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1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855814

ABSTRACT

Although the establishment, maintenance and reactivation from alphaherpesvirus latency is far from fully understood, some things are now manifestly clear: Alphaherpesvirus latency occurs in neurons of the peripheral nervous system and control of the process is multifactorial and complex. This includes components of the immune system, contributions from non-neuronal cells surrounding neurons in ganglia, specialized nucleic acids and modifications to the viral DNA to name some of the most important. Efficacious vaccines have been developed to control both acute varicella and zoster, the outcome of reactivation, but despite considerable effort vaccines for acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection or reactivated lesions have thus far failed to materialize despite considerable effort. Given the relevance of the immune system to establish and maintain HSV latency, a vaccine designed to tailor the HSV response to maximize the activity of components most critical for controlling reactivated infection might limit the severity of recurrences and hence reduce viral transmission. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of immunological factors that contribute to HSV and VZV latency, identify differences between varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and HSV that could explain why vaccines have been valuable at controlling VZV disease but not HSV, and finish by outlining possible strategies for developing effective HSV vaccines.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Herpes Simplex , Herpes Simplex/complications , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Humans , Immune System , Twins, Dizygotic
5.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(6): 5998-6012, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810396

ABSTRACT

Public health and social measures (PHSMs) targeting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have potentially affected the epidemiological dynamics of endemic infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the impact of PHSMs for COVID-19, with a particular focus on varicella dynamics in Japan. We adopted the susceptible-infectious-recovered type of mathematical model to reconstruct the epidemiological dynamics of varicella from Jan. 2010 to Sep. 2021. We analyzed epidemiological and demographic data and estimated the within-year and multi-year component of the force of infection and the biases associated with reporting and ascertainment in three periods: pre-vaccination (Jan. 2010-Dec. 2014), pre-pandemic vaccination (Jan. 2015-Mar. 2020) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (Apr. 2020-Sep. 2021). By using the estimated parameter values, we reconstructed and predicted the varicella dynamics from 2010 to 2027. Although the varicella incidence dropped drastically during the COVID-19 pandemic, the change in susceptible dynamics was minimal; the number of susceptible individuals was almost stable. Our prediction showed that the risk of a major outbreak in the post-pandemic era may be relatively small. However, uncertainties, including age-related susceptibility and travel-related cases, exist and careful monitoring would be required to prepare for future varicella outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
6.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14958, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, many countries, including Japan, implemented policies limiting social activities and encouraging preventive behaviors. This study examines the influence of such policies on the trends of 10 infectious pediatric diseases: pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; herpangina; respiratory syncytial virus; exanthem subitum; and mumps. METHODS: The research adopted a retrospective cohort study design. We collected data from Japan's National Epidemiological Surveillance Program detailing the incidences of the 10 diseases per pediatric sentinel site for a period beginning at 9 weeks before government-ordered school closures and ending at 9 weeks after the end of the state of emergency. We obtained corresponding data for the equivalent weeks in 2015-2019. We estimated the influence of the policies using a difference-in-differences regression model. RESULTS: For seven diseases (pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; and herpangina), the incidence in 2020 decreased significantly during and after the school closures. Sensitivity analysis, in which the focus area was limited to the policy-implementation period or existing trend patterns, replicated these significant decreases for one of the above mentioned seven diseases - infectious gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS: Policies such as school closures and encouragement of preventive behaviors were associated with significant decreases in the incidences of most of the 10 diseases, which sensitivity analysis replicated in infectious gastroenteritis. To determine the long-term effects of these policies, prospective cohort studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Communicable Diseases , Erythema Infectiosum , Gastroenteritis , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Herpangina , Pharyngitis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Policy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus pyogenes
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 738412, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) detects pathogens in a target-independent manner. It is not well-understood whether mNGS has comparable sensitivity to target-dependent nucleic acid test for pathogen identification. METHODS: This study included 31 patients with chickenpox and neurological symptoms for screening of possible varicella-zoster virus (VZV) central nervous system (CNS) infection. Microbiological diagnosing of VZV cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection was performed on stored CSF samples using mNGS, quantitative and qualitative VZV-specific PCR assays, and VZV IgM antibodies test. RESULTS: The median age was 30.0 [interquartile range (IQR), 24.3-33.3] years. 51.6% of the patients were men. About 80.6% of the patients had normal CSF white blood cell counts (≤ 5 × 106/L). VZV IgM antibodies presented in 16.1% of the CSF samples, and nucleic acids were detectable in 16.1 and 9.7% using two different VZV-specific real-time PCR protocols. Intriguingly, maximal identification of VZV elements was achieved by CSF mNGS (p = 0.001 and p = 007; compared with qualitative PCR and VZV IgM antibody test, respectively), with sequence reads of VZV being reported in 51.6% (16/31) of the CSF samples. All VZV PCR positive samples were positive when analyzed by mNGS. Of note, human betaherpesvirus 6A with clinical significance was unexpectedly detected in one CSF sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that CSF mNGS may have higher sensitivity for VZV detection than CSF VZV PCR and antibody tests, and has the advantage of identifying unexpected pathogens.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Infections , Chickenpox , Adult , Central Nervous System , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Male
8.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(6): 853-859, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to estimate vaccination and susceptibility rates against vaccine-preventable diseases among healthcare personnel (HCP) in eight hospitals. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: A total of 1284 HCP participated (physicians: 31.3%, nursing personnel: 36.6%, paramedical personnel: 11.1%, administrative personnel: 13.2%, supportive personnel: 7.3%). Vaccination rates were 32.9% against measles and mumps, 38.1% against rubella, 5.7% against varicella, 9.2% against hepatitis A, 65.8% against hepatitis B, 31.8% against tetanus-diphtheria, 7.1% against pertussis, 60.2% against influenza, and 80.1% against COVID-19. Susceptibility rates were as follows: 27.8% for measles, 39.6% for mumps, 33.4% for rubella, 22.2% for varicella, 86.3% for hepatitis A, 34.2% for hepatitis B, 68.2% for tetanus-diphtheria, and 92.9% for pertussis. Older HCP had higher susceptibility rates against mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus-diphtheria, and pertussis (p-values <0.001 for all). Mandatory vaccinations were supported by 81.85% of HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Although most HCPs supported mandatory vaccinations, significant vaccination gaps, and susceptibility rates were recorded. The proportion of susceptible HCP to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella has increased in the past decade, mostly because of reduction in acquired cases of natural illness. Vaccination programs for HCP should be developed. A national registry to follow HCP's vaccination rates is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Diphtheria , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 214-216, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763772

