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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3180-3186, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532922

ABSTRACT

The first human case of zoonotic A(H7N4) avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was reported in early 2018 in China. Two months after this case, novel A(H7N4) viruses phylogenetically related to the Jiangsu isolate emerged in ducks from live bird markets in Cambodia. During active surveillance in Cambodia, a novel A(H7N6) reassortant of the zoonotic low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) A(H7N4) was detected in domestic ducks at a slaughterhouse. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the novel A(H7N6) AIV is a reassortant, in which four gene segments originated from Cambodia A(H7N4) viruses and four gene segments originated from LPAIVs in Eurasia. Animal infection experiments revealed that chickens transmitted the A(H7N6) virus via low-level direct contacts, but ducks did not. Although avian-origin A(H7Nx) LPAIVs do not contain the critical mammalian-adaptive substitution (E627K) in PB2, the lethality and morbidity of the A(H7N6) virus in BALB/c mice were similar to those of A(H7N9) viruses, suggesting potential for interspecies transmission. Our study reports the emergence of a new reassortant of zoonotic A(H7N4) AIVs with novel viral characteristics and emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance of avian-origin A(H7Nx) viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chickens , China , Ducks , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phylogeny , Reassortant Viruses/genetics
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3405-3414, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532918

ABSTRACT

Since its first detection in 1998, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 has been enzootic in Iran. To better understand the evolutionary history of H9N2 viruses in Iran, we sequenced 15 currently circulating H9N2 viruses from domestic poultry during 2017-2019 and performed phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Iranian H9N2 viruses formed multiple well-supported monophyletic groups within the G1-lineage of H9N2 virus. Our analysis of viral population dynamics revealed an increase in genetic diversity until 2007, corresponding to the multiple introductions and diversification of H9N2 viruses into multiple genetic groups (named Iran 1-4 subgroups), followed by a sudden decrease after 2008. Only the Iran 4 subgroup has survived, expanded, and currently circulates in Iran. The H9N2 viruses possessed many molecular markers associated with mammalian adaption in all gene segments, except neuraminidase gene. Considering the presence of mammalian host-specific markers, the public health threat of H9N2 viruses continues. Molecular analysis showed that Iranian H9N2 strains have continued to evolve and recent strains have multiple amino acid changes and addition of potential N-glycosylation on the antigenic sites of haemagglutinin. Continued antigenic and molecular surveillance of H9N2 viruses in poultry and mammals would be required to monitor further increments in viral evolution and their potential threat to public health.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Animals , Chickens , Evolution, Molecular , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Poultry
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3038-3042, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526426

ABSTRACT

The susceptibility of turkeys, chickens and chicken embryos to SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated by experimental infection. Turkeys and chickens were inoculated using a combination of intranasal, oral and ocular routes. Both turkeys and chickens did not develop clinical disease or seroconvert following inoculation. Viral RNA was not detected in oral swabs, cloacal swabs or in tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In addition, chicken embryos were inoculated by various routes including the yolk sac, intravenous, chorioallantoic membrane and allantoic cavity. In all instances, chicken embryos failed to support replication of the virus. SARS-CoV-2 does not affect turkeys or chickens in the current genetic state and does not pose any potential risk to establish an infection in both species of domestic poultry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poultry Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Chick Embryo , Chickens , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkeys
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22164, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514425

ABSTRACT

The influenza A non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is known for its ability to hinder the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN) during viral infection. Influenza viruses lacking NS1 (ΔNS1) are under clinical development as live attenuated human influenza virus vaccines and induce potent influenza virus-specific humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. Attenuation of ΔNS1 influenza viruses is due to their high IFN inducing properties, that limit their replication in vivo. This study demonstrates that pre-treatment with a ΔNS1 virus results in an antiviral state which prevents subsequent replication of homologous and heterologous viruses, preventing disease from virus respiratory pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. Our studies suggest that ΔNS1 influenza viruses could be used for the prophylaxis of influenza, SARS-CoV-2 and other human respiratory viral infections, and that an influenza virus vaccine based on ΔNS1 live attenuated viruses would confer broad protection against influenza virus infection from the moment of administration, first by non-specific innate immune induction, followed by specific adaptive immunity.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chickens , Gene Deletion , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2742-2745, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453200

