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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245260

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to the gamma-coronavirus genus of Coronaviridae and causes serious infectious diseases in the poultry industry. However, only a few IBV strains can infect avian passage cell lines, seriously hindering the progress of basic research on IBV pathogenesis. Whereas IBV field strains can replicate in tracheal ring organ culture (TOC) without any previous adaptation in chicken embryos or primary cells. In this study, to investigate the potential use of TOC as an in vitro infection model for the study of IBV-host interaction, we first established a chicken embryo TOC culture system and carried out an investigation on the IBV replication kinetics in the system. We found that the selected strains of the IBV GI-1, GI-7, GI-13, GI-19, and GI-22 genotypes could successfully replicate in TOC and bring about damage to the infected trachea. Next, we identified host proteins of the chicken embryo trachea that interact with the IBV S1 protein by immunoprecipitation and protein mass spectrometry. A total of 127 candidate proteins were initially identified with major involvement in cell adhesion pathways and apoptosis- and autophagy-related pathways. The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was selected for further investigation in the interaction with IBV viral proteins. Our results showed that HSP70 interacted with IBV S1 in both TOC and CEK cells, whereas HSP70 overexpression inhibited viral replication. This study indicates that TOC is a good system for the elucidation of IBV-host interactions and HSP70 is a potential host antiviral factor.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chick Embryo , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Organ Culture Techniques , Trachea , Chickens , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary
2.
Poult Sci ; 102(6): 102661, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244886

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Vaccination is an effective approach for controlling IBV. Therefore, reliable immune monitoring for IB is critical for poultry. In this study, a novel peptide derived from S2 protein was used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of broadly cross-reactive antibodies against IBV. The peptide-based ELISA (pELISA) showed good specificity and sensitivity in detecting IBV antibodies against different serotypes. A semilogarithmic regression method for determining IBV antibody titers was also established. Antibody titers detected by pELISA and calculated with this equation were statistically similar to those evaluated by indirect fluorescence assay (IFA). Moreover, the comparison analysis showed a 96.07% compatibility between the pELISA and IDEXX ELISA. All these data demonstrate that the pELISA generated here can be as a rapid and reliable serological surveillance tool for monitoring IBV infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Peptides , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
3.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243940

ABSTRACT

IBV variants belonging to the GI-23 lineage have circulated since 1998 in the Middle East and have spread to several countries over time. In Brazil, the first report of GI-23 occurred in 2022. The study aimed to evaluate the in vivo pathogenicity of exotic variant GI-23 isolates. Biological samples were screening by real-time RT-PCR and classified in to GI-1 or G1-11 lineages. Interestingly, 47.77% were not classified in these lineages. Nine of the unclassified strains were sequenced and showed a high similarity to the GI-23 strain. All nine were isolated and three, were studied for pathogenicity. At necropsy, the main observations were the presence of mucus in the trachea and congestion in the tracheal mucosa. In addition, lesions on the tracheas showed marked ciliostasis, and the ciliary activity confirmed the high pathogenicity of isolates. This variant is highly pathogenic to the upper respiratory tract and can cause severe kidney lesions. This study confirm a circulation of GI-23 strain in the country and report, to first time, the isolation of an exotic variant of IBV in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Brazil , Chickens , Virulence , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny
4.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 35(3): 317-321, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241750

ABSTRACT

Four turkeys from a commercial flock with acutely elevated mortality levels were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. No clinical signs had been observed before death. On gross examination, hemorrhage and necrosis were present throughout the intestinal tracts, and the spleens were markedly enlarged and speckled. Microscopically, numerous, large basophilic-to-amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in mononuclear cells of the spleen and the lamina propria of the small intestine. In addition, there were lesions of diffuse villus blunting and necrosis of the small intestine, with large numbers of rod-shaped bacteria adhered to the epithelium and in the intestinal lumen. Hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) infection was confirmed via PCR on the spleen. Clostridium perfringens was demonstrated in the small intestine by anaerobic culture and immunohistochemistry. The C. perfringens isolate was type F by PCR and, to our knowledge, necrotic enteritis in turkeys has not been described in association with C. perfringens type F infection.