ABSTRACT

Most of the adverse effects reported in patients who have received COVID-19 vaccines have been mild. However, possible serious adverse effects are being monitored cautiously. There have also been a number of case reports of reactivation of varicella zoster infection within 28 days after immunization with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. A few cases have also been reported after viral vector and inactivated COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of meningitis following varicella zoster virus infection is rare. In the current study, we report two cases of male patients who received two different types of COVID-19 vaccine (inactivated and viral vector) and developed varicella zoster meningitis within 10 days after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Herpes Zoster , Meningitis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Male , Meningitis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varicella is a common pediatric infection. Even if it generally has a benign course, it may complicate and require hospitalization. The aim of our study was to estimate the acute hospitalization cost (AHC) for varicella in the acute phase in a pediatric population. METHODS: We calculated the AHC of pediatric patients admitted for varicella at Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Rome, Italy, from 1 November 2005 to 1 November 2020. RESULTS: In the study period, 825 pediatric patients affected by varicella were hospitalized. The mean hospitalization cost was EUR 4015.35 (range from EUR 558.44 to EUR 42,608.00). Among patients, 55% were unvaccinable due to either their age or their immunosuppression status. They would benefit from herd immunity, reducing the overall AHC by EUR 182,196,506. Since the introduction of the compulsory vaccination against varicella in Italy, we observed a significant reduction in AHC cost of 60.6% in 2019 and of 93.5% in 2020. Finally, from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, we documented a decline of 81.2% and 76.9% in varicella hospitalization, compared to 2018 and 2019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Varicella AHC is an important economic and health assessment point and can be useful for improving preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Chickenpox Vaccine , Child , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Dermatol Sci ; 104(3): 185-192, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2014, universal varicella vaccination has reduced the varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) incidence in vaccine recipients and increased the incidence in the child-rearing generation until 2017. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the future epidemiologic trends of HZ after the disappearance of varicella epidemics and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: The Miyazaki Dermatologist Society has been monitoring and analyzing the incidence of HZ patients after universal vaccination since 1997. RESULTS: The HZ incidence in Oka varicella vaccine recipients aged 0-4 years decreased with the reduction in chickenpox incidence. The HZ incidence among those aged 5-9 years increased between 2015 and 2017 and decreased thereafter. From 2014-2020, the HZ incidence continued to increase to 36.6%, 51.3%, 70.2%, 56.7%, and 27.3% among those aged 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50-59 years, respectively. The HZ incidence in patients aged ≥ 60 years increased by 2.3% annually from 2014 to 2020, corresponding to an annual 2% increase since 1997, and was unaffected by varicella epidemics. COVID-19 infection control measures, lifestyle changes and the resulting stress did not affect the HZ incidence in 2020. CONCLUSION: Universal varicella vaccination eliminated varicella epidemics, and HZ was reduced in vaccine recipients. The HZ incidence for those aged 10-59 years increased from 2014 to 2020, in contrast to those aged ≥ 60 years, which is attributable to booster immunity expiration due to varicella contact in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chickenpox Vaccine/therapeutic use , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Dermatology/trends , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Immunization Programs , Incidence , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Vaccination , Young Adult
16.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(11): 3350-3361, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488220