ABSTRACT

In February 2021, routine sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illness in Cambodia detected a human avian influenza A(H9N2) virus infection. Investigations identified no recent H9N2 virus infections in 43 close contacts. One chicken sample from the infected child's house was positive for H9N2 virus and genetically similar to the human virus.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Birds , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chickens , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
7.
Virus Res ; 306: 198566, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475120

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread throughout the world. This newly emerging pathogen is highly transmittable and can cause fatal disease. More than 35 million cases have been confirmed, with a fatality rate of about 2.9% to October 9, 2020. However, the original and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown. Here, 3160 poultry samples collected from 14 provinces of China between September and December 2019 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All the samples were SARS-CoV-2 negative, but 593 avian coronaviruses were detected, including 485 avian infectious bronchitis viruses, 72 duck coronaviruses, and 36 pigeon coronaviruses, with positivity rates of 15.35%, 2.28%, and 1.14%, respectively. Our surveillance demonstrates the diversity of avian coronaviruses in China, with higher prevalence rates in some regions. Furthermore, the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 originated from a known avian-origin coronavirus can be preliminarily ruled out. More surveillance of and research into avian coronaviruses are required to better understand the diversity, distribution, cross-species transmission, and clinical significance of these viruses.


Subject(s)
Bird Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Genetic Variation , Animals , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Chickens/virology , China/epidemiology , Columbidae/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ducks/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geese/virology , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444334

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses and can cause deadly diseases in animals and humans. Cell entry is the first and essential step of successful virus infection and can be divided into two ongoing steps: cell binding and membrane fusion. Over the past two decades, stimulated by the global outbreak of SARS-CoV and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, numerous efforts have been made in the CoV research. As a result, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of the cell entry process. Here, we review the current knowledge of this essential process, including the viral and host components involved in cell binding and membrane fusion, molecular mechanisms of their interactions, and the sites of virus entry. We highlight the recent findings of host restriction factors that inhibit CoVs entry. This knowledge not only enhances our understanding of the cell entry process, pathogenesis, tissue tropism, host range, and interspecies-transmission of CoVs but also provides a theoretical basis to design effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to control CoVs infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cats/virology , Cattle/virology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Dogs/virology , Livestock/virology , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0131221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443363

ABSTRACT

The large (L) polymerase proteins of most nonsegmented, negative-stranded (NNS) RNA viruses have conserved methyltransferase motifs, (G)-G-G-D and K-D-K-E, which are important for the stabilization and translation of mRNA. However, the function of the (G)-G-G-D and K-D-K-E motifs in the NNS RNA virus Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains unclear. We observed G-G-D and K-D-K-E motifs in all NDV genotypes. By using the infection cloning system of NDV rSG10 strain, recombinant NDVs with a single amino acid mutated to alanine in one motif (G-G-D or K-D-K-E) were rescued. The intracerebral pathogenicity index and mean death time assay results revealed that the G-G-D motif and K-D-K-E motif attenuate the virulence of NDV to various degrees. The replication, transcription, and translation levels of the K-D-K-E motif-mutant strains were significantly higher than those of wild-type virus owing to their altered regulation of the affinity between nucleocapsid protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E. When the infection dose was changed from a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 to an MOI of 0.01, the cell-to-cell spread abilities of G-G-D- and K-D-K-E-mutant strains were reduced, according to plaque assay and dynamic indirect immunofluorescence assay results. Finally, we found that NDV strains with G-G-D or K-D-K-E motif mutations had less pathogenicity in 3-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens than wild-type NDV. Therefore, these methyltransferase motifs can affect virulence by regulating the translation and cell-to-cell spread abilities of NDV. This work provides a feasible approach for generating vaccine candidates for viruses with methyltransferase motifs. IMPORTANCE Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an important pathogen that is widespread globally. Research on its pathogenic mechanism is an important means of improving prevention and control efforts. Our study found that a deficiency in its methyltransferase motifs (G-G-D and K-D-K-E motifs) can attenuate NDV and revealed the molecular mechanism by which these motifs affect pathogenicity, which provides a new direction for the development of NDV vaccines. In addition to the (G)-G-G-D and K-D-K-E motifs of many nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses, similar motifs have been found in dengue virus, Zika virus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This suggests that such motifs may be present in more viruses. Our finding also provides a molecular basis for the discovery and functional study of (G)-G-G-D and K-D-K-E motifs of other viruses.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Motifs/genetics , Methyltransferases/genetics , Newcastle Disease/transmission , Newcastle disease virus/growth & development , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , Chickens , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Genome, Viral/genetics , Newcastle disease virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/transmission , Poultry Diseases/virology , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Vero Cells , Virulence/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5676-5679, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432416