Subject(s)
Clostridium Infections , Enteritis , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Enteritis/microbiology , Enteritis/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Intestines/microbiology , Clostridium perfringens , Necrosis/veterinary , Necrosis/pathology , Turkeys , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Clostridium Infections/veterinary , Chickens
5.
Poult Sci ; 102(5): 102612, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317557

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis, an acute and highly contagious disease that affects chickens, is caused by the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The antigenic variant QX-like IBV was first reported in China in 1996 and is now endemic in many countries. Our previous study reported the first detection and isolation of QX-like IBVs in Japan and that they were genetically related to the recently detected strains in China and South Korea. The pathogenicity of 2 Japanese QX-like IBV strains (JP/ZK-B7/2020 and JP/ZK-B22/2020) was evaluated by inoculating specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with 102 to 106 median embryo infectious dose. Both strains caused clinical signs of respiratory symptoms, gross tracheal lesions, and moderate-to-severe suppression of tracheal ciliostasis. To evaluate the efficacy of commercial IBV live vaccines against the JP/ZK-B7/2020 strain, vaccinated SPF chickens were challenged with the JP/ZK-B7/2020 strain at 104 EID50 (median embryo infectious dose). Only the JP-Ⅲ vaccine provided high levels of protection (reduced suppression of tracheal ciliostasis and reduced viral loads in organs), whereas the Mass vaccine showed little protective effect. Virus neutralization test results and comparisons between IBV genotypes based on the S1 gene suggested that QX-like and JP-III genotypes were closely related. These results suggest that the JP-III IBV vaccine, which has relatively high S1 gene homology with QX-like IBVs, is effective against Japanese QX-like IBV strain.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Japan , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated
6.
J Gen Virol ; 104(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313977

ABSTRACT

Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains engineered to express foreign genes from an additional transcription unit (ATU) are considered as candidate live-attenuated vector vaccines for human and veterinary use. Early during the COVID-19 pandemic we and others generated COVID-19 vaccine candidates based on rNDV expressing a partial or complete SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. In our studies, a number of the rNDV constructs did not show high S expression levels in cell culture or seroconversion in immunized hamsters. Sanger sequencing showed the presence of frequent A-to-G transitions characteristic of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR). Subsequent whole genome rNDV sequencing revealed that this biased hypermutation was exclusively localized in the ATU expressing the spike gene, and was related to deamination of adenosines in the negative strand viral genome RNA. The biased hypermutation was found both after virus rescue in chicken cell line DF-1 followed by passaging in embryonated chicken eggs, and after direct virus rescue and subsequent passaging in Vero E6 cells. Levels of biased hypermutation were higher in constructs containing codon-optimized as compared to native S gene sequences, suggesting potential association with increased GC content. These data show that deep sequencing of candidate recombinant vector vaccine constructs in different phases of development is of crucial importance in the development of NDV-based vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Newcastle Disease , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Humans , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Chickens , Vaccines, Synthetic , RNA
7.
Avian Dis ; 66(3): 1-8, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301776

ABSTRACT

Since mid-2015, there has been an increasing number of chicken samples that are positive for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in a screening PCR but which do not show positive results in any established, variant-specific PCR tests (793B, QX, D1466, Massachusetts, D274, Italy 02, Arkansas, Variant 2, Q1). Partial sequencing of the viral genome of those samples shows great similarities, but nucleotide similarity in the S1 gene is only about 57%-61% when compared to any other known GI-GVII IBV genotype and lineage. With nucleotide identity in the S1 gene of approximately 80%, the closest related strain in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (as of March 15, 2020) is the North American PA/1220/98 isolate (AY789942) designated as a unique variant by Valastro et al. in 2016. Due to its divergence from other IBV strains, we propose that strain, designated IB80, is the type strain of a novel IBV genotype GVIII. So far, IB80 has been detected in commercial layer and broiler parent flocks, frequently showing severe drops in egg production as well as in broiler flocks in Europe and beyond.


