target and the overall populations, respectively. The ARIMA model estimated UVV in Colombia to have prevented 198,236 varicella cases from 2015 to 2019. Mortality reduced in the overall population from 0.8 per 1,000,000 to 0.5 per 1,000,000 and from 1.3 per 1,000,000 to 0.5 per 1,000,000 in the target population, in the pre-UVV and post-UVV periods, respectively. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Our study showed a significant reduction in varicella incidence after implementation of a one-dose UVV program in Colombia, increasing over time. Further assessment is needed to evaluate the impact of a two-dose UVV program in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine , Child , Child, Preschool , Colombia/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varicella is a contagious disease caused by varicella-zoster virus and varicella vaccine (VarV) is the most effective way to prevent and control varicella. Despite high VarV coverage there were still varicella outbreaks in schools and kindergartens. We aim to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of varicella outbreaks in Huangpu District, Shanghai, China from 2011 to 2020. METHODS: For varicella outbreaks, case information and vaccination history were collected. Mann-Kendall test and descriptive methods were used to analyzed the trend and epidemiological catachrestic of varicella outbreaks. RESULTS: A total of 57 varicella outbreaks were reported from 2011 to 2020, including 30 outbreaks (52.6%) in primary schools. The results of the Mann-Kendall trend test (z = 1.97, p = 0.049) showed an upward trend in the number of cases during the study period, but the trend change was not statistically significant. Emergency vaccination was carried out in 42 (73.7%) outbreaks which influenced the duration of the epidemic (F = 4.53, p = 0.0379). A total of 573 varicella cases were reported, including 357 cases (62.3%) who had received at least one dose of varicella vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The number of varicella outbreaks has not changed significantly in the decade from 2011 to 2020. The strategy of varicella vaccination, the development and application of varicella vaccine, and the control measures after the occurrence of varicella outbreaks need to be optimized. In addition to vaccination, as a disease transmitted by contact, quarantine measures, good personal hygiene, environmental disinfection, and ventilation are also important.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Viral Vaccines , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Schools , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated
16.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269596, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 1995, the CDC recommended one-dose routine varicella immunization for children <12 years of age, expanding its recommendation to two doses in 2006. Today, with widespread varicella vaccination coverage, an estimated 3.5 million cases of varicella, 9,000 hospitalizations, and 100 deaths are prevented annually in the United States. Since varicella infections are now uncommon, health care providers (HCPs) may not recognize varicella infections and may prescribe inappropriate treatment. METHODS: An online survey of HCPs was conducted to assess recognition and management of varicella infections. Responses to eight varicella vignettes describing patients with varying varicella symptoms were analyzed and descriptive analyses performed. Stratified analysis comparing responses of those licensed before and in/after 1996 was also performed. RESULTS: 153 HCPs (50 nurse practitioners, 103 doctors) completed the survey. Mean age of respondents was 44 years. 62% were female, and 82% were licensed before 1996. Varicella infection was correctly diagnosed 79% of the time. HCPs correctly recognized uncomplicated varicella vignettes 85% of the time versus 61% of the time for complicated varicella vignettes. Antibiotics were recommended 17% of the time and antivirals 18% of the time, of which 25% and 69% (respectively) were not appropriate per guidelines. HCPs licensed before 1996 were better able to recognize varicella compared to those licensed later, but prescribed more antimicrobials medications to treat varicella. CONCLUSIONS: Although most HCPs recognized varicella infection, a sizable proportion could not recognize cases with complications, and some of the varicella cases were inappropriately treated with antibiotics and/or antivirals. Additional HCP training and high vaccination coverage are important strategies to avoid inaccurate diagnoses and minimize unnecessary exposure to antimicrobial/antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickenpox/diagnosis , Chickenpox/drug therapy , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine/therapeutic use , Child , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , United States , Vaccination
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2044707, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health care workers (HCWs) are disproportionately exposed to infectious diseases and play a role in nosocomial transmission, making them a key demographic for vaccination. HCW vaccination rates are not optimal in many countries; hence, compulsory vaccination policies have been implemented in some countries. Although these policies are effective and necessary under certain conditions, resolving HCWs' hesitancies and misconceptions about vaccines is crucial. HCWs have the advantage of direct contact with patients; hence, they can respond to safety concerns, explain the benefits of vaccination, and counter antivaccine campaigns that escalate during pandemics, as has been observed with COVID-19. METHOD: A short survey was carried out in May-June 2020 on the vaccination status of HCWs working with pediatric patients with COVID-19. The survey inquired about their vaccination status (mumps/measles/rubella [MMR], varicella, influenza, and diphtheria/tetanus [dT]) and willingness to receive hypothetical future COVID-19 vaccines. The respondents were grouped according to gender, age, occupation, and region. RESULTS: In total, 4927 HCWs responded to the survey. Most were young, healthy adults. The overall vaccination rates were 57.8% for dT in the past 10 years, 44.5% for MMR, 33.2% for varicella, and 13.5% for influenza. Vaccination rates were the highest among physicians. The majority of HCWs (81%) stated that they would be willing to receive COVID-19 vaccines. CONCLUSION: Although vaccination rates for well-established vaccines were low, a majority of HCWs were willing to receive COVID-19 vaccines when available. Education and administrative trust should be enhanced to increase vaccination rates among HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Measles , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Health Personnel , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1523-1524, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892585

ABSTRACT

Varicella zoster virus reactivation after COVID-19 vaccination has been reported in older or immunocompromised adults. We report zoster meningitis from live-attenuated varicella vaccine reactivation in an immunocompetent child after COVID-19 vaccination. This type of case is rare; COVID-19 and varicella vaccines remain safe and effective for appropriate recipients in the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , Meningitis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 214-216, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889481

ABSTRACT

Most of the adverse effects reported in patients who have received COVID-19 vaccines have been mild. However, possible serious adverse effects are being monitored cautiously. There have also been a number of case reports of reactivation of varicella zoster infection within 28 days after immunization with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. A few cases have also been reported after viral vector and inactivated COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of meningitis following varicella zoster virus infection is rare. In the current study, we report two cases of male patients who received two different types of COVID-19 vaccine (inactivated and viral vector) and developed varicella zoster meningitis within 10 days after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Herpes Zoster , Meningitis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Male , Meningitis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
20.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855814

ABSTRACT

Although the establishment, maintenance and reactivation from alphaherpesvirus latency is far from fully understood, some things are now manifestly clear: Alphaherpesvirus latency occurs in neurons of the peripheral nervous system and control of the process is multifactorial and complex. This includes components of the immune system, contributions from non-neuronal cells surrounding neurons in ganglia, specialized nucleic acids and modifications to the viral DNA to name some of the most important. Efficacious vaccines have been developed to control both acute varicella and zoster, the outcome of reactivation, but despite considerable effort vaccines for acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection or reactivated lesions have thus far failed to materialize despite considerable effort. Given the relevance of the immune system to establish and maintain HSV latency, a vaccine designed to tailor the HSV response to maximize the activity of components most critical for controlling reactivated infection might limit the severity of recurrences and hence reduce viral transmission. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of immunological factors that contribute to HSV and VZV latency, identify differences between varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and HSV that could explain why vaccines have been valuable at controlling VZV disease but not HSV, and finish by outlining possible strategies for developing effective HSV vaccines.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Herpes Simplex , Herpes Simplex/complications , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Humans , Immune System , Twins, Dizygotic , Vaccine Efficacy
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