ABSTRACT

Over the months of April and May 2021, South Africa has witnessed several outbreaks of highly infective avian influenza (H5N1) in different poultry farms. This came as a shock to a country that was already battling with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of the virus has spurred import bans and massive culls in the poultry business. Local experts have also called for a restriction on the movement of people and cars in and out of their chicken farms. Employees have also been encouraged to shower in the mornings when they arrive at the farms and wear fresh clothes, as the flu spreads very quickly. In a country that is already facing the economic implications of the COVID-19, this has the potential to cause a significant dent in the economy, as well as severely impact people's day-to-day life. Bird flu-also called avian influenza-is a viral infection that can infect not only birds but also humans and other animals. The threat of a new influenza pandemic has prompted countries to draft national strategic preparedness plans to prevent, contain and mitigate the next human influenza pandemic. This paper describes the South African burden, current efforts, and preparedness against the avian influenza virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Animals , Chickens , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
11.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389525

ABSTRACT

Our recent study identified seven key microRNAs (miR-8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p) similar between SARS-CoV-2 and the human genome, pointing at miR-related mechanisms in viral entry and the regulatory effects on host immunity. To identify the putative roles of these miRs in zoonosis, we assessed their conservation, compared with humans, in some key wild and domestic animal carriers of zoonotic viruses, including bat, pangolin, pig, cow, rat, and chicken. Out of the seven miRs under study, miR-3611 was the most strongly conserved across all species; miR-5197 was the most conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and rat; miR-1307 was most strongly conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and human; miR-3691-3p in pangolin, cow, and human; miR-3934-3p in pig and cow, followed by pangolin and bat; miR-1468 was most conserved in pangolin, pig, and bat; while miR-8066 was most conserved in pangolin and pig. In humans, miR-3611 and miR-1307 were most conserved, while miR-8066, miR-5197, miR-3334-3p and miR-1468 were least conserved, compared with pangolin, pig, cow, and bat. Furthermore, we identified that changes in the miR-5197 nucleotides between pangolin and human can generate three new miRs, with differing tissue distribution in the brain, lung, intestines, lymph nodes, and muscle, and with different downstream regulatory effects on KEGG pathways. This may be of considerable importance as miR-5197 is localized in the spike protein transcript area of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Our findings may indicate roles for these miRs in viral-host co-evolution in zoonotic hosts, particularly highlighting pangolin, bat, cow, and pig as putative zoonotic carriers, while highlighting the miRs' roles in KEGG pathways linked to viral pathogenicity and host responses in humans. This in silico study paves the way for investigations into the roles of miRs in zoonotic disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Coevolution , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chickens , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genome/genetics , Host Specificity , Humans , Mammals , MicroRNAs/chemistry , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Alignment , Tissue Distribution , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 189: 869-878, 2021 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370533

ABSTRACT

Electrophoresis is one of the major techniques to analyze macromolecular structure and interaction. Its capability depends on the sensitivity and specificity of the staining methods. We have here examined silver staining of proteins and nucleic acids separated by agarose native gel electrophoresis. By comparing five commercial kits, we identified Silver Stain Plus from Bio-Rad most adequate, as it provided little background staining and reasonable band staining. One of the disadvantages of the Silver Stain Plus kit is its variable staining of glycoproteins as tested with several model samples, including hen egg white proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein and SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. One of the advantages of silver staining is its ability to stain nucleic acids as demonstrated here for a model nucleic acid with two kits. It was then used to monitor the removal of nucleic acids from the affinity-purified maltose binding protein and monoclonal antibody. It also worked well on staining proteins on agarose gels prepared in the vertical mode, although preparation of the vertical agarose gels required technological modifications described in this report. With the silver staining method optimized here, it should be possible in the future to analyze biological samples that may be available in limited quantity.