IB80­un nuevo genotipo del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (GVIII). Desde mediados del 2015, ha habido un número creciente de muestras de pollo que resultan positivas para el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (IBV) por la detección mediante PCR de escrutinio, pero que no muestran resultados positivos en ninguna prueba de PCR específica para las variantes establecidas (793B, QX, D1466, Massachusetts, D274, Italia 02, Arkansas, variante 2, Q1). La secuenciación parcial del genoma viral de esas muestras muestra grandes similitudes, pero la similitud de nucleótidos en el gene S1 es solo del 57% al 61% en comparación con cualquier otro genotipo y linaje GI-GVII conocidos del virus de bronquitis. Con una identidad de nucleótidos en el gene S1 de aproximadamente el 80 %, la cepa relacionada más cercana en la base de datos del Centro Nacional de Información Biotecnológica (al 15 de marzo de 2020) es el aislamiento norteamericano PA/1220/98 (AY789942) designado como variante única por Valastro et al. en 2016. Debido a su divergencia con otras cepas del virus de bronquitis infecciosa, se propone que la cepa, denominada IB80, es la cepa tipo de un nuevo genotipo GVIII del virus de bronquitis infecciosa. Hasta ahora, se ha detectado IB80 en parvadas de reproductoras de pollos de engorde y ponedoras comerciales, y con frecuencia muestra disminuciones severas en la producción de huevo, así como en parvadas de pollos de engorde en Europa y otras regiones.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Nucleotides , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 280: 109709, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297201

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has restricted cell and tissue tropism. IBVs, except the Beaudette strain, can infect and replicate in chicken embryos, primary chicken embryo kidneys, and primary chicken kidney cells, only. The limited viral cell tropism of IBV substantially hinders in vitro cell-based research on pathogenic mechanisms and vaccine development. Herein, the parental H120 vaccine strain was serially passaged for five generations in chicken embryos, 20 passages in CK cells and 80 passages in Vero cells. This passaging yielded a Vero cell-adapted strain designated HV80. To further understand viral evolution, serial assessments of infection, replication, and transmission in Vero cells were performed for the viruses obtained every tenth passage. The ability to form syncytia and the replication efficiency significantly after the 50th passage (strain HV50). HV80 also displayed tropism extension to DF-1, BHK-21, HEK-293 T, and HeLa cells. Whole genome sequencing of viruses from every tenth generation revealed a total of 19 amino acid point mutations in the viral genome by passage 80, nine of which occurred in the S gene. The second furin cleavage site appeared in viral evolution and may be associated with cell tropism extension of HV80.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Viral Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chick Embryo , Animals , Humans , Vero Cells , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , HeLa Cells , HEK293 Cells , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary
9.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295903

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is widely used to control Infectious Bronchitis in poultry; however, the limited cross-protection and safety issues associated with these vaccines can lead to vaccination failures. Keeping these limitations in mind, the current study explored the antiviral potential of phytocompounds against the Infectious Bronchitis virus using in silico approaches. A total of 1300 phytocompounds derived from fourteen botanicals were screened for their potential ability to inhibit the main protease, papain-like protease or RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase of the virus. The study identified Methyl Rosmarinate, Cianidanol, Royleanone, and 6,7-Dehydroroyleanone as dual-target inhibitors against any two of the key proteins. At the same time, 7-alpha-Acetoxyroyleanone from Rosmarinus officinalis was found to be a multi-target protein inhibitor against all three proteins. The potential multi-target inhibitor was subjected to molecular dynamics simulations to assess the stability of the protein-ligand complexes along with the corresponding reference ligands. The findings specified stable interactions of 7-alpha-Acetoxyroyleanone with the protein targets. The results based on the in silico study indicate that the phytocompounds can potentially inhibit the essential proteins of the Infectious Bronchitis virus; however, in vitro and in vivo studies are required for validation. Nevertheless, this study is a significant step in exploring the use of botanicals in feed to control Infectious Bronchitis infections in poultry.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , Infectious bronchitis virus , Animals , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Chickens , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Poultry , Bronchitis/prevention & control , RNA
10.
J Wildl Dis ; 59(2): 353-358, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294803

ABSTRACT

We surveyed the presence of herpesvirus, flavivirus, and coronavirus in 20 Magnificent Frigatebirds (Fregata magnificens) from the protected Alcatrazes Island, Alcatrazes archipelago, Brazil. One adult female was positive for herpesvirus (5% occurrence; 95% confidence interval -5.5 to 15.5), whereas none of the samples were PCR-positive for flavivirus or coronavirus. The obtained herpesvirus was highly similar to the one responsible for annual mortality of Magnificent Frigatebird chicks on Grand Connétable Island, French Guiana; however, no episodes of mass mortality have been recorded in the birds from Alcatrazes. Our findings indicate that this virus may be widespread in Magnificent Frigatebirds of the southwestern Atlantic. The observed differences in morbidity and mortality may be the result of basal immunosuppression of the birds from French Guiana related to environmental or nutritional conditions. The Alcatrazes archipelago sustains the largest frigatebird breeding colony of the southern Atlantic; future monitoring studies with larger sampling sizes are needed to further determine the epidemiologic relevance of the detected herpesviruses, as well as other viruses (e.g., flaviviruses, coronaviruses, avian influenza virus), in seabirds of Alcatrazes Island.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Flavivirus , Herpesviridae , Animals , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Chickens
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(13): 5053-5061, 2023 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305465