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although the COVID-19 vaccination is deemed safe, exact incidence and nature if adverse effects, particularly dermatological ones, are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic, clinical, morphological characteristics, outcomes, and timing of development of herpes zoster to the various COVID-19 vaccines. And to identify on whether COVID-19 vaccine has temporal relationship between development of herpes zoster (HZ). METHODS: We have performed a systemic review of articles from PubMed and Embase using MeSH and keywords like "Shingles," "Herpes zoster," "Varicella zoster," "COVID-19," "Vaccine," "SARS-CoV-2." No filters including country of publication, language, type of articles were applied. Individual case report references were filtered for any pertinent cases. RESULTS: A total of 54 cases consisting of 27 male and 27 female patients have been reported. There were cases with known risk factors for herpes zoster, which included age more than 50 years (n = 36), immunological disorders (n = 10), chronic disease (n = 25), metabolic disorder (n = 13), malignancy (n = 4), and psychiatric disorder (n = 2). The mean (SD) period between development of herpes zoster and COVID-19 vaccination was 7.64 (6.92) days. Majority of the cases were from the high-income and/or middle-income countries. 86.27% of the cases of HZ were reported due to mRNA vaccine. Thirty-six patients 36/45 (80%) developed herpes zoster following the priming dose of COVID-19 vaccine among those who received mRNA vaccine. CONCLUSION: We could not establish definite link but there may be possible association between COVID-19 vaccine and shingles. Large-scale studies may help to understand the cause-effect relationship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster Vaccine/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Neuroradiology ; 64(5): 915-924, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469684

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vascular complications can be seen in various viral CNS infections. Variable neuro-imaging findings have been described in the literature elucidating the parenchymal changes with vascular involvement. Vessel wall imaging (VWI) can help to detect these vascular involvements. We aimed to describe the role and usefulness of VWI in the evaluation of various viral CNS infections. METHODS: In this prospective study, we included 15 cases of various diagnosed viral CNS infections (varicella, HIV encephalopathy, HSV encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, COVID-19). VWI and time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF MRA) were included in imaging protocol. All cases were evaluated for the presence of cerebral parenchymal changes, vascular enhancement, and vascular stenosis. RESULTS: We found infarctions in all 5 cases of varicella, 1 case of HIV encephalopathy, and 1 case of COVID-19 encephalopathy. All these cases also showed vascular enhancement and stenosis on VWI. The rest of the cases, including 1 case of HIV encephalopathy, 3 cases of herpes encephalitis, 2 cases of dengue, and 2 cases of Japanese encephalitis did not have any vascular complication, and also did not show vascular enhancement or stenosis. CONCLUSION: VWI can be useful in the detection of vascular involvement in various viral infections of CNS which show a relatively higher cerebrovascular complication rate like varicella, HIV encephalopathy, and COVID-19. However, VWI may not be useful in the routine evaluation of other viral infections like herpes, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis, which have a very low rate of cerebrovascular complication rate.


Subject(s)
AIDS Dementia Complex , COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Dengue , Encephalitis, Japanese , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463319

ABSTRACT

In France, social distancing measures have been adopted to contain the spread of COVID-19, culminating in national Lockdowns. The use of hand washing, hydro-alcoholic rubs and mask-wearing also increased over time. As these measures are likely to impact the transmission of many communicable diseases, we studied the changes in common infectious diseases incidence in France during the first year of COVID-19 circulation. We examined the weekly incidence of acute gastroenteritis, chickenpox, acute respiratory infections and bronchiolitis reported in general practitioner networks since January 2016. We obtained search engine query volume for French terms related to these diseases and sales data for relevant drugs over the same period. A periodic regression model was fit to disease incidence, drug sales and search query volume before the COVID-19 period and extrapolated afterwards. We compared the expected values with observations made in 2020. During the first lockdown period, incidence dropped by 67% for gastroenteritis, by 79% for bronchiolitis, by 49% for acute respiratory infection and 90% for chickenpox compared to the past years. Reductions with respect to the expected incidence reflected the strength of implemented measures. Incidence in children was impacted the most. Reduction in primary care consultations dropped during a short period at the beginning of the first lockdown period but remained more than 95% of the expected value afterwards. In primary care, the large decrease in reported gastroenteritis, chickenpox or bronchiolitis observed during the period where many barrier measures were implemented imply that the circulation of common viruses was reduced and informs on the overall effect of these measures.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Seasons , Young Adult
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