Subject(s)
Egg Proteins/chemistry , Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Orosomucoid/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Silver Staining , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Chickens , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Humans
13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254605, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367703

ABSTRACT

The re-emergence of virulent strains of the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) leads to significant economic losses of poultry industry in Pakistan during last few years. This disease causes the infection of bursa, which leads to major immune losses. A total number of 30 samples from five IBD outbreaks during the period of 2019-20 were collected from different areas of Faisalabad district, Pakistan and assayed by targeting the IBD virus VP2 region through RT-PCR. Among all the outbreaks, almost 80% of poultry birds were found positive for the IBDV. The bursa tissues were collected from the infected birds and histopathological examination of samples revealed severe lymphocytic depletion, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and necrosis of the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Positive samples were subjected to re-isolation and molecular characterization of IBDV. The Pakistan IBDV genes were subjected to DNA sequencing to determine the virus nucleotide sequences. The sequences of 100 Serotype-I IBDVs showing nearest homology were compared and identified with the study sequence. The construction of the phylogenetic tree for nucleotide sequences was accomplished by the neighbor-joining method in MEGA-6 with reference strains. The VP2 segment reassortment of IBDVs carrying segment A were identified as one important type of circulating strains in Pakistan. The findings indicated the molecular features of the Pakistan IBDV strains playing a role in the evolution of new strains of the virus, which will contribute to the vaccine selection and effective prevention of the disease.


Subject(s)
Birnaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Infectious bursal disease virus/pathogenicity , Poultry/virology , Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Birnaviridae Infections/veterinary , Birnaviridae Infections/virology , Bursa of Fabricius/pathology , Bursa of Fabricius/virology , Chickens/virology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Humans , Infectious bursal disease virus/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/virology , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 44833-44844, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303356

ABSTRACT

Although chickens are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, several coronavirus disease outbreaks have been described concerning poultry processing facilities in different countries. The COVID-19 pandemic and the developed strain caused 2nd, 3rd, and recent Indian strain waves of epidemics that have led to unexpected consequences, such as forced reductions in demands for some industries, transportation systems, employment, and businesses due to public confinement. Besides, poultry processing plants' conditions exacerbate the risks due to the proximity on the line, cold, and humidity. Most workers do not have access to paid sick time or adequate health care, and because of the low wages, they have limited reserves to enable them to leave steady employment. In addition, workers in meat and poultry slaughterhouses may be infected through respiratory droplets in the air and/or from touching dirty surfaces or objects such as workstations, break room tables, or tools. Egg prices have increased dramatically during the lockdown as consumers have started to change their behaviors and habits. The COVID pandemic might also substantially impact the international poultry trade over the next several months. This review will focus on the effect of COVID-19 on poultry production, environmental sustainability, and earth systems from different process points of view.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , Chickens , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Poultry , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107797, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300822

ABSTRACT

Specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 structural protein have a wide range of effects in the diagnose, prevention and treatment of the COVID-19 epidemic. Among them, egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY), which has high safety, high yield, and without inducing antibody-dependent enhancement, is an important biological candidate. In this study, specific IgY against the conservative nucleocapsid protein (NP) of SARS-CoV-2 was obtained by immunizing hens. Through a series of optimized precipitation and ultrafiltration extraction schemes, its purity was increased to 98%. The hyperimmune IgY against NP (N-IgY) at a titer of 1:50,000 showed strong NP binding ability, which laid the foundation of N-IgY's application targeting NP. In an in vitro immunoregulatory study, N-IgY (1 mg/mL) modulated NP-induced immune response by alleviating type II interferon secretion stimulated by NP (20 µg/mL). In summary, N-IgY can be mass produced by achievable method, which endows it with potential value against the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , Chickens , Drug Development , Egg Yolk/chemistry , Egg Yolk/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulins/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunomodulation , In Vitro Techniques , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
16.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(5): 969-974, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298415

ABSTRACT

Avian influenza A(H5) viruses (avian IAVs) pose a major threat to the economy and public health. We developed an antigen-ELISA (ag-ELISA) and a colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip for the rapid detection of avian A(H5) viruses. Both detection methods displayed no cross-reactivity with other viruses (e.g., other avian IAVs, infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian paramyxovirus). The ag-ELISA was sensitive down to 0.5 hemagglutinin (HA) units/100 µL of avian A(H5) viruses and 7.5 ng/mL of purified H5 HA proteins. The immunochromatographic strip was sensitive down to 1 HA unit/100 µL of avian A(H5) viruses. Both detection methods exhibited good reproducibility with CVs < 10%. For 200 random poultry samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the ag-ELISA were 92.6% and 98.8%, respectively, and for test strips were 88.9% and 98.3%, respectively. Both detection methods displayed high specificity, sensitivity, and stability, making them suitable for rapid detection and field investigation of avian A(H5) viruses.