ABSTRACT

The immunoglobulin Y (IgY) derived from hyperimmune egg yolk is a promising passive immune agent to combat microbial infections in humans and livestock. Numerous studies have been performed to develop specific egg yolk IgY for pathogen control, but with limited success. To date, the efficacy of commercial IgY products, which are all delivered through an oral route, has not been approved or endorsed by any regulatory authorities. Several challenging issues of the IgY-based passive immunization, which were not fully recognized and holistically discussed in previous publications, have impeded the development of effective egg yolk IgY products for humans and animals. This review summarizes major challenges of this technology, including in vivo stability, purification, heterologous immunogenicity, and repertoire diversity of egg yolk IgY. To tackle these challenges, potential solutions, such as encapsulation technologies to stabilize IgY, are discussed. Exploration of this technology to combat the COVID-19 pandemic is also updated in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Egg Yolk , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Chickens , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulins , Immunization, Passive , Antibodies , Immunization
12.
J Virol ; 97(5): e0048923, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306206

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections are initiated by the transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein, which binds to host factors and fuses the viral and cell membranes. The N-terminal domain of the S1 subunit of IBV S protein binds to sialic acids, but the precise location of the sialic acid binding domain (SABD) and the role of the SABD in IBV-infected chickens remain unclear. Here, we identify the S1 N-terminal amino acid (aa) residues 19 to 227 (209 aa total) of IBV strains SD (GI-19) and GD (GI-7), and the corresponding region of M41 (GI-1), as the minimal SABD using truncated protein histochemistry and neuraminidase assays. Both α-2,3- and α-2,6-linked sialic acids on the surfaces of CEK cells can be used as attachment receptors by IBV, leading to increased infection efficiency. However, 9-O acetylation of the sialic acid glycerol side chain inhibits IBV S1 and SABD protein binding. We further constructed recombinant strains in which the S1 gene or the SABD in the GD and SD genomes were replaced with the corresponding region from M41 by reverse genetics. Infecting chickens with these viruses revealed that the virulence and nephrotropism of rSDM41-S1, rSDM41-206, rGDM41-S1, and rGDM41-206 strains were decreased to various degrees compared to their parental strains. A positive sera cross-neutralization test showed that the serotypes were changed for the recombinant viruses. Our results provide insight into IBV infection of host cells that may aid vaccine design. IMPORTANCE To date, only α-2,3-linked sialic acid has been identified as a potential host binding receptor for IBV. Here, we show the minimum region constituting the sialic acid binding domain (SABD) and the binding characteristics of the S1 subunit of spike (S) protein of IBV strains SD (GI-19), GD (GI-7), and M41 (GI-1) to various sialic acids. The 9-O acetylation modification partially inhibits IBV from binding to sialic acid, while the virus can also bind to sialic acid molecules linked to host cells through an α-2,6 linkage, serving as another receptor determinant. Substitution of the putative SABD from strain M41 into strains SD and GD resulted in reduced virulence, nephrotropism, and a serotype switch. These findings suggest that sialic acid binding has diversified during the evolution of γ-coronaviruses, impacting the biological properties of IBV strains. Our results offer insight into the mechanisms by which IBV invades host cells.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Chickens , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Avian Dis ; 66(2): 135-140, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264409

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major pathogen in poultry. The genotypes of IBV vary considerably, and their antigenicity may differ. Nationwide surveillance in South Korea was performed to determine the prevalence and distribution of IBV and its genotypes. By both active and passive surveillance, a total of 939 samples were collected and tested for IBV detection by pathogen-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR. IBV RNA-positive samples were inoculated in embryonated eggs for virus isolation. IBV was genotyped and analyzed phylogenetically based on a partial nucleotide sequence of the S1 gene. A total of 114 IBV strains were isolated; 34 (30.9%) of the 110 samples obtained by passive surveillance, and 80 (9.7%) of the 829 samples obtained by active surveillance, were positive. Most IBVs in both groups were isolated from broilers. Five genotypes (QX-like, B4-like, KM91-like, K40/09-like, and 20AD17-like) were observed in South Korea, with the QX-like genotype being the most common, and the 20AD17-like genotype being a novel genotype. These findings will help to maximize protection against IBV infection by providing a reference for the selection of an avian vaccine for IBV in South Korea.


Vigilancia nacional del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa en Corea del Sur del año 2020 al 2021. El virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (IBV) es un patógeno importante en la avicultura. Los genotipos del virus de la bronquitis varían considerablemente y su antigenicidad puede ser diversa. Se realizó un estudio de vigilancia a nivel nacional en Corea del Sur para determinar la prevalencia y distribución del virus de bronquitis y sus genotipos. Mediante vigilancia activa como pasiva, se recolectaron un total de 939 muestras y se analizaron para la detección del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa mediante transcripción reversa y PCR específica para este patógeno. Se inocularon muestras positivas para ARN del virus de bronquitis en huevos embrionados para el aislamiento del virus. Los virus de bronquitis se genotipificaron y analizaron filogenéticamente basándose en una secuencia parcial de nucleótidos del gene S1. Se aislaron un total de 114 cepas del virus de bronquitis; 34 (30.9%) de las 110 muestras obtenidas por vigilancia pasiva y 80 (9.7%) de las 829 muestras obtenidas por vigilancia activa resultaron positivas. La mayoría de los virus de bronquitis en ambos grupos se aislaron de pollos de engorde. Se observaron cinco genotipos (similares a QX, similares a B4, similares a KM91, similares a K40/09 y similares a 20AD17) en Corea del Sur, siendo el genotipo similar a QX el más común y el genotipo similar a 20AD17 que ha sido un genotipo de nueva aparición. Estos hallazgos ayudarán a maximizar la protección contra la infección por el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa al proporcionar una referencia para la selección de vacunas aviares para bronquitis infecciosa en Corea del Sur.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Chickens , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny , Genotype , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
14.
Avian Dis ; 66(1): 1-8, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258621

ABSTRACT

Repeated cases of low pathogenic influenza A/H9N2 virus (IAV/H9N2) have been reported in commercial chickens since its emergence in 1998 in Pakistan. However, recently increased mortality and severe respiratory complications under field conditions have been noticed, suggesting concomitant influenza infections with respiratory viral and/or bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of IAV/H9N2 coinfecting with multiple viral and bacterial pathogens in broiler chicken flocks. We surveyed 60 broiler flocks with respiratory signs from March through July 2019 in Punjab, Pakistan. Suspected flocks were screened for the presence of IAV using a lateral-flow device. Tracheal, cloacal, and bone marrow samples were collected and further tested for seven viral agents (chicken anemia; Newcastle disease; infectious bronchitis; infectious laryngeotracheitis [ILT]; and IAV subtypes H9, H7, and H5) and three bacterial agents (Mycoplasma gallisepticum; Mycoplasma synovae; Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale [ORT]) using PCR assays. Upon initial screening for IAV, 35/60 (58.3%) flocks tested positive. The coinfection of IAV/H9N2 with other pathogens was detected in 25 (71.4%) flocks and only IAV/H9N2 was detected in 10 (28.6%) flocks out of total positive IAV flocks (n = 35). IAV subtypes H5 and H7, ILT, and ORT were not detected throughout the study period. The detection rate of double, triple, and quadruple combinations of coinfections with IAV/H9N2 were 37% (13 flocks), 26% (9 flocks), 9% (3 flocks), respectively. Higher average mortality (28.5%) was found in broiler chicken flocks coinfected with viral and/or bacterial pathogens than in flocks where only H9 low pathogenic IAV/H9N2 was detected (20.8%). In conclusion, higher circulation of IAV/H9N2 with other viral and bacterial pathogens may contribute to higher production and economic losses at the farm level.