Subject(s)
Infectious bronchitis virus , Influenza in Birds , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Chickens , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Gold Colloid , Influenza in Birds/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 577-581, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271943

ABSTRACT

The H2 subtypes of avian influenza A viruses (avian IAVs) have been circulating in poultry, and they have the potential to infect humans. Therefore, establishing a method to quickly detect this subtype is pivotal. We developed a TaqMan minor groove binder real-time RT-PCR assay that involved probes and primers based on conserved sequences of the matrix and hemagglutinin genes. The detection limit of this assay was as low as one 50% egg infectious dose (EID50)/mL per reaction. This assay is specific, sensitive, and rapid for detecting avian IAV H2 subtypes.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251801

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was first identified in the 1930s and it imposes a major economic burden on the poultry industry. In particular, GI-19 lineage has spread globally and has evolved constantly since it was first detected in China. In this study, we analyzed S1 gene sequences from 60 IBVs isolated in South Korea. Two IBV lineages, GI-15 and GI-19, were identified in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that there were six distinct subgroups (KM91-like, K40/09-like, and QX-like I to IV) of the South Korean GI-19 IBVs. Among them, QX-type III and IV subgroups, which are phylogenetically different from those reported in South Korea in the past, accounted for more than half of the total. Moreover, the phylogeographic analysis of the QX-like subgroups indicated at least four distinct introductions of GI-19 IBVs into South Korea during 2001-2020. The efficacy of commercialized vaccines against the recently introduced QX-like subgroups should be verified, and continuous international surveillance efforts and quarantine procedures should be enhanced to prevent the incursion of viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genomics , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Sequence Homology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
Mol Cells ; 44(6): 377-383, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289259

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the identity, functional characteristics and therapeutic targets of the virus and the diseases, appropriate infection models that recapitulate the in vivo pathophysiology of the viral infection are necessary. This article reviews the various infection models, including Vero cells, human cell lines, organoids, and animal models, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. This knowledge will be helpful for establishing an efficient system for defense against emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Models, Theoretical , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cats , Cell Line, Tumor , Chickens/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops/virology , Cricetinae , Dogs , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mice , Organoids/immunology , Organoids/pathology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Swine/virology , Vero Cells
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101210, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283536

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), is an acute and highly contagious disease that is extremely harmful to the poultry industry throughout the world. The cross-using of different attenuated live vaccine strains has led to the occurrence of diverse IBV serotypes. In this study, we isolated an IBV strain from a chicken farm in southwest China and designated it CK/CH/SCMY/160315. Construction of a phylogenetic tree based on full S1 gene sequence analysis suggested that CK/CH/SCMY/160315 bears similarity to GI-28, and further comparison of S1 amino acid residues revealed that CK/CH/SCMY/160315 showed mutations and deletions in many key positions between LDT3-A and other GI-28 reference strains. Importantly, CK/CH/SCMY/160315 was identified as a novel recombinant virus derived from live attenuated vaccine strains H120 (GI-1), 4/91 (GI-13), LDT3-A (GI-28), and the field strain LJL/08-1 (GI-19), identifying at least 5 recombination sites in both structural and accessory genes. Pathogenicity analysis indicated that CK/CH/SCMY/160315 caused listlessness, sneezing, huddling, head shaking, and increased antibody levels in the inoculated chickens. To further describe pathogenicity of this novel strain, we assessed viral load in different tissues and conducted hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining of the trachea, lungs and kidneys. Our results provide evidence for the continuing evolution of IBV field strains via genetic recombination and mutation, leading to outbreaks in the vaccinated chicken populations in China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , China , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny
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