Nota de investigación- Tasa de coinfecciones virales y bacterianas múltiples en parvadas de pollos de engorde infectadas con virus influenza A/H9N2. Se han reportado varios casos del virus de influenza A de baja patogenicidad H9N2 (IAV/H9N2) en pollos comerciales desde su aparición en 1998 en Pakistán. Sin embargo, recientemente se ha observado un aumento de la mortalidad y complicaciones respiratorias graves en condiciones de campo, lo que sugiere infecciones concomitantes de influenza con patógenos respiratorios virales y/o bacterianos. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la presencia del virus de influenza aviar H9N2 coinfectando con múltiples patógenos virales y bacterianos en parvadas de pollos de engorde. Se evaluaron 60 parvadas de pollos de engorde con signos respiratorios desde marzo hasta julio del año 2019 en Punjab, Pakistán. Las parvadas sospechosas fueron analizadas para detectar la presencia del virus de influenza aviar utilizando un dispositivo de flujo lateral. Se recolectaron muestras traqueales, cloacales y de médula ósea y se analizaron para detectar siete agentes virales (anemia infecciosa aviar, enfermedad de Newcastle, bronquitis infecciosa, laringeotraqueítis infecciosa [ILT] y subtipos H9, H7 y H5 de influenza aviar) y tres agentes bacterianos (Mycoplasma gallisepticum ; Mycoplasma sinovae; Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale [ORT]) utilizando ensayos de PCR. Tras la detección inicial del virus de la influenza aviar, 35/60 (58.3 %) parvadas resultaron positivas. La coinfección del virus de la influenza H9N2 con otros patógenos se detectó en 25 (71.4 %) parvadas y el virus de influenza aviar H9N2 fue detectado solo en 10 (28.6 %) parvadas del total de parvadas positivas (n = 35). Los subtipos H5 y H7 del virus de influenza, ILT y ORT no se detectaron durante el período de estudio. La tasa de detección de combinaciones dobles, triples y cuádruples de coinfecciones con el virus de influenza H9N2 fue del 37 % (13 parvadas), del 26% (9 parvadas), del 9 % (3 parvadas), respectivamente. Se encontró una mortalidad promedio más alta (28.5 %) en lotes de pollos de engorde coinfectados con patógenos virales y/o bacterianos que en lotes donde solo se detectó al virus de influenza H9 de baja patogenicidad (20.8%). En conclusión, una mayor circulación del virus de influenza aviar H9N2 con otros patógenos virales y bacterianos puede contribuir a mayores pérdidas en la producción y económicas a nivel de granja.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Humans , Poultry Diseases/microbiology
15.
Poult Sci ; 102(4): 102501, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287484

ABSTRACT

Since 1999, QX-like (GI-19) avian infectious bronchitis viruses have been the predominant strains in China till now. Vaccination is the most effective way to control the disease, while live attenuated vaccine is widely used. In the current research, we evaluated the effect of several monovalent and bivalent live IBV vaccines in young chickens against the QX-like (GI-19) IBV infection. The results showed that monovalent 4/91 and bivalent Ma5+LDT3 vaccines could provide efficient protection in day-old chickens that reduced morbidity and mortality, ameliorated histopathology lesions, and reduced viral loads were observed. These data suggest that vaccination through nasal route with monovalent 4/91 or bivalent Ma5+LDT3 in day-old chickens could serve a safe and effective vaccination strategy for controlling QX-like (GI-19) infectious bronchitis virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Age Factors
16.
Poult Sci ; 102(4): 102534, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287161

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines play a major role in the prevention of infectious bronchitis (IB), Anti-IB drugs still have great potential in poultry production. Radix Isatidis polysaccharide (RIP) is a crude extract of Banlangen with antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and multiple immunomodulatory functions. The aim of this study was to explore the innate immune mechanisms responsible for RIP-mediated alleviation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)-induced kidney lesions in chickens. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken and chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells cultures were pretreated with RIP and then infected with the QX-type IBV strain, Sczy3. Morbidity, mortality, and tissue mean lesion scores were calculated for IBV-infected chickens, and the viral loads, inflammatory factor gene mRNA expression levels, and innate immune pathway gene mRNA expression levels in infected chickens and CEK cell cultures were determined. The results show that RIP could alleviate IBV-induced kidney damage, decrease CEK cells susceptibility to IBV infection, and reduce viral loads. Additionally, RIP reduced the mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1ß by decreasing the mRNA expression level of NF-κB. Conversely, the expression levels of MDA5, TLR3, STING, Myd88, IRF7, and IFN-ß were increased, indicating that RIP conferred resistance to QX-type IBV infection via the MDA5, TLR3, IRF7 signaling pathway. These results provide a reference for both further research into the antiviral mechanisms of RIP and the development of preventative and therapeutic drugs for IB.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Chick Embryo , Animals , Chickens/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Signal Transduction , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
17.
Poult Sci ; 102(5): 102620, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287091

ABSTRACT

The gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has a high mutation rate and mainly invades the respiratory mucosa, making it difficult to prevent and causing great economic losses. Nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16) of IBV QX also not only plays an indispensable role in virus invading but also might hugely influence the antigen's recognition and presentation ability of host BMDCs. Hence, our study tries to illustrate the underline mechanism of how NSP16 influences the immune function of BMDCs. Initially, we found that NSP16 of the QX strain significantly inhibited the antigen presentation ability and immune response of mouse BMDCs, which was stimulated by Poly (I:C) or AIV RNA. Besides mouse BMDCs, we also found that NSP16 of the QX strain also significantly stimulated the chicken BMDCs to activate the interferon signaling pathway. Furthermore, we preliminarily demonstrated that IBV QX NSP16 inhibits the antiviral system by affecting the antigen-presenting function of BMDCs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Mice , Chickens , Antigen Presentation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Interferons , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
18.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(3): e13114, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286196

ABSTRACT

The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has recently drawn attention in the detection of respiratory viruses, but there have been few reports of the direct detection of viruses. In this study, a sandwich immunomagnetic bead SERS was established for the rapid diagnosis of the H5N1 influenza virus. The detection limit was estimated to be 5.0 × 10-6 TCID50/ml. The method showed excellent specificity with no cross-reaction with H1N1, H5N6 or H9N2. The H5N1 influenza virus detection accuracy of the SERS method was 100% in chicken embryos. The results hold great promise for the utilization of SERS as an innovative approach in the diagnosis of influenza virus.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Chick Embryo , Humans , Chickens
19.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252521

ABSTRACT

Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) is a major pathogen associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. Standard practice dictates that to prevent BCoV diarrhea, dams should be immunized in the last stage of pregnancy to increase BCoV-specific antibody (Ab) titers in serum and colostrum. For the prevention to be effective, calves need to suck maternal colostrum within the first six to twelve hours of life before gut closure to ensure a good level of passive immunity. The high rate of maternal Ab transfer failure resulting from this process posed the need to develop alternative local passive immunity strategies to strengthen the prevention and treatment of BCoV diarrhea. Immunoglobulin Y technology represents a promising tool to address this gap. In this study, 200 laying hens were immunized with BCoV to obtain spray-dried egg powder enriched in specific IgY Abs to BCoV on a large production scale. To ensure batch-to-batch product consistency, a potency assay was statistically validated. With a sample size of 241, the BCoV-specific IgY ELISA showed a sensitivity and specificity of 97.7% and 98.2%, respectively. ELISA IgY Abs to BCoV correlated with virus-neutralizing Ab titers (Pearson correlation, R2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). Most importantly, a pilot efficacy study in newborn calves showed a significant delay and shorter duration of BCoV-associated diarrhea and shedding in IgY-treated colostrum-deprived calves. Calves were treated with milk supplemented with egg powder (final IgY Ab titer to BCoV ELISA = 512; VN = 32) for 14 days as a passive treatment before a challenge with BCoV and were compared to calves fed milk with no supplementation. This is the first study with proof of efficacy of a product based on egg powder manufactured at a scale that successfully prevents BCoV-associated neonatal calf diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus, Bovine , Pregnancy , Animals , Cattle , Female , Chickens , Powders , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control
20.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 101(3): 231-248, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268588

ABSTRACT

Vaccination and natural infection both elicit potent humoral responses that provide protection from subsequent infections. The immune history of an individual following such exposures is in part encoded by antibodies. While there are multiple immunoassays for measuring antibody responses, the majority of these methods measure responses to a single antigen. A commonly used method for measuring antibody responses is ELISA-a semiquantitative assay that is simple to perform in research and clinical settings. Here, we present FLU-LISA (fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay)-a novel antigen microarray-based assay for rapid high-throughput antibody profiling. The assay can be used for profiling immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM responses to multiple antigens simultaneously, requiring minimal amounts of sample and antigens. Using several influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen microarrays, we demonstrated the specificity and sensitivity of our novel assay and compared it with the traditional ELISA, using samples from mice, chickens and humans. We also showed that our assay can be readily used with dried blood spots, which can be collected from humans and wild birds. FLU-LISA can be readily used to profile hundreds of samples against dozens of antigens in a single day, and therefore offers an attractive alternative to the traditional ELISA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Animals , Mice , Immunosorbents , Antibodies, Viral , Chickens , